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orders, but were so emboldened by the foregoing victory, that they presently attacked the Arabians, and beat them at the first onset, and then pursued them; yet were there snares Jaid for Herod in that pursuit; while Athenio, one of Cleopatra's generals, and always an antagonist to Herod, sent out of Kanatha the men of that country against him ; for, upoš this fresh onset, the Arabians took courage, and returned back, and both joined their numerous forces about stony places that were hard to be gone over, and there put Herod's inen to the rout, and made a great slaughter of them: But those that escaped out of the battle fied to Orıniza, where the Arabians surrounded their camp, and took it, with all the men in it.

3. In a little time after this calamity, Herod came to bring them succours; but he came too late. Now the occasion for that blow was this, that the officers would not obey orders ; for bad not the fight began so suddenly, Athenio had not found a proper season for the snares he laid for Herod : however, he was even with the Arabians afterward, and overran their country, and did them more harm than their single victory could compensate. But as he was avenge ing himself on his enemies, there fell upon him another providential calamity; for, in the * seventh year of his reign, when the war about Actium was at the height, at the begin. ping of the spring, the earth was shaken, and destroyed an immense number of cattle, with thirty thousand men ; but the army received no harm, because it lay in the open air, In the mean tiine the fame of this earthquake elevated the Arabians to greater courage, and this by augmenting it to a fabulous height, as is constantly the case in melancholy ac.

* This seventh year of the reign of Herod, the conquest, or the death of Antigonus,] with the great earthquake in the beginning of the same spuing, which are here fully iniplied to be not much before tlie fizhi at Actium, between Octavius and Antony, and which is known from the Poinan historians to have teen in the biginning of September, in ihe thirty-first year before the Christinni zra, determines the clironology of Josephus, as to the reign of lierod, vir that he began in the year 37, beyond rational contradiction. Nor is it quite unwortly of our notice, that thii seventh year of the reign of Irod, or the thirty- first before the Cristiin æra, container tlic laiter part of a Sabbatic year : on wlich Sab. batic year, therefore, it is plain, this great earthquake happened in Judcan

cidents, and pretending that all Judea was overthrown; upon this supposal, therefore, that they should easily get a land that was destitute of inhabitants into their power, they first sacrificed those ambassadors who were come to them from the Jews, and then marched into Judea immediately. Now the Jewish nation were affrighted at this invasion, and quite dispirited at the greatness of their calamities one after another; whom yet Herod got together, and endeavoured to encourage to defend themselves by the following speech which he made to them.

4. “ The present dread you are under, seems to me to have seized upon you very unreasonably. It is true, you might justly be dismayed at that providential chastisement which hath befallen you; but to suffer yourselves to be equally terrified at the invasions of men is unmanly. As for myself, I am so far from being affrighted at our enemies after this earthquake, that I imagine that God hath thereby laid a bait for the Arabians, that we may be avenged on them ; for their present invasion proceeds more from our accidental misfortunes, than that they have any great de pendence on their weapons, or their own fitness for action. Now that hope which depends not on men's own power, but on other's ill success, is a very ticklish thing; for there is no certainty among men, either in their bad or good fortunes ; but we may easily observe, that fortune is mutable, and goes from one side to another; and this you may readily learn from examples among ourselves, for when you were once victors in the former fight, your enemies overcame you at last ; and very likely it will now happen so, that those who think themselves sure of beating you will themselves be beaten. For, when men are very confident, they are not upon their guard, while fear teaches men to act with caution ; insomuch, that I venture to prove from your very timorousness, that you ought to take courage ; for when you were more bold than you ought to have been, and than I would have had you, and marched on, Athenio's treachery took place ; but your present slowness and seeming dejection of mind is to me a pledge and assurance of victory. And indeed, it is proper beforehand to be thus provident; but when we come to action, ve ought to erect our minds, and make our enemies, be they ever so wicked, believe, that neither any human, no, nor any providential misfortune, can ever depress the courage of the Jews while they are alive : nor will any of ibem ever overlook an Arabian, or suffer such a one to become lord of his good things, whom he has in a manner taken captive, and that many times also. And do not you disturb yourselves at the quaking of inanimate creatures, nor do you imagine that this earthquake is another sign of another calamity ; for such affections of the elements are according to the course of nature, nor does it import any thing farther to men, than what mischief it does immediately of itself. Perhaps there may come some short sign beforehand in the case of pestilences, and famines, and earthquakes; but these calamities themselves have their force limited by themselves, (without foreboding any other calamity. And indeed, what greater mischief can the war, though it should be a violent one, do to us, than the earthquake hath done? Nay, there is a signal of our enemies destruction visible, and that a very great one also ; and this is not a natural one, nor derived from the hand of foreigners neither, but it is this, that they have barbarously murdered our ambassadors, contrary to the common law of mankind ; and they have destroyed so many, as if they esteemed them sacrifices for God, in relation to this war. But they will not avoid his great eye, nor bis invincible right hand ; and we shall be revenged of them presently, in case we still retain any of the courage of our forefathers, and rise up boldly to punish these covenant breakers. Let every one, therefore, go on and fight, not so much for his wife or his children, or for the danger his country is in, as for these ambassadors of ours ; those dead ambassadors will conduct this war of ours better than we ourselves who are alive. And, if you will be ruled by me, I will myself go before you into danger; for you know this well enough, that your courage is irresistible, un. less you hurt yourselves by acting rashly."*

