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was in disorder, and approached her in order to execute some design disagreeable to himself, she was well aware for what purpose he came, and stretched out her naked throat, and that very cheerfully to him, bewailing her case like one that utterly despaired of her life, and bidding hinn not to boggle at finishing the tragedy they had resolved upon, relating to her. So she boldly received her death's wound at the hand of Lupus, as did the daughter after her. So Lupus made haste to inform Cherea of what he had done,

5. This was the end of Caius, after he had reigned four years within four months. He was even before he came to be einperor, ill-natured, and one that had arrived at the utmost pitch of wickedness ; a slave to his pleasures, and a lover of calumny; greatly affected by every terrible accident, and on that account of a very murderous disposition, where be durst show it. He enjoyed his exorbitant power to this only purpose, to injure those, who least deserved it, with un. reasonable insolence, and got his wealth by murder and injustice. He laboured to appear above regarding either what was divine, or agreeable to the laws, but was a slave to the commendations of the populace; and whatsoever the laws determined to be shameful and punished, that he esteemed more honourable than what was virtuous. He was unmindful of his friends, how intimate soever, and though they were persons of the highest character; and, if he was once angry at any of them, he would inflict punishment upon them on the smallest occasions, and esteemed every man that endeavoured to lead a virtuous life his enemy. And whatsoever he commanded, he would not admit of any contradiction to his inclinations; whence it was, that he had criminal conversation with his own sister ;* from which occasion chiefly it was also, that a bitter hatred first sprang up against him among the citizens, that sort of incest not having been known of a long time, and so this provoked men to distrust him, and to hate him that was guilty of it. And for any great or royal work that he ever did, which might be for the present

* Spanheim here notes froin Suetonius, that the name of Cajus's sister, with whom he was guilty of incest, was Drusilla, and that Suetonius adds, he was guilty of the same crime with all bis sisters also. He notes further, that Suetonius omits the mention of the haven for ships, which our author esteems the only public work, for the good of the present and future ages, which Caius left bebiad kim, though in an imperfect condition.

and for future ages, nobody can name any such, but only the haven that he made about Rhegium and Sicily for the reception of the ships that brought corn from Egypt; which was indeed a work, without dispute, very great in itself, and of very great advantage to the navigation. Yet was not this work brought to perfection by him, but was the one half of it left imperfect, by reason of his want of application to it; the cause of which was this, that he employed his studics about useless matters, and that, by spending his money upon such pleasures as concerned no one's benefit but his own, he could not exert his liberality in things that were undeniably of great consequence. Otherwise he was an excellent oralor, and thoroughly acquainted with the Greek topgue, as well as with his own country or Roman language. He was also able off hand and readily to give answers to compositions made by others, of considerable length and accuracy. He was also more skilful in persuading others to very great things than any one else, and this from a natural affability of temper, which had been improved by much exercise and pains-taking ; for as he was the grandson* of the brother of Tiberius, whose seccessor he was, this was a strong induce. ment to his acquiring of learning, because Tiberius aspired after the highest pitch of that sort of reputation ; and Cains aspired after the like glory for eloquence, being induced thereto by the letters of his kinsman and his emperor. He was also among the first rank of his own citizens. But the advantages he received from his learning did not countervail the mischief he brought upon himself in the exercise of his authority; so difficult it is for those to obtain the virtue that is necessary for a wise man, who have the absolute power to do what they please, without control. At the first he got himself such friends as were in all respects the most worthy, and was greatly beloved by them, while he imitated their zealous application to the learning and to the glorious actions of the best men; but, when he became insolent towards them, they laid aside the kindness they had for him, and began to hate him : from which hatred came that plot, which they raised against him, and wherein he perished.

* This Caius was the son of that excellent person Germanicis, who was the son of Diusus, the brother of Tiberius the emperor.

CHAP. III. How Claudius was seized upon, and brought out of his house,

and brought to the camp, and how the senate sent an embassage to him.

