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no man could possibly have so much power as to kill Caius. These were the women, and the children, and the slaves, and some of the soldiery. This last sort had taken his pay, and in a manner tyranoised with him, and had abused the best of the citizens, in being subservient to his unjust commands, in order to gain honours and advantages to themselves; but for the women, and the youth, they had been inveigled with shows, and the fightings of the gladiators, and certain distributions of flesh meat among them, which things in pretence were designed for the pleasing of the multitude, but in reality to satiate the barbarous cruelty and madness of Caius. The slaves also were sorry, because they were by Caius allowed to accuse, and to despise their masters, and they could have recourse to his assistance wben they unjustly affronted them; for he was very easy in believing them against their masters, even when they accused them falsely; and if they would discover what money their masters had, they might soon obtain both riches and liberty as the rewards of their accusations, because the reward of these informers was the eighth * part of the criminals substance. As to the nobles, although the report appeared credible to some of them, either because they knew of the plot beforehand, or because they wished it might be true; how. ever, they concealed not only the joy they had at the relation of it, but that they had heard any thing at all about it. These last acted so out of the fear they had, that if the report proved false, they should be punished for having so soon let men know their minds. But those that knew Caius was dead, because they were partners with the conspirators, they concealed, and still more cautiously, as not knowing one another's minds; and fearing lest they should speak of it to some of those to whom the continuance of tyranny was somewhat advantageous; and if Caius should prove to be alive, they might be informed against and punished. And another report went about, that although Caius had been wounded indeed, yet was not he dead, but alive still, and under the physician's hands. Nor was any one looked upon by another as faithful enough to be trusted, arrd to whom any one would open his mind; for he was either a
* The rewards proposed by the Roman laws to informers, was sometimes an eighth part of the criminal's goods, as here, and sometimes a fourth part, as Spanheim assures us, from Suetonius and Tacitus.
a friend to Caius, and therefore suspected to favour his tyranny, or he was one that hated him, who therefore might be suspected to deserve the less credit, because of his illwill to him. Nay, it was said by some, (and this indeed it was that deprived the nobility of their hopes, and made them sad,) that Caius was in a condition to despise the dangers he had been in, and took no care of healing his wounds, but was gotten away into the market-place, and bloody as he was, was making an harangue to the people. And these were the conjectured reports of those that were so unrea. sonable as to endeavour to raise tumults, which they turned different ways according to the opinions of the hearers. Yet did they not leave their seats, for fear of being accused, if they should go out before the rest; for they should not be sentenced according to the real intention with which they went out, but according to the supposals of the accusers, and of the judges.
17. But now a multitude of Germans had surrounded the theatre, with their swords drawn; all the spectators looked for nothing but death, and at every one's coming in, a fear seized upon them, as if they were to be cut in pieces immediately ; and in great distress they were, as neither hav. ing courage enough to go out of the theatre, nor believing themselves safe from dangers ifthey tarried there. And when the Germans came upon them, the cry was so great, that the theatre rang again with the entreaties of the spectators to the soldiers, pleading that they were entirely ignorant of every thing that related to such seditious contrivances, and that if there were already any sedition raised, they knew nothing of it: they, therefore, begged that they would spare them, and not punish those that had not the least hand in such bold crimes as belonged to other persons, while they neglected to search after such as had really done whatsoever it be that hath been done. Thus did these people appeal to God, and deplore their felicity with shedding of tears, and beating their faces, and said every thing that the most imminent danger, and the utmost concern for their lives could dictate to them. This brake the fury of the soldiers, and made them repent of what they minded to do to the spectators, which would have been the greatest in. stance of cruelty. And so it appeared even to those savages, when they had once fixed the heads of those that were slain with Asprenas upon the altar : at which sight the spectators were sorely afflicted, both upon the consideration of the dignity of the persons, and out of a commiseration of their sufferings : nay, indeed, they were almost in as great disorder at the prospect of the danger themselves were in, seeing it was still uncertain whether they should entirely escape the like calamity. Whence it was, that such as thoroughly and justly hated Caius, could yet no way enjoy the pleasure of his death, because they were themselves in jeopardy of perishing together with him ; nor had they hitherto any firm assurance of surviving.
