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a private man, still ought to come to his trial, and answer it to him, and to the laws of his country, which do not permit any one to be killed, till he hath been condemned in judgrent.
7. Now Hyrcanus was by degrees inflamed by these discourses, and at length could bear no longer, but he summoned Hierod to take his trial; accordingly, by his father's advice, and as soon as the allairs o Galilee would give him leave, be came up [to Jerusalem,] when he bad first placed garrisons in Galilee : horrever, he came with a sufficient tody of soldiers, so many indeed, that he might not appear to have with him an army, able to overthrow Hyrcanus's government, nor yet so few, as to expose him to the insults of those that envied him. However, Sextus Cæsar was in fear for the young man, lest he should be taken hold of by his enemies, and be brought to punishment: so he sent some to denounce expressly to Hyrcanus, that he should acquit Herod of the capital charge against him ; who acquitted him accordingly, as being otherwise inclined also so to do, for he loved Herod.
8. But Herod, supposing that he had escaped punishment without the consent of the king, retired to Sextus, to Damascus, and got every thing ready, in order not to obey him, if he should summons him again; whereupon, those that were evil disposed irritated Hyrcanus, and told him, that Herod was gone away in anger, and was prepared to make par upon him; and, as the king believed what they said, he knew not what to do, since he saw his antagonist was stronger than he was himself. And now, since Herod was made general of Cælosyria and Samaria, by Sextus Cæsar, he was formidable, not only from the good will which the nation bore him, but by the power he himself had ; insomuch, that Hyrcanus fell into the utmost degree of terror, and expected he would presently march against them with his army.
9. Nor was he mistaken in the conjecture he made, for [Ierod got his army together, out of the anger he bare him, for his threatening him with the accusation in a public court, and led it to Jerusalem, in order to throw Hyrcanus down from the kingdom ; and this he had soon done, unless his father and brother had gone out together, and broken the force of his fury, and this by exhorting him to carry his resenge no farther than to threatening and affrighting, but to
spare the king, under whom he had been advanced to such a degree of power; and that he ought not to be so much provoked at his being tried, as to forget to be thankful that he was acquitted ; nor so long to think upon what was of a melancholy nature, as to be ungrateful for his deliverance ; and if we ought to reckon that God is the arbitrator of success in war, an unjust cause is of more disadvantage than any army can be of advantage ; and that therefore he ought not to be entirely confident of success, in a case where he is to fight against his king, his supporter, and one that had often been his benefactor, and that had never been severe to him, any otherwise, than as he had hearkened to evil counsellors, and this no farther, than by bringing a shadow of injustice upon him. So Herod was prevailed upon by these arguments, and supposed that what he had already done was sufficient for his future hopes, and that he had enough shown his power to the nation.
10. In the mean time there was a disturbance among the Romans about Apamia, and a civil war occasioned by the treacherous * slaughter of Sextus Cæsar, by Cicilius Bassus, which he perpetrated out of his good-will to Pompey; he also took the authority over his forces; but as the rest of Cæsar's commanders attacked Bassus with their whole army, in order to punish him for his murder of Cæsar, Antipater also sent them assistance, by his sons, both on account of him that was murdered, and on account of that Cæsar who was still alive, both of which were their friends, and as this war grew to be of a considerable length, Marcus came out of Italy as successor to Sextus.
| CHAP. XÌ. Herod is made procurator of all Syria ; Malichus is afraid
of him, and takes Antipaier off by poison; whereupon the tribunes of the soldiers are prevailed with to kill himn.
8 1. THERE was at this time a mighty war raised among the Romans, upon the sudden and treacherous slaughter of Cæsar by Cassius and Brutus, after he had held the go
* Many writers of the Roman history give an account of this murder of Sextus Cæsar, and of the war of Apamia upon that occasion. They are cited in Dean Aldrich's note.
vernment for * three years and seven months. Upon this murder there were very great agitations, and the great men were mightily at difference one with another, and every one betook himself to that party where they had the greatest hopes of their own of advancing themselves. Accordingly, Cassius came into Syria, in order to receive the forces that were at Apamia, where he procured a reconciliation between Bassus and Marcus, and the legions which were at difference with him; so he raised the siege of Apamia, and took upon him the command of the army, and went about exacting tribute of the cities, and demanding their money, to such a degree as they were not able to bear. · 2. So he gave command that the Jews should bring in seven hundred talents; † whereupon Antipater, out of his dread of Cassius's threats, parted the raising of this sum among his sons, and among others of his acquaintance, and to be done immediately; and among them he required one Malichus, who was at enmity with him, to do his part also, which necessity forced him to do. Now Herod, in the first place, mitigated the passion of Cassius, by bringing his share out of Galilee, which was an hundred talents, on which account he was in the highest favour with him; and when he reproached the rest for being tardy, he was 'angry at the cities themselves: so he made slaves of Gophna, and Emmaus, and two others of less note; nay, he proceeded as if he would kill Malichus, because he had not made greater haste in exacting his tribute; buí Antipater prevented the ruin of this man, and of the other cities, and got into Cas. sius's favour, by bringing in an hundred talents immediately,
3. However, when Cassius had gone, Malichus forgot the
* In the Antiquities, B. xiv. ch. xi. S 1. the duration of the reign of Julius Cæsar is three years six months; but here three years seven months, beginning rightly, says Dean Aldrich, from his se. cond dictatorship. It is probable the real duration might be three years, and between six and seven months.
