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since it belonged only to native Jews. But the general of Agrippa's army informed himn that Simon had made such a speech to the people. So the king sent for him ; and, as he was then sitting in the theatre, he bid him sit down by him, and said to him with a low and gentle voice, “ What is there done in this place that is contrary to the law ?" But he had nothing to say for himself, but begged his pardon. So the king was more easily reconciled to him than one could have imagined, as esteeming mildness a better quality in a king than anger, and knowing that moderation is more becoming in great men than passion. So he made Simon a small present, and dismissed him.
5. Now, as Agrippa was a great builder in many places, he paid a peculiar regard to the people of Berytus ; for he erected a theatre for them, superior to many others of that sort, both in sumptuousness and elegance, as also an amphitheatre, built at vast expenses ; and, besides these, he built them baths and porticoes, and spared for no costs, in any of his edifices, to render them both handsome and large. He also spent a great deal upon their dedication, and exhibited shows upon them, and brought thither musicians of all sorts, and such as made the most delightful music of the greatest variety. He also showed his magnificence upon the theatre, in his great number of gladiators ; and there it was that he exhibited the several antagonists, in order to please the spectators; no fewer indeed than seven hundred men to fight with seven hundred other men ;* and allotted all the malefactors he had for this exercise, that both the malefactors might receive their punishment, and that this operation of war might be a recreation in peace. And thus were these criminals all destroyed at once.
CHAP. VIII. What other acts were done by. Agrippa until his death ; and
. after what manner he died. 1. WHEN Agrippa had finished what I have above rela. ted at Berytus, he removed to Tiberias, a city of Galilee. Now he was in great esteem among other kings. Accordinga
* A sérange number of condemned criminals to be under the sen. - tence of death at once, no fewer, it seems, than 1400.
ly, there came to him Antiochus, king of Commagena, Sampsigeramus, king of Emesa; and Cotys, who was king of the Lesser Armenia ; and Poleino, who was king of Pontus ; as also Herod, his brother, who was king of Chalcis. All these he treated with agreeable entertainments, and after an oblig. ing manner, and so as to exhibit the greatness of his inind, and so as to appear worthy of those respects which the kings paid to him, by coming thus to see him. However, while these kings staid with him, Marcus, the president of Syria, came thither. So the king, in order to preserve the respect that was due to the Romans, went out of the city to meet him, as far as seven furlongs. But this proved to be the beginning of a difference between him and Marcus ; for he took with him, in his chariot, those other kings as his as. sessors. But Marcus had a suspicion what the meaning could be of so great a friendship of these kings one with another, and did not think so close an agreement of so many poten. tates to be for the interest of the Romans. He, therefore, sent some of his domestics to every one of them, and enjoined them to go their ways home without farther delay. This was very ill taken by Agrippa, who after that became his enemy. And now he took the high-priesthood away from Matthias, and made Elioneus, the son of Cantheras, highpriest in his stead.
2. Now, when Agrippa had reigned three years orer all Judea, he came to the city Caesarea, which was formerly called Stralo's Tower; and there he exhibited shows in honour of Caesar, upon his being informed that there was a certain festival, celebrated to make vows for his safety. At which festival, a great multitude was gotten together of the principal persons, and such as were of dignity through his province. On the second day of which shows, he put on a garment made wholly of silver, and of a contexture truly wonderful, and came into tbe theatre early in the morning; at which time the silver of his garment, being illuminated by the fresh reflection of the sun's rays upon it, shone out after a surprising manner, and was so resplendent as to spread an borror over those that looked intently upon him; and presently his flatterers cried out, one from one place, and another from another, (though not for his good,) that she was a god;" and they added, “Be then merciful to us; lor although we have hitherto reverenced thee only as a man, yet sball we henceforth own thee as sapcrior to mortal pa
ture." Upon this the king did neither rebuke them, nor reject their impious flattery. But, as he presently afterward Jooked up, he saw an owl * sitting on a certain rope, over his head, and immediately understood that this bird was the messenger of ill tidings, as it had once been the messenger of good tidings to him; and fell into the deepest sorrow. A severe pain also arose in his belly, and began in a most violent manner. He therefore looked upon his friends, and said, “I, whom you call a god, am commanded presently to depart this life ; while providence thus reproves the lying words you just now said to me; and I, who was by you called immortal, am immediately to be hurried away by death. But I am bound to accept of what Providence allots, as it pleases God; for we have by no means lived ill, but in a splendid and happy manner.” When he said this, his pain was become violent. Accordingly, he was carried into the
* We have a mighty cry made here, by some critics, as if the great Eusebius had on purpose falsified this account of Josephus, o as to make it agree with the parallel account in tue Acts of the Apostles ; because the present copies of his citation of it, Hist. Eccles. B.ji. eh. x. omit the words, Bo6wd-ETI O X01918 TINGS, i. e. an owl-on at certain rope, which Josephus's present cop es retain, and only have the explicatory word, aj Tearo, or angel; as if he meant that angel of the Lord, which St. Luke mentions as smiting Herod, Acts, xii. 23. and not that owl which losepbus called an angel or messenger for. merly of good, but now of bad news, to Agrippa. This accısai on is a somewhat strange one in the case of the great Eusebius, who is known to have so accurately and faithfully produced a vast number, of ther ancient records, and particularly not a few out of our Josephus also, without any suspicion of prevarication. Now, not to allege how uncertain we are, whether Josephus's and Eusebius's copies of the fourth century were just like th: pre: ent in this clause, which we have no distinct evidence of, the following words preserved still in Eusebins, will not adınit of any such exposition. This (bird) says Eusebius, Agrippa presenlly perceived lo be the cause of ill fortune, as it was once of good forlune to him ; which can only be. long to that bird the owl, which, as it had forverly foreboded his happy deliverance from in prisonment, Antiq. B. xviii. ch. vi. 07.. $0 was it then foretold to prove afterward the unhappy forerunner of his death in five days time. If the improper word ditio, or cause, be changed for Josephus's proper word og Teacv, angel, or messenger, and the foregoing words @wvezi o xorvir Tivos, be inseried, Eusebius's text will truly represent that in Josephus. Had this imperfection been in some heathen author, that wa: in good esteem with our modern critics, they would have readily corrected these as barely errors in the copies; but being in an ancient Christian writer, Bot so well reli-hed by inany of those critics, nothing will serve but the ill grounded supposal of wilfu! corruption and prevarication.
