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to prevent the Parthians from repassing it; concerning which matter * we shall speak elsewhere.
CHAP. IX. Aristobulus is taken off by 'Pompey's friends, as is his son
Alexander by Scipio. Antipater cultivates a friendship with Cæsar after Pompey's death; he also performs great actions in that war wherein he assisted Mithridates.
$ 1. Now upon the flight of Pompey, and of the senate, beyond the Ionian sea, Cæsar got Rome and the empire under his power, and released Aristobulus from his bonds. He also committed two legions to him, and sent him in haste into Syria, as hoping that, by his means, he should easily conquer that country, and the parts adjoining to Judea. But envy prevented any effect of. Aristobulus's alacrity, and the hopes of Cæsar; for he was taken off by poison given him by those of Pompey's party, and for a long while he had not so much as a burial vouchsafed him in his own country; but his dead body lay (above ground,] preserved in honey, until it was sent to the Jews by Antony, in order to be buried in the royal sepulchres.
2. His son Alexander also was beheaded by Scipio, at Antioch, and that by the command of Pompey, and upon an accusation laid against him before his tribunal, for the mischiefs he had done to the Romans. But Ptolemy, the son of Monneus, who was then ruler of Chalcis under Libanus, took his brethren to him, by sending his son Philippio for them to Ascalon, who took Antigonus, as well as his sisters, away from Aristobulus's wife, and brought them to his father; and falling in love with the younger daughter, he married her, and was afterward slain by his father, on her account; for Ptolemy himself, after he had slain his son, married her, whose name was Alexandra, on account of which marriage he took the greater care of her brother and sister.
3. Now after Pompey was dead, Antipater changed sides, and cultivated a friendship with Cæsar. And since Mithridates of Pergamus, with the forces he led against Egypt, was excluded from the avenues about Pelesium, and was forced
* The citation is now wanting.
to stay at Ascalon, he persuaded the Arabians, among whom he had lived, to assist him, and came himself to him at the head of three thousand armed men. He also encouraged the men of power in Syria to come to his assistance, as also of the inhabitants of Libanus, Ptolemy, and Jamblichus, and another Ptolemy ; by which means the cities of that country came readily into this war; insomuch, that Mithridates ventured now, in dependence upon the additional strength he had gotten by Antipater, to march forward to Pelusium; and when they refused him a passage through it, he besieged the city ; in the attack of which place Antipater principally signalized himself, for he brought down that part of the wall that was over against him, and leaped first of all into the city with the men that were about him.
4. Thus was Pelusium taken. But still as they were marching on, those Egyptian Jews that inhabited the coun. try, called the country of Onias, stopped them. Then did Antipater not only persuade them not to stop them, but to afford provisions for their army ; on which account even the people about Memphis would not fight against them, but of their own accord joined Mithridates. Whereupon he went round about Delta, and fought the rest of the Egyptians, at a place called the Jews' Camp: nay, when he was in danger in the battle, with all his right wing, Antipater wheeled about, and came along the bank of the river to him ; for he had beaten those that opposed him, as he led the left wing. After which success he fell upon those that pursued Mithridates, and slew a great many of them, and pursued the remainder so far, that he took their camp, while he lost no more than fourscore of his own men; as Mithridates lost during the pursuit that was made after him, about eight hundred. He was also himself saved unexpectedly, and became an irreproachable witness to Cæsar of the great actions of Antipater.
5. Whereupon Cæsar encouraged Antipater to undertake other hazardous enterprises for him, and that by giving him great commendations, and hopes of reward. In all which enterprises he readily exposed himself to many dangers, and became a most courageous warrior; and had many wounds, almost all over his body, as demonstrations of his valour. And when Cæsar had settled the affairs of Egypt, and was returning into Syria again, he gave him the privilege of a Roman citizen, and freedom from taxes, and ren
dered him an object of admiration by the honours and marks of friendship he bestowed upon him. On his account it was also, that he confirmed Hyrcanus in the high-priesthood.
CHAP. X. Cæsar makes Antipater procurator of Judea ; as does Anti
pater appoint Phasael to be governor of Jerusalem, and Herod governor of Galilee ; who in some time was called to answer for himself before the Sanhedrim,] where he is acquitted. Sextus Cæsar is treacherously killed by Bas-, sus, and is succeeded by Marcus. .
8 1. About this time it was that Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, came to Cæsar, and became, in a surprising manner, the occasion of Antipater's farther advancement: for whereas he ought to have lamented that his father appeared to have been poisoned, on account of his quarrels with Pompey, and to have complained of Scipio's barbarity towards his brother, and not to mix any invidious passion when he was suing for mercy; besides those things, he came before Cæsar, and accused Hyrcanus and Antipater, how they had driven him and his brethren entirely out of their native country, and had acted, in a great many instances, unjustly and extravagantly with relation to their nation; and, that as to the assistance they had sent him into Egypt, it was not done out of good will to him, but out of the fear they were in from former quarrels, and in order to gain pardon for their friendship to [his enemy] Pompey.
