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3. As soon, therefore, as he was come into the country, there came ambassadors from both the brothers, each of them desiring his assistance ; but Aristobulus's three hundred talents had more weight with him than the justice of the cause ; which sum, when Scaurus had received, he sent an herald to Hyrcanus and the Arabians, and threatened them with the resentment of the Romans, and of Pompey, unless they would raise the siege. So Areias was terrified, and retired out of Judea to Philadelphia, as did Scaurus return to Damascus again: nor was Aristobulus satisfied with escaping (out of his brother's hands,] but gathered all his forces together, and pursued his enemies, and fought them at a place called Papyron, and slew above six thousand of them, and together with them, Antipater's brother, Phalion.

4. When Hyrcanus and Antipater were thus deprived of their hopes from the Arabians, they transferred the same to their adversaries; and because Pompey had passed through Syria, and was come to Damascus, they fled to him for assistarice; and, * without any bribes, they made the same equitable pleas that they had used to Aretas, and besought him to hate the violent behaviour of Aristobulus, and to bestow the kingdom on him to whom it justly belonged, both on account of his good character, and on account of his superiority in age. However, neither was Aristobulus wanting to himself in this case, as relying on the bribes that Scaurus had received: he was also there himself, and adorned himself after a manner the most agreeable to royalty that he was able. But he soon thought it beneath him to come in such a servile manner, and could not endure to serve his own ends in a way so much more abject than he was used to; so he departed from Diospolis.

5. At this his behaviour Pompey had great indignation ; Hyrcanus also and his friends made great intercession to Pompey; so he took not only his Roman forces, but many of his Syrian auxiliaries, and marched against Aristobulus.

• It is somewhat probable, as Havercamp supposes, and partly Spanheim also, that the Latin copy is here the truest ; that Pompey did take the many presents offered him by Hyrcanus, as he would have done the others from Aristobulus, $ 6. although his remarkable abstinence from the 2000 talents that were in the Jew. ish temple, when he took it a little afterward, ch, vii. $ 6. and Antiq. B. siv. ch. iv. S 4. will hardly permit us to desert the Greek copies, all which agree that he did not take them.

VOL. V.

But when he had passed by Pella and Scythopolis, and was come to Corea, where you enter into the country of Judea, when you go up to it through the Mediterranean parts, be heard that Aristobulus was fled to Alexandrium, which is a strong hold fortified with the utmost magnificence, and situated upon a high mountain ; and he sent to him, and commanded him to come down. Now his inclination was to try his fortune in a battle, since he was called in such an imperious manner, rather than to comply with that call. However, he saw the multitude were in great fear, and his friends exhorted him to consider what the power of the Romans was, and how it was irresistible ; so he complied with their advice, 'and came down to Pompey; and when he had made a long apology for himself, and for the justness of his cause in taking the government, he returned to the fortress. And when his brother invited him again [to plead his cause,] he came down and spake about the justice of it, and then went away without any hindrance from Pompey; so he was between hope and fear. And when he came down, it was to prevail with Pompey to allow him the government entirely; and when he went up to the citadel, it was that he might not appear to debase himself too low. However, Pompey commanded him to give up his fortified places, and forced him to write to every one of their governors, to yield them up; they having had this charge given them, to obey no letters but what were of his own hand-writing. Accordingly, he did what, he was ordered to do, but had still an indignation at what was done, and retired to Jerusalem, and prepared to fight with Pompey.

6. But Pompey did not give him time to make any preparations (for a siege,] but followed him at his heels: be was also obliged to make haste in his attempt, by the death of Mithridates, of which he was informed about Jericho. Now here is the most fruitful country of Judea, which bears a 'vast' number of * palm-trees, besides the balsam-tree, whose sprouts they cut with sharp stones, and at the incisions they gather the juice, which drops down like tears. So Pompey pitched his camp in that place one night, and

* Of the famous palm-trees and balsam about Jericho and En. gaddi, see the notes in Havercamp's edition, both here and Bii. ch. ix. § 1. They are somewhat too long to be transcribed in this place.

tobulus was so affrighted at his approach, that he came and met him by way of supplication : he also promised him money, and that he would deliver up both himself and the city into his disposal, and thereby mitigated the anger of Pompey. Yet did not he perform any of the conditions he had agreed to ; for Aristobulus's party would not so much as admit Gabinius into the city, who was sent to receive the money that he had promised.

CHAP. VII. How Pompey had the city Jerusalem delivered up to him,

but took the temple [by force.] How he went into the Holy of Holies ; as also what were his other exploits in

Juded.