8 1. Now Claudius, as I said above, went out of that way along which Caius was gone ; and, as the family was in a mighty disorder upon the sad accident of the murder of Caius, he was in great distress how to save himself, and was found to have hidden himself in a certain narrow place,* though he had no other occasion for suspicion of any dangers, besides the dignity of his birth; for while he was a private man, he behaved himself with moderation, and was contented with his present fortune, applying himself to learning, and especially to that of the Greeks, and keeping himself entirely clear from every thing that might bring on any disturbance. But as at this time the multitude were onder a consternation, and the whole palace was full of the soldiers madness, and the very emperor's guards seemed under the like fear and disorder with private persons, the band called pretorian, which was the purest part of the army, was in consultation what was to be done at this juncture. Now all those that were at this consultation had little regard to the punishment Caius had suffered, because he justly deserved such his fortune ; but they were rather considering their own circumstances, how they might take the best care of themselves, especially while the Germans were busy in punishing the murderers of Caius; which yet was rather done to gratify their own savage temper than for the good of the public: all which things disturbed Claudius, who was afraid of his own safety, and this particuJarly because he saw the heads of Asprenas and his partners carried about. His station had been on a certain elevated place, whither a few steps led him, and whither he had retired in the dark, by himself. But when Gratus, who was one of the soldiers that belonged to the palace, saw him, but did not well know by his countenance who be was, because it was dark, though he could well judge that it was a man who was privately there on some design, he came

*This first place Claudius came to was inhabited, and called Hormeum, as Spanheim here informs us from Suetonius, in Claud. ch. X.

nearer to him, and, when Claudius desired that he would retire, he discovered who he was, and owned him to be Claudius. * So he said to bis followers, “This is a Germa. nicus ; come on, let us choose bim for our emperor.” But when Claudius saw they were making preparations for taking him away by force, and was afraid they would kill bim, as they had killed Caius, he besought them to spare him, putting them in mind low quietly he had demeaned him. self, and that he was unacquainted with what had been done. Hereupon Gratus smiled upon him, and took him by the right hand, and said, “ Leare off, Sir, these low thoughts of saving yourself while you ought to have greater thoughts, even of obtaining the empire, which the gods, out of their concern for the habitable world, by taking Caius out of the way, commit to thy virtuous conduct. Go 10, therefore, and accept of the throne of thy ancestors.” Su they took him up, and carried him, because he was not then able to go on foot, such was his dread and his joy at what was told him.

2. Now there was already gathered together about Gratus a great number of the guards; and when they saw Claudius carried off, they looked with a sad countenance, as supposing that he was carried to execution for the mischiefs that had been lately done; while yet they thought him a man who never meddled with public affairs ali hiis life long, and one that had met with no contemptible dangers under the reign of Caius; and some of them thought it reasonable, that the consuls should take cognizance of these matters; and as still more and more of the soldiery got together, the crowd about him ranaway, and Claudius could hardly go on, his body was then so weak; and those who carried his sedan, upon an inquiry that was made about his being carried off, ran away, and saved themselves, as despairing of their lord's preservation. But when they were come into the large court of the palace, (which, as the report goes about it, was inhabited first of all the parts of the city of Rome,) and had just reached the public treasu. ry, many more soldiers came about him, as glad to see Claudius's face, and thought it exceeding right to make him einperor, on account of their kindness for Germanicus, who was bis brother, and had left behind him a vast reputation among all that were acquainted with him. They reflected also on the covetous temper of the leading men of the senate, and what great errors they had been guilty of, when the senate had government formerly: they also considered the impossibility of such an undertaking, as also what dangers they should be in, if the government should come to a single person, and that such a one should possess it as they had no hand in advancing, and not to Claudius, who would take it as their grant, and as gained by their good-will to him, and would remember the favours they had done him, and would make them a sufficient recompense for the same.

* How Claudius, anorber son of Drusus, which Drusus was the father of Germanicus, could be here bj: self called Germanicus, Suetonius informs us, when he assures us that, by a decree of the

senate the surname of Germanicus was bestowed on Drusus, and his - posterity also. In Claud. ch. i.

3. These were the discourses the soldiers had one with another by themselves, and they communicated them to all such as came in to them. Now those that inquired about this matter, willingly embraced the invitation that was made them to join with the rest; so they carried Claudius into the camp, crowding about him as his guard, and encompassed him about, one chairman still succeeding another, that their vehement endeavours might not be hindered. But as to the populace, and the senators, they disagreed in their opinions. The latter were very desirous to recover their former dignity, and were zealous, to get clear of the slavery that had been brought on them by the injurious treatment of the tyrants, which the present opportunity afforded them ; but for the people, who were envious against them, and knew that the emperors were capable of curbing their covetous temper, and were a refuge from them, they were very glad that Claudius had been seized upon, and brought to them, and thought, that, if Claudius were made emperor, he would prevent a civil war, such as there was in the days of Pompey. But when the senate knew that Claudius was brought into the camp by the soldiers, they sent to him those of their body which had the best character for their virtues, that they might inform him, “that he ought to do nothing by violence in order to gain the government: that he, who was a single person, one either already, or hereaf. ter to be amember of their body, ought to yield to the senate, which consisted of so great a number; that he ought to let the law take place in the disposal of all that related to the public order, and to remember how greatly the forVol. v.

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