. This speech of Herod is set down twice by Josephus here, and Antiq. B. v. ch 8. $ 3. to the very same purpose, but by no means in the same words; whence it appears, that the sense was Herod's, but the composition Josephus's.

5. When Herod had encouraged them by this speech, and he saw with what alacrity they went, he offered sacrifice to God; and after that sacrifice he passed over the river Jordan with his army, and pitched his camp about Philadelphia, near the enemy, and about a fortification that lay between them. He then shot at them at a distance, and was desirous to come to an engagement presently; for some of them had been sent beforehand to seize upon that fortification : but the king sent some who immediately beat them out of the fortification, while he himself went in the forefront of the army, which he put in battle array every day, and invited the Arabians to fight. But as none of them came out of their camp, for they were in a terrible fright, and their general, Elthemus, was not able to say a word for fear; so Herod came upon them, and pulled their fortification to pieces, by which means they were compelled to come out to fight, which they did in disorder, so that the horsemen and footmen were mixed together. They were indeed superior to the Jews in number, but inferior in their alacrity, although they were obliged to expose themselves to danger by the very despair of the victory.

6. Now while they made opposition, they had not a great number slain ; but as soon as they turned their backs a great many were trodden to pieces by the Jews, and a great many by themselves, and so perished, till five thousand were fallen down dead in their flight, while the rest of the multitude prevented their immediate death, by crowding into the fortifications. Herod encompassed these around, and besieged them; and while they were ready to be taken by their enemies in arms, they had another additional distress upon them, which was thirst and want of water; for the king was above hearkening to their ambassadors, and when they offered five hundred talents as the price of their redemption, he pressed still harder upon them. And as they were burnt up by their thirst, they came up and voluntarily delivered themselves up by multitudes to the Jews, till in five days time, four thousand of them were put into bonds; and on the sixth day the multitude that were left despaired of saving themselves, and came out to fight ; with these Herod fought, and slew again about seven thousand, insomuch, that he punished Arabia so severely, and so far extinguished the spirits of the men, that he was chosen by the nation for their ruler.

Yol. V.

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CHAP. XX. Herod is confirmed in his kingdom by Caesar, and cultivates

u friendship with the emperor by magnificent presents ; while Caesar returns his kindness by bestowing upon him that part of his kingdom which had been taken away from it by Cleopatra, with the addition of Zenodorus's country also.

8 1. Now Herod was under an immediate concern about a most important affair, on account of his friendship with Antony, who was already overcome at Actium by Caesar; yet he was more afraid than hurt; for Caesar did not think he had quite undone Antony, while Herod continued his as. sistance to him. However, the king resolved to expose him. self to dangers : accordingly, he sailed to Rhodes, where Caesar then abode, and came to him without his diadem, and in the habit and appearance of a private person, but in his behaviour as a king. So he concealed nothing of the truth, but spake thus before his face ; “ O Caesar, as I was made king of the Jews by Antony, so do I profess that I have used my royal authority in the best manner, and entirely for his advantage ; nor will I conceal this farther, that thou hadst certainly found me in arms, and an inseparable companion of his, had not the Arabians hindered me. However, I sent him as many auxiliaries as I was able, and as many ten thousand (cori] of corn. Nay, indeed, I did not desert my benefactor after the blow that was given him at Actium ; but I gave him the best advice I was able, when I was no longer able to assist him in the war ; and I told him, that there was but one way of recovering his affairs, and that was to kill Cleopatra, and I promised him, that if she were ence dead, I would afford him money and walls for his security, with an army and myself to assist him in the war against thee ; but his affections for Cleopatra stopped his ears, as did God himself also, who hath bestowed the government on thee. I own myself also to be overcome together with him, and with this last fortune I have laid aside my diadem, and am come hither to thee, having my hopes of safety in thy virtue ; and I desire that thou wilt first consider how faithful a friend, and not whose friend I have been."

2. Caesar replied to him thus : 6 Nay, thou shalt not only be in safety, but shalt be a king, and that more firmly than thou wert before ; for thou art worthy to reign over a great

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