palace; and the rumour went abroad every where, that he would certainly die in a little time. But the multitude presently sat in sackcloth, with their wives and children, after the law of their country, and besought God for the king's recovery. All places were also full of mourning and lamentation. Now the king rested in an high chamber, and, as he saw them below lying prostrate on the ground, he could not himself forbear weeping. And, when he had been quite worn out by the pain in his belly for five days, he departed this life, being in the fifty-fourth year of his age, and in the seventh year of his reign ; for he reigned four years under Caius Caesar, three of them were over Philip's tetrarchy only, and on the fourth he had that of Herod added to it; and he reigned besides those, three years under the reign of Claudius Caesar. In which time he reigned over the forementioned countries, and also had Judea added to them, as well as Samaria, and Caesarea. The revenues that he received out of them were very great, no less than twelve * millions of drachmae. Yet did he borrow great sums from others; for he was so very liberal, that his expenses exceeded his incomes, and his generosity was boundless.
3. But before the multitude were made acquainted with Agrippa's being expired, Herod, the king of Chalcis, and Helcias, the master of his horse, and the king's friend, sent Aristo, one of the king's most faithful servants, and slew Silas, who had been their enemy, as if it had been done by the king's own command.
* This sum of 12,000,000 drachmae, which is equal to 3,000,000 shekels, i.e. at %s, 10d. a hekel, equal to 425,0001. Sterling, was Agrippa the Great's yearly income, or about three quarters of his grandfather Herod's income; be having abated the tax upon houses at Jerusalem, ch. vi. $ 3, and was not as tyrannical as he had been to the Jews. See the note on Antiq. B. xvii. ch. xi. 04. A large sum this! but not it seems, sufficient for his extravagant exponses.
+ Reland takes notice here, not inproperiy, that losepbiu omits the reconciliation of this Herod Agrippa to the Tyrian: and Sidonians by the means of Blastus, the king's chamberlain, mentioned Acts, xii. 20. Nor is there any history in the world so complete as toonit nothing that other historians take notice of, unless the one be taken out of the other, and accommodated to it.
CHAP. IX. What things were done after the death of Agrippa ; and how
Claudius, on account of the youth and unskilfulness of Agrippa, junior, sent Cuspius Fadus to be procurator of Judea, and of the entire kingdom.
8 1. And thus did king Agrippa depart this life. But he left behind him a son, Agrippa by name, a youth in the seventeenth year of his age, and three daughters; one of which, Berenice, was married to Herod, his father's brother, and vas sixteen years old ; the other two, Mariamne and Drusilla, were still virgins ; the former was ten years old, and Drusilla six. Now, these his daughters were thus espoused by their father, Mariamne to Julius Archelaus Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus, the son of Chelcias, and Drusilla to the king of Commagena. But, when it was known that Agrippa was departed this life, the inhabitants of Caesarea and of Sabaste, forgot the kindness he had bestowed on them, and acted the parts of the bitterest enemies ; for they cast such reproaches upon the deceased as are not to be spoken of; and so many of them as were then soldiers, which were a great number, went to his house, and hastily carried off the statues * of this king's daughters, and all at once carried them into the brothel-bouses, and, when they had set them on the tops of these houses, they abused them to the utmost of their power, and did such things to then as are too indecent to be related. They also laid theinselves down in public places, and celebrated general feastings, with garlands on their heads, and with ointments and libations to Charon, and drinking to one another for joy that the king was expired. Nay, they were not only unmindful of Agrippa, who bad extended his liberality to them in abundance, but of his grandfather Herod also, who had himself rebuilt their cities, and had raised them havens and temples at vast expenses.
2. Now Agrippa, the son of the deceased, was at Roma, and brought up with Claudius Caesar. And when Caesar was informed that Agrippa was dead, and that the inhabi
* Photius, who made an extract out of this section, says, they were not the statues or images, but the ladies trepiselves, which were thus basely abused by the soldiers. Cod. ccxxxviii,