18. There was at this time Euaristus Arruntius, a public crier in the market, and therefore of a strong and audible voice, who vied in wealth with the richest of the Romans, and was able to do what he pleased in the city, both then and afterward. This man put himself into the most mournful habit he could, although he had a greater hatred against: Caius than any one else, his fear and his wise contrivancés to gain his safety taught him so to do, and prevailed over his present pleasure ; so he put on such a mournful dress as he would have done had he lost his dearest friends in the world : this man came into the theatre, and informed them of the death of Caius, and by this means put an end to that state of ignorance the men had been in. Arruntius also went round about the pillars, and called out to the Germans, as did the tribunes with him, bidding them put up their swords, and telling them that Caius was dead. And this proclamation it was plainly which saved those that were collected together in the theatre, and all the rest who any way met the Germans ; for while they had hopes that Caius had still any breath in him, they abstained from no sort of mischief; and such an abundant kindness they still had for Caius, that they would willingly have prevented the plot against him, and procured his eseape from so sad a misfortune, at the expense of their own lives. But they now left off the warm zeal they had to punish his enemies, now they were fully satisfied that Caius was dead; because it was now in vain for them to show their zeal and kindness to him, when he who should reward them was perished. They were also afraid that they should be punished by the senate, if they should go on in doing such injuries, that is, in case the authority of the supreme governor should revert to thein. And thus at length a stop was pat, though not without uiñculty,
to that rage which possessed the Germans on account of Caius's death.
19. But Cherea was so much afraid for Minucianus, lest he should light upon the Germans, now they were in their fury, that he went and spake to every one of the soldiers, and prayed them to take care of his preservation, and made himself great inquiry about him, lest he should have been slain. And for Clement, he let Minucianus go when he was brought to him, and, with many other of the senators, affirmed the action was right, and commended the virtue of those that contrived it, and had courage enough to execute it; and said, that “ tyrants do indeed please themselves, and look big for a while, upon having the power to act unjustly, but do not, however, go happily out of the world, because they are hated by the virtuous ; and that Caius, 10gether with all his unhappiness, was become a, conspirator against himself, before these other men who attacked him did so ; and by becoming intolerable in setting aside the wise provision the laws had made, taught his dearest friends to treat him as an enemy: insomuch, that although in com. mon discourse these conspirators were those that slew Caius, yet that, in reality, he lies now dead, as perishing by his own self."
20, Now by this time the people in the theatre were arisen from their seats, and those that were within made a very great disturbance; the cause of which was this, that the spectators were too hasty in getting away. There was also one Alcyon, a physician, who hurried away, as if it were to cure those that were wounded, and, under that pretence, he sent those that were with bim to fetch what things were necessary for the healing those wounded persons, but in reality to get them clear of the present dangers they were in. Now the senate, during this interval, had met, and the people also assembled together in the accustomed forum, and were both employed in searching after the murderers of Caius. The people did it very zealously, but the senate in appearance only : for there was present Valerius of Asia, one that had been consul; this man went to the people, as they were in disorder, and very uneasy that they could not yet discover who they were that had murdered the emperor; he was then earnestly asked by them all, “ Who it was hat had done it." He replied, “I wish I had been the
man.” The consuls * also published an edict, wherein they accused Caius, and gave order to the people then got together, and the soldiers, to go home, and gave the people hopes of the abatement of the oppressions they lay under; and promised the soldiers, if they lay quiet, as they used to do, and would not go abroad to do mischief unjustly, that they would bestow rewards upon them; for there was reason to fear, lest the city might suffer harm by their will and ungovernable behaviour, if they should once betake themselves to spoil the citizens, or plunder the temples. And now the whole multitude of the senators were assembled together, and especially those that had conspired to take away the life of Caius, who put on at this time an air of great assurance, and appeared with great magnanimity, as if the adıninistration of the public affairs were already devolved upon them.
CHAP. II. How the senators determined to restore the democracy: but tése
soldiers were for preserving the monarchy. Concerning the slaughter of Caius's wife and daughter. A character of Caius's morals.
g 1. When the public affairs were in this posture, Claudius was on the sudden hurried away out of his house. For the soldiers had a meeting together, and when they had debated about what was to be done, they saw that a democracy was incapable of managing such a vast weight of public affairs”; and that if it should be set up, it would not be for their adtantage; and in case any of those already in the government should obtain the supreme power, it would in all res. pects be to their grief, if they were not assisting to him in that advancement: that it would, therefore, be right for them, while the public affairs were unsettled, to choose Claudius emperor, who was uncle to the deceased Caius, and of a superior dignity and worth to every one of those that were assembled together in the senate, both on account of the virtue of his ancestors, and of the learning he had acquired in his education, and who, if once settled in the empire, . * These consuls are named in the War of the Jews, B. ii. ch. xi. 01. Sentius Saturninus, and Pomponius Secundus, as Spanheim notes here. The speech of the former of them is set down in the next chapter, 2.