§ 1. At this treatment Pompey was very angry, and took Aristobulus into custody. And when he was come to the city, he looked about where he might make his attack ; for he saw the walls were so firm, that it would be hard to overcome them, and that the valley before the walls was terrible ; and that the temple, which was within that valley, was itself encompassed with a very strong wall, insomuch, that if the city was taken, that temple would be a second place of refuge for the enemy to retire to.

2. Now as he was long in deliberating about this matter, a sedition arose between the people of the city ; Aristobulus's party being willing to fight, and to set their king at liberty, while the party of Hyrcanus were for opening the gates to Pompey; and the dread the people were in, occasioned these last to be a very numerous party, when they looked upon the excellent order the Roman soldiers were in. So Aristobulus's party was worsted, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost; but as the others had received the Romans into the city, and had delivered up the palace to him, Pompey sent Piso, one of his great officers, into that palace with an army, who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade any of those that had fled to the temple to come to terms of accommodation ; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favour their attacks, as

having Hyrcanus's party very ready to afford them both counsel and assistance.

3. But Pompey himself filled up the ditch that was on the north side of the temple, and the entire valley also, the army itself being obliged to carry the materials for that purpose. And indeed it was an hard thing to fill up that valley, by reason of its immense depth, especially as the Jews used all the means possible to repel them from their superior station : nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavours, had not Pompey taken notice of the seventh days, on which the Jews absiain from all sorts of work on a religious account, and raised his bank, but restrained his soldiers from fighting on those days; for the Jews only acted defensively on Sabbath days. But as soon as Pompey had filled up the valley, he erected high towers upon the bank, and brought those engines which they had fetched from Tyre near to the wall, and tried to batter it down; and the slingers of stones beat off those that stood above them, and dora them away: but the towers on this side of the city made very great resistance, and were indeed extrant. dinary both for largeness and magnificence.

· 4. Now here it was that, upon the many hardships which the Romans underwent, Pompey could not but admire, not only at the other instances of the Jews fortitude, but especi. ally that they did not at all intermit their religious services, even when they were encompassed with darts on all sides; for, as if the city were in full peace, their daily sacrifices and purifications, and every branch of their religious worship, was still performed to God with the utmost exactness. Nor indeed, when the temple was actually taken, and they were every day slain about the altar, did they leave off the instances of their divine worship that were appointed by their law; for it was in the third month of the siege before the Romans could, even with great difficulty, overthrow one of the towers, and get into the temple. Now he that first of all ventured to get over the wall, was Faustus Cornelius, the son of Sylla; and next after him was two centurions, Furius and Fabius; and every one of these was followed by a cohort of his own, who encompassed the Jews on all sides, and slew them, some of them as they were running for shel ter to the temple, and others as they, for a while, fought in their own defence.

5. And now did many of the priests, even when they

saw their enemies assailing them with swords in their hands, without any disturbance, go on with their divine worship, and were slain while they were offering their drink-offerings, and burning their incense, as preferring the duties about the worship to God before their own preservation. The greatest part of them were slain by their own countrymen, of the adverse faction, and an innumerable multitude threw themselves down precipices; nay, some there were who were so distracted among the insuperable difficulties they were under, that they set fire to the buildings that were near to the wall, and were burnt together with them. Now, of the Jews were slain twelve thousand; but of the Romans very few were slain, but a greater number was wounded

6. But there was nothing that affected the nation so much, in the calamities they were then under, as that their holy place, which had been hitherto seen by none, should be laid open to strangers; for * Pompey, and those that were about him, went into the temple itself, whither it was not lawful for any to enter but the high-priest, and saw what was reposited therein, the candlestick with its lamps, and the table, and the pouring vessels, and the censers, all made entirely of gold, as also a great quantity of spices heaped together, with two thousand talents of sacred money. Yet did not he touch that money, nor any thing else that was there reposited; but he commanded the ministers about the temple, the very next day after he had taken it, to cleanse it, and to perform their accustomed sacrifices. Moreover, he made Hyrcanus high-priest, as one that not only in other respects had showed great alacrity on his side, during the siege, but as he had been the means of hindering the multitude that was in the country from fighting for Aristobulus, which they were otherwise very ready to have done ; by which means he acted the part of a good general, and reconciled the people to him more by benevolence than by terror. Now, among the captives Aristobulus's father-in-law was taken, who was also his uncle : so those that were the most guilty he punished with decollation ; but rewarded Faustus, and those with him that had fought so bravely, with

• Thus says Tacitus, Cn. Pompeius first of all subdued the Jews, and went into their temple, by right of conquest, Hist. B. v. ch. ix. por did he touch any of its riches, as has been observed on the parallel place of the Antiquities, B. xiv. ch. iv. $ 4. out of Cicero himself,

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