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within the limits of the temple, over the treasury,* that it might be a memorial of the severe fate he had lain under, and a testimony of his change for the better; that it might be a demonstration how the greatest prosperity may have a fall, and that God sometimes raises up what is fallen down: for this chain thus dedicated afforded a document to all men, that king Agrippa had been once bound in a chain for a small cause, but recovered his former dignity again ; and a little while afterward got out of his bonds, and was advanced to be a more illustrious king than he was before. Whence men may understand, that all that partake of human nature, how great soever they are, may fall; and that those that fall may gain their former illustrious dignity again.
2. And, when Agrippa had entirely finished all the duties of the divine worship, he removed Theophilus, the son of Ananus, from the high-priesthood, and bestowed that honour of his on Simon, the son of Boethus, whose name was also Cantheras, whose daughter king Herod had married, as I have related above. Simon, therefore, and the [high) priesthood with his brethren, and with his father, in like manner as the sons of Simon, the son of Onias, who were three, had it formerly under the government of the Macedonians, as we have related in a former book.
3. When the king had settled the high-priesthood after this manner, he returned the kindness which the inhabitants of Jerusalem had showed him ; for he released them from the tax upon houses, every one of which paid it before, thinking it a good thing to requite the tender affection of those that loved him. He also made Silas the general of his forces, as a man who had partaken with him in many of his troubles. But after a very little while the young men of Doris, preferring a rash attempt before piety, and being naturally bold and insolent, carried a statue of Caesar into a synagogue of the Jews, and erected it there. This procedure of theirs greatly provoked Agrippa ; for it plainly tended to the dissolution of the laws of his country. So he came without delay to Publius Petronius, who was then president of Syria, and accused the people of Doris. Nor did he less resent what was done than did Agrippa ; for he judged it a
* This treasury-chamber seems to have been the very same in which our Saviour taught, and where the people offered their charity-money for the repairs or other uses of the temple. Mark, xii. 41, &c. Luke, xxi, 1. Jobn, viii. 20.
piece of impiety to transgress the laws that regulate the ac. tions of men. So he wrote the following letter to the people of Doris, in an angry strain : - Publius Petronius, the president under Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, to the magistrates of Doris, ordains as follows: Since some of you have had the boldness, or madness rather, after the edict of Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was published, for permitting the Jews to observe the laws of their country, not to obey the same, but have acted in entire opposition thereto, as forbidding the Jews to assemble together in their synagogue, by removing Caesar's statue, and setting it up therein, and thereby have offended not only the Jews, but the emperor himself, whose statue is more com. modiously placed in his own temple, than in a foreign one, where is the place of assembling together ; while it is but a part of natural justice, that every one should have the power over the places belonging peculiarly to themselves, according to the determination of Caesar; to say nothing of my own determination, which it would be ridiculous to mention, after the emperor's edict, which gives the Jews leave to make use of their own customs, as also gives order that they enjoy equally the rights of citizens with the Greeks themselves. I therefore ordain, that Proculus Vitellius, the cen. turion, bring those men to me, who, contrary to Augustus's edict, have heen 50 insolent as to do this thing, at which those very men who appear to be of principal reputation among them have an indignation also, and allege for themselves, that it was not done with their consent, but by the violence of the multitude, that they may give an account of what hath been done. I also exhort the principal magistrates among them, unless they have a mind to have this action esteemed to be done with their consent, to inform the centurion of those that were guilty of it, and take care that no handle be hence taken for raising a sedition or quarrel among them; which those seem to me to hunt aster, who encourage such doing; while both I myself, and king Agrippa, for wlivm I have the highest honour, have nothing more under our care, than that the nation of the Jews may have no occasion given them of getting together, under the pretence of arenging themselves, and become tumultuous. And, that it may be more publicly known that Augustus hath resolved about this whole matter, I have subjoined those edicts which be hath lately caused to be published at Alex.
andria, and which, although they may be well known to all, get did king Agrippa, for whom I have the highest honour, read them at that time before my tribunal, and pleaded that the Jews qught not to be deprived of those rights which Augustus hath granted them. I therefore charge you, that yon do pot, for the time to come, seek for any occasion of sedition, or disturbance, but that every one be allowed to follow their own religious customs.”
4, Thus did Petronius take care of this matter, that such a breach of the law might be corrected, and that no such. things might be attempted afterwards against the Jews. And, now king Agrippa took the [high] priesthood away from Si. mon Cantheras, and put Jonathan, the son of Ananus, into it again, and owned that he was more worthy of that dignity than the other. But this was not a thing acceptable to him, to recover that his former dignity. So he refused it, and said, "O king, I rejoice in the honour thou hast for me, and take it kindly, that thou wouldst give me such a dignity of thy own inclinations, although God hath judged that I am not at all worthy of the high-priesthood. I am satisfied with having once put on the sacred garments ; for I then put them on af. ter a more holy manner, than I should now receive them again. But if thou desirest, that a person more worthy than myself should have this honourable employment, give me leave to name thee such a one. I have a brother, that is pure from all sin against God, and of all offences against thy. self; I recommend him to thee, as one that is fit for this dig. nity.” So the king was pleased with these words of his, and passed by Jonathan, and, according to his brother's desire, bestowed the high-priesthood upon Matthias. Nor was it long before Marcus succeeded Petronius as president of Syria.