f It appears evidently by Josephus's accounts, both here and in bis Antiquities, B. xiv. ch.is. § 2. that this Cassius, one of Cæsar's murderers, was a bitter oppressor and exactor of tribute in Judea : these seven hundred talents amount to about three hundred thousand pounds sterling, and are about half the yearly revenues of kinig Herod afterwards. See the note on Antiq. B. xvij. ch. xi. 4. It also appears, that Galilee then paid no more than one hundred talents, as the seventh part of the entire som to be levied in all the country.
kindness that Antipater had done him, and laid frequent plots against him that had saved him, as making haste to get him out of the way, who was an obstacle to his wicked practices; but Antipater was so much afraid of the power and cunning of the man, that he went beyond Jordan in order to get an army to guard himself against his treacherous designs; but when Malichus was caught in his plot, he put upon Antipater's sons by his impudence, for he thoroughly deluded Phasaelus, who was the guardian to Jerusalem, and Herod, who was entrusted with the weapons of war, and this by a great many excuses and oaths, and persuaded them to procure his reconciliation to their father. Thus was he preserved again by Antipater, who dissuaded Marcus, the then president of Syria, from his resolution of killing Malichus, on account of his attempts for innovation.
4. Upon the war between Cassius and Brutus on one side, against the younger Cæsar (Augustus] and Antony on the other, Cassius and Marcus got together an army out of Syria; and because Herod was likely to have a great share in providing necessaries, they then made him a procurator of all Syria, and gave him an army of foot and horse. Cassius promised him also, that after the war was over, he would make him king of Judea: but it so happened, that the power and hopes of his son became the cause of his perdition; for as Mafichus was afraid of this, he corrupted one of the king's cup-bearers with money, to give a poisoned potion to Antipater; so he became a sacrifice to Malichus's wickedness, and died at a feast. He was a man in other respects active in the management of affairs, and one that recovered the government to Hyrcanus, and preserved it in his hands.
5. However, Malichus, when he was suspected of poisoning Antipater, and when the multitude were angry at him for it, denied it, and made the people believe he was not guilty. He also prepared to make a greater figure, and raised soldiers; for he did not suppose that Herod would be quiet, who indeed came upon him with an army presently, in order to revenge his father's death ; but upon hearing the advice of his brother Phasaelus, not to punish him in an open manner, lest the multitude should fall into a sedition, he admitted Malichus's apology, and professed that he cleared bim of the suspicion; he also made a pompous funeral for his father.
6. So Herod went to Samaria, which was then in a fum :
mult, and settled the city in peace; after which, at the [Pentecost] festival, he returned to Jerusalem, having his armed men with him; hereupon, Hyrcanus, at the request of Maliehus, who feared his approach, forbade them to introduce foreigners to mix themselves with the people of the country, while they were purifying themselves; but Herod despised the pretence, and him that gave that command, and came in by night. Upon which Malichus came to him, and bewailed Antipater; Herod also made him believe she admitted of his lamentation as real, although he had much ado to restrain his passion at him : however, he did himself bewail the murder of his father, in his letter to Cassius, who, on other accounts, also hated Malichus ; Cassius sent him word back, that he should avenge his father's death upon him, and privately gave order to the tribunes that were under him, that they should assist Herod in a righteous action he was about.
7. And because, upon the taking of Laodicea by Cassius, the men of power were gotten together from all quarters, with presents and crowns in their hands, Herod allotted this time for the punishment of Malichus. When Malichus suspected that, and was at Tyre, he resolved to withdraw his son privately from among the Tyrians, who was an hostage there, while he got ready to fly away into Judea: the de. spair he was in of escaping, excited him to think of greater things; for he hoped that he should raise the nation to a revolt from the Romans, while Cassius was busy about the war against Antony, and that he should easily depose Hyrcanus, and get the crown for himself.
8. But fate laughed at the hopes' he had; for Herod foresaw what he was so zealous about, and invited both Hyrca. nus and him to a supper, but calling one of the principal servants that stood by him to him, he sent him out as though it were to get things ready for supper, but in reality, to give notice beforehand, about the plot that was laid against him ; accordingly, they called to mind what orders Cassius' had given them, and went out of the city with their swords in their hands, upon the sea-shore, where they encompassed Malichus round about, and killed bim with many wounds: Upon which Hyrcanus was immediately affrighted, till he swooned away, and fell down at the surprise he was in; and it was with difficulty that he was recovered, when he asked, who it was that had killed Malicbus? And, when