2. Hereupon Antipater threw away his garments, and showed the multitude of the wounds he had, and said, that " as to his good will to Cæsar, he had no occasion to say a word, because his body cried aloud, though he said nothing himself: that he wondered at Antigonus's boldness, while he himself was no other than the son of an enemy to the Romans, and of a fugitive, and had it by inheritance from his father to be fond of innovations and seditions, that he should undertake to accuse other men before the Roman governor, and endea. vour to gain some advantages to himself, when he ought to he contented that he was suffered to live ; for that the reason of his desire of governing public affairs, was not so much because he was in want of it, but because, if he could once obtain the same, he might stir up a şedition among the Jews,
and use what he should gain from the Romans, to the disser vice of those that gave it him.
3. When Cæsar heard this, he declared Hyrcanus to be the most worthy of the high-priesthood, and gave leave to Antipater to choose what authority he pleased; but he left the determination of such dignity to him that bestowed the dignity upon him ; so he was constituted procurator of all Judea, and obtained leave moreover to rebuild * those walls of his country that had been thrown down. These honorary grants Cæsar sent orders to have engraved in the capitol, that they might stand there as indications of his own justice, and of the virtue of Antipater.
4. But as soon as Antipater had conducted Cæsar out of Syria, he returned to Judea, and the first thing he did, was to rebuild that wall of his own country, Jerusalem, which Pompey had overthrown, and then to go over the country, and to quiet the tumults that were therein ; where he partly threatened, and partly advised every one, and told them, that “in case they would submit to Hyrcanus, they would live happily and peaceably, and enjoy what they possessed, and that with universal peace and quietness; but that, in case they hearkened to such as had some frigid hopes, by raising new troubles, to get themselves some gain, they should then find him to be their lord, instead of their procurator; and find Hyrcanus to be a tyrant instead of a king; and both the Romans and Cæsar to be their enemies, instead of rulers ; for that they would not suffer him to be removed from the government, whom they had made their governor." And at the same time that he said this, he settled the affairs of the country by himself, because he saw that Hyrcanus was inactive, and not fit to manage the affairs of the kingdom. So he constituted his eldest son, Phasaelus, governor of Jerusalem, and of the parts about it; he also sent his next son, Herod, who was † very young, with equal authority into Galilee.
* What is here noted by Hudson and Spanheim, that this grant of leave to rebuild the walls of the cities of Judea was made by Ju. lius Cæsar, not as here to Antipater, but to Hyrcanus, Antiq B. xiv chap. viii $ 5. has hardly an appearance of a contradiction ; An. tipater being now perhaps considered only as Hyrcanus's deputy and minister; although he afterwards made a cipher of Hyrcanus, and, under great decency of behaviour to him, took the real authority to himself
+ Or twenty-five years of age. See the note on Antiq. B i. chap. xii. $ 3 and on B. xiv chap ix. § 2. and Of the War, B. ii. chap Xt $ 6. and Polyb, B. xvii. p. 725,
5. Now Herod was an active man, and soon found proper materials for his active spirit to work upon. As, therefore, he found that Hezekias, the head of the robbers, ran over the neighbouring parts of Syria with a great band of men, he caught him and slew him, and many more of the robbers with him; which exploit was chiefly grateful to the Syrians, insomuch, that hymns were sung in Herod's commendation, both in the villages and in their cities, as having procured their quietness, and having preserved what they possessed to them ; on which occasion he became acquainted with Sextus Cæsar, a kinsman of the great Cæsar, and president of Syria. A just emulation of his glorious actions, excited Phasaelus also to imitate him. Accordingly, he procured the good will of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, by his own management of the city affairs, and did not abuse his power in any disagreeable manner; whence it came to pass, that the nation paid Antipater the respects that were due only to a king, and the honours they all yielded him were equal to the honours due to an absolute lord ; yet did not he abate any part of that good will or fidelity which he owed to Hyrcanus.
6. However, he found it impossible to escape envy in such his prosperity ; for the glory of these young men affected even Hyrcanus himself already privately, though he said nothing of it to any body: but what he principally was grieved at, was the great actions of Herod, and that so many messengers came one before another, and informed him of the great reputation he got in all his undertakings. There were also many people in the royal palace itself, who infamed his envy at him; those, I mean, who were obstructed in their designs, by the prudence either of the young men, or of Antipater. These men said, that by committing the public affairs to the management of Antipater and of his sons, he sat down with nothing but the bare name of a king, without any of its authority; and they asked him, how long he would so far mistake himself, as to breed up kings against his own interést? for that they did not now conceal their government of affairs any longer, but were plainly lords of the nation, and had thrust him out of his authority ; that this was the case when Herod slew so many men without his giving him any command to do it, either by word of mouth, or by his letter, and this in contradiction to the law of the Jers; who, therefore, in case be be not a king, but