CHAP. VII. Concerning Silas, and on what account it was that king Agrip
pa was angry at him. How Agrippa begin to encompass Jerusalem with a wall ; and what benefits he bestowed on the inhabitants of Berytus.
81. Now Silas, the general of the king's horse, because he had been faithful to him under all his misfortunes, and had never refused to be a partaker with him in any of his dangers, but had oftentimes undergone the most bazardous dangers for him, was full of assurance, and thought he might expect a sort of equality with the king, on account of the firmness of the friendship he had shown to him. Accordingly, he would no where let the king sit as his superior, and took the like liberty in speaking to him upon all occasions ; till he became troublesome to the king, when they were merry together, extolling himself beyond measure, and of putting the king in mind of the severity of fortune he had undergone, that he might, by way of ostentation, demonstrate what zeal he had showed in his service; and was continually harping upon this string what pains he had taken for him, and much enlarged stilt upon that subject. The repetition of this so frequently seemed to reproach the king, insomuch that he took the ungovernable liberty of talking very ill at his hands. For the commemoration of times, when men have been under ignominy is by means agreeable to them; and he is a very silly man, who is perpetually relating to a person what kindnesses he had done him. At last, therefore, Silas had so thoroughlý provoked the king's indignation, that he acted rather out of passion than good consideration, and did not only turn Silas out of his place, as general of his borse, but sent him in bonds into his own country. But the edge of his anger wore off by length of time, and made room for more just reasoning as to his judgment about this man, and he considered how many labours he had undergone for lis sake. So when Agrippa was solemnizing his birth-day, and he gave festival entertainments to all his subjects, hè gent for Silas on the sudden to be his guest. But, as he was a very frank man, he thought he had now a just handle given him to be angry, which he could not conceal from those that came for him, but said to them, “ What honour is this the king invites me to, which I conclude will soon be over; for the king hath not let me keep those original marks of the good will I bore him, which I once had from him ; but he hath plundered me, and that unjustly alsó. Does he think that I can leave off that liberty of speech, which, upon the consciousness of my deserts, I shall use more loudly than before, and shall relate how many misfortunes I have deliv ered bim from ? how many labours I have undergone for him, whereby I procured him deliverance and respect? as a rec ward for which I have borne the hardships of bonds, and a dark prison. I shall never forget his usage. Nay, perhaps, my very soul, when it is departed out of the body, will not forget the glorious actions I did on his account." This was the clamour he made, and he ordered the messengers to tell it the king. So he perceived that Silas was incurable in his folly, and still suffered him to lie in prison."
2. As for the walls of Jerusalem, and that were adjoining to the new city [Bezetha,] he repaired them at the expense
of the public, and built them wider in breadth, and higher , in altitude ; and he had made them too strong for all human
power to demolish, unless Marcus, the then president of Syria, had by letters informed Claudius Caesar of what he was doing. And, when Claudius had some suspicion of attempts for innovation, he sent to Agrippa to leave off the building of those walls presently. So he obeyed, as not thinking it proper to contradict Claudius.
3. Now this king was by nature very beneficent, and libe. ralin his gifts, and very ambitious to oblige people with such large donations ; and he made himself very illustrious by the many chargeable presents he made them. He took delight in giving, and rejoiced in living with good reputation. He was not at all like that Herod who reigned before hiin ; for that Herod was ill-natured, and severe in his punishments, and had no mercy on them that he hated; and every one perceived, that he was more friendly to the Greeks than to the Jews ; for he adorned foreign cities with large presents in money ; with building them baths and theatres besides; nay, in some of those places he erected temples, and porticoes in others ; but he did not vouchsafe to raise one of the least edifices in any Jewish city, or make them any donation that was worth mentioning. But Agrippa's temper was mild, and equally liberal to all men. He was huinane to foreigners, and made them sensible of his liberality. He was in like manner rather of a gentle and compassionate temper. Accordingly, he loved to live continually at Jerusalem, and was exactly careful in the observance of the laws of his country. He, therefore, kept himself entirely pure ; nor did any day pass over his head without its appointed sacrifice.
4. However, there was a certain man, of the Jewish nation, at Jerusalem, who appeared to be very accurate in the knowledge of the law. His name was Simon. This man got together an assembly, while the king was absent at Caesarea, and had the insolence to accuse him as not living holi. ly, and that he might justly be excluded out of the temple,