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6. To write concerning the Antiquities of the Jews, who they were (originally,) and how they revolted from the Egyptians, and what country they travelled over, and what country they seized upon afterward, and how they were removed out of them, I think this not to be a fit opportunity, and on other accounts also superfluous ; and this because many Jews before me have composed the histories of our ancestors very exactly ; as have some of the Greeks done it also, and have translated our histories into their own tongue, and have not much mistaken the truth in their histories. But then, where the writers of these affairs, and our prophets, leave off, thence shall I take my rise, and begin my history. Now as to what concerns that war which happened in my own time, I will go over it very largely, and with all the diligence I am able ; but for what preceded mine own age, that I shall run over briefly.

7. (For example. I shall relate, 1 how Antiochus, who was named Epiphanes, took Jerusalem by force, and held it three years and three months, and was then ejected out of the country by the sons of Asamoneus ; after that, how their posterity quarrelled about the government, and brought upon their settlement the Romans and Pompey ; how Herod also, the son of Antipater, dissolved their government, and brought Sosius upon them; as also how our people made a sedition upon Herod's death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quintilius Varus was in that country ; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what happened to Cestius ; and what places the Jews assaulted in an hostile manner in the first sallies of the war.

8. As also, II shall relate] how they built walls about the neighbouring cities; and how Nero, upon Cestius's defeat, was in fear of the entire event of the war, and thereupon made Vespasian general in this war; and how this Vespasian, with the elder * of his sons, made an expedition into the country of Judea; what was the number of the Roman army that he made use of; and how many of the auxiliaries were cut off in all Galilee ; and how he took some of its cities entirely, and by force, and others of them by treaty, and on terms. Now when I am come so far, I shall describe the good order of the Romans in war, and the discipline of their legions ; the amplitude of both the Galilees, with its nature, and the

* Titus.

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limits of Judea. And besides this, I shall particularly go over what is peculiar to the country, the lakes and fountains that are in them, and what miseries happened to every city as they were taken ; and all this with accuracy, as I saw the things done, or suffered in them. For I shall not conceal any of the calamities I myself endured, since I shall relate them to such as know the truth of them.

9. After this, I shall relate] how, when the Jews' affairs were become very bad, Nero died, and Vespasian, when he was going to attack Jerusalem, was called back to take the government upon him ; what signs happened to him relatingto his gaining that government, and what mutations of government then happened at Rome, and how he was unwillingly made emperor by his soldiers, and how upon his departure to Egypt to take upon him the government of the empire, the affairs of the Jews became very tumultuous; as also how the tyrants rose up against them, and fell into dissensions amongst themselves.

10. Moreover, [I shall relate] how Titus marched out of Egypt into Judea the second time; as also how, and where, and how many forces he got together; and in what state the city was by the means of the seditious at his coming; what attack he made, and how many ramparts he cast up, of the three walls that encompassed the city, and of their measures ; of the strength of the city, and the structure of the temple, and holy house ; and besides, the measures of chose edifices, and of the altar, and all accurately determin. ed. A description also of certain of their festivals, and * seven purifications of purity, and the sacred ministrations of the priests, with the garments of the priests, and of the highpriests; and of the nature of the most holy place of the temple, without concealing any thing, or adding any thing to the known truth of things.

11. After this, I shall relate the barbarity of the tyrants towards the people of their own nation, as well as the indulgence of the Romans in sparing foreigners ; and how of. ten Titus, out of his desire to preserve the city and the temple, invited the seditious to come to terms of accommodation. I shall distinguish also the sufferings of the people,

* These seven, or rather five, degrees of purity, or purification, are numerated hereafter. B, v. ch. v. $ 6. The Rabbins make ten magrecs of them, as Reland there informs us.

and their calamities ; how far they were afficted by the sedition, and how far by the famine, and at length were taken. Nor shall I omit to mention the misfortunes of the deseriers, nor the punishments inflicted on the captives; as alSo, how the temple was burnt, against the consent of Cæsar, and how many sacred things that had been laid up in the temple were snatched out of the fire ; the destruction also of the entire city, with the signs and wonders that went before it; and the taking the tyrants captives, and the multitude of those that were made slaves, and into what different misfortunes they were every one distributed. Moreover, what the Romans did to the remains of the war; and how they demolished the strong holds that were in the country ; and how Titus went over the whole country, and settled its affairs ; together with his return into Italy, and his triumph.

12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books; and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves [with fictitious relations. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter.

CONTAINING AN INTERVAL OF 167 YEARS.

From the taking of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes, to the

death of Herod the Great.]

CHAP. I. How the city Jerusalem was taken, and the temple pillaged

[by Antiochus Epiphanes.] And also concerning the actions of the Maccabees, Matthias, Judas; and concerning the death of Judