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many subjects, by reason of the fastness of thy friendship :and do thou endeavour to be equally constant in thy friendship to me, upon my good success, which is what I depend upon from the generosity of thy disposition. However, Antony hath done well in preferring Cleopatra to thee; for by this means we have gained thee by her madness, and thus thou hast begun to be my friend before I began to be thine ; on which account Quintus Dedius hath written to me, that thou sentest him assistance against the gladiators. I do, therefore, assure thee, that I will confirm the kingdom to thee by decree; I shall also endeavour to do thee some further kindness hereafter, that thou mayest find no loss in the want of Antony."

3. When Caesar had spoken such obliging things to the king, and had put the diadem again about his head, he proclaimed what he had bestowed on him, by a decree, in which he enlarged in the commendation of the man after a magnificent manner. Whereupon Herod obliged him to be kind to him by the presents he gave him, and he desired him to forgive Alexander, one of Antony's friends, who was become a supplicant to him. But Caesar's anger against him prevailed, and he complained of the many and very great offences the man, whom he petitioned for, had been guilty of; and .by what means he rejected his petition. After this, Caesar went for Egypt through Syria, when Herod received him with royal and rich entertainments; and then did he first of all ride along with Caesar, as he was reviewing his army about Ptolemajs, and feasted him, with all his friends, and then distributed among the rest of the army what was necessary to feast them withall. He also made a plentiful provision of water for them, when they were to march as far as Pelusium through a dry country, which he did also in like manner at their return thence: nor were there any necessaries wanting to that army. It was, therefore, the opinion both of Caesar and of his soldiers, that Herod's kingdom was too small for those generous presents he made them ; for which reason, when Caesar was come into Egypt, and Cleopatra and Antony were dead, he did not only ben stow other marks of honour upon him, but made an addition to his kingdom, by giving him, not only the country which had been taken from him by Cleopatra, hut besides that, Gadara, and Hippos, and Samaria ; and moreover, of the mari

time cities, * Gaza, and Anthedon, and Joppa, and Strato's Tower. He also made him a present of four hundred Gauls Gallatians) as a guard for his body, which they had been to Cleopatra before. Nor did any thing so strongly induce Caesar to make these presents, as the generosity of him that received them.

4. Moreover, after the first games at Actium, he added to his kingdom both the region called Trachonitis, and what lay in its neighbourhood, Batanea, and the country of Auranitis ; and that on the following occasion : Zenodorus, who had hired the house of Lysanias, had all along sent rob. bers out of Trachonitis, among the Damascens; who thercupon had recourse to Varro, the president of Syria, and desired of him that he would represent the calumny they were in to Caesar : when Caesar was acquainted with it, he sent back orders, that this nest of robbers should be destroyed. Varro, therefore, made an expedition against them, and eleared the land of those men, and took it away from Zenodorus. Caesar did also afterward bestow it on Herod, that it might not again become a receptacle for those robbers that had come against Damascus. He also made him a procurator of all Sýria, and this on the tenth year afterward, when he came again into that province; and this was so established, that the other procurators could not do any thing in the ad.' ministration without his advice ; but when Zenodorus was dead, Caesar bestowed on him all that land which lay between Trachonitis and Galilee. Yet what was still more of consequence to Herod, be was beloved by Caesar next after Agrippa, and by Agrippa next after Caesar ; whence he arrived at a very great degree of felicity. Yet did the greatness of his soul exceed it, and the main part of his magnanimity was extended to the promotion of piety.

* Since Josephus, both here, and in his Antiq. B. xv. chap, vii. 9. reckons Gaza, which had been a free city, among the cities given Herod by Augustus, and yet inplies that Herod had made Costobarus a governor of it before, Antiq. B. xv, chap. vii. $ 9. Harduin has some pretence for saying, that Josephus here contradicted himself. But, perhaps Herod thought he had sufficient authority to put a governor into Gaza, after he was made tetrarch, or king, in times of war, before the city was . entirely delivered into his hands by Augnstus.

CHAP. XXI. of the (temple and] cities that were built by Herod, and erect

ed from the very foundations ; as also of those other edi. : fices that were erected by him: and what magnificence he

showed to foreigners; and how fortune was in all things favourable to him..

, 1. ACCORDINGLY, in the sixteenth year of his reign, Herod rebuilt the temple, and encompassed a piece of land about it with a wall, which land was twice as large as that before enclosed. The expenses he laid out upon it were vastly large also, and the riches about it were unspeakable. A sign of which you have in the great cloisters that were erected about the temple, and * the citadel which was on the north side. The cloisters he built from the foundation, but the citadel he repaired at a vast expense ; nor was it other than a royal palace, which he called Antonia, in honour of Antony. He also built himself a palace in the upper city, containing two very large and most beautiful apartments. To which the holy-house itself could not be compared fin largeness. The one apartment he named Caesareum, and the other Agrippium, from his (two great] friends.

2. Yet did he not preserve their memory hy particular buildings only, with their names given them, but his generosity went as far as entire cities ; for when he had built a most beautiful wall round a country in Samaria, twenty furlongs long, and had brought six thousand inhabitants into it, and had allotted to it a most fruitful piece of land, and in the midst of this city, thus built, had erected a very large tem ple to Caesar, and had laid round about it a portion of sa. cred land of three furlongs and a half, he called the city Sebaste, from Sebastus, or Augustus, and settledthe affairs of the city after a most regular manner.

* This fort was built, as it is supposed, by John Hyrcanus. See Prid. at the year 2/7, and called Baris, the Tower or citadel. It was afterwards rebuilt, with great improvements, by Herod, under the government of Antonius, and was named from him the Tower of Antonia ; and about the time when Herod rebuilt the temple, he seems to have put his last band to it. See Antiq. B. xviii. ch. v.

4. Of the war, B. i. ch. iii. $ 3. and ch.“v. i 4. It lay on the north we:t side of the temple, and was a quarter as large.

3. And when Caesar had further bestowed upon him another additional country, he built there also a temple, of white marble, hard by the fountains of Jordan; the place is called Panium, where is a top of a mountain that is raised to an immense height, and at its side, beneath, or at its. bottom, a dark cave opens itself; within which there is an horrible precipice, that descends abruptly to a vast depth; it contains a mighty quantity of water, which is immoveable; and when any body lets down any thing to measure the depth of the earth beneath the water, no length of cord is sufficient to reach it. Now the fountains of Jordan rise at the roots of this cavity outwardly; and, as some think, .. it is the utmost origin of Jordan : but we shall speak of that matter more accurately in our following history.

4. But the king erected other palaces at Jericho also, between the citadel Cypros and the former palace, such as were better and more useful than the former for travellers, and named them from the same friends of his. To say all at once, there was not any place of his kingdom fit for the purpose that was permitted to be without somewhat that was for Caesar's honour; and when he had filled his own country with temples, he poured out the like plentiful marks of his esteem into his province, and built many cities, which he called Caesareas.

5. And when he observed that there was a city by the sea-side, that was much decayed, (its name was Strato's Tower,) but that the place, by the happiness of its situation, was capable of great improvements from his liberality, he rebuilt it all with white stone, and adorned it with several most splendid palaces, wherein he especially demonstrated his magnanimity; for the case was this, that all the sea. shore between Dora and Joppa, in the middle between which this city is situated, had no good haven, insomuch, that every one that sailed from Phoenicia for Egypt wás obliged to lie in the stormy sea, by reason of the south pinds that threatened them; which winds, if it blew but a little fresh, such vast waves are raised, and dash upon the rocks, that upon their retreat the sea is in a great ferment for a long way. But the king, by the expenses he was at, and the liberal disposal of them, overcame nature, and built an haven larger than was the Pyreeum * [at Athens ;] and in the in

*. That Josephus speaks truth, when he assures us, that " the haven of this Caesarea was made by Herod not less, nay, rather larger

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ner retirements of the water he built other deep, station [for the ships also.]

6. Now, although the place where he built was greatly opposite to his purposes, yet did he so fully struggle with that difficulty, that the firmness of his building could not easily be conquered by the sea; and the beauty and ornament of the works was such as though he had not had any difficulty in the operation : for when he had measured out as large a space as we have before mentioned, he let down stones in twenty fathom water, the greatest part of which were fifty feet in length, and nine in depth, and ten in breadth, and some still larger. But when the haven was filled up to that depth, he enlarged that wall which was thus already extant above the seå, till it was two hundred feet wide; one hundred of which had buildings before it, in order to break the force of the waves, whence it was called Procumatia, or the first breaker of the waves; but the rest of the space was under a stone wall that ran round it. On this wall were very large towers, the principal and most beautiful of which was called Drusium from Diusus, who was son-in-law to Caesar.

7. There was also a great number of arches where the mariners dwelt; and all the places before them round about was a large valley, or walk, for a key (or landing place to those that came on shore; but the entrance was on the north, because the north wind was there the most gentle of all the winds. At the mouth of the haven were on each side three great Colossi, supported by pillars, where those Colossi that are on your left hand, as you sail into the port, are supported by a solid tower, but those on the right hand are supported by two upright stones joined together, which stones were larger than that tower which was on the other side of the entrance. Now there were continual edifices joined to the haven, which were also themselves of white stone; and to this haven did the narrow streets of the city lead, and were built at equal distances one from another. And over against the mouth of the haven, upon an elevation, there was a temple for Caesar, which was excellent, both in beauthan that famous baven at Athens, called the Pyreeum,” will appear, says Dean Aldrich, to him who compares the descriptions of that at Athens in Thucydides and Pausanias, with this of Caesarea in Josephus here, and in the Antiq. B. xv. ch. ix. 8 6. and B. xxii, ch, ix. 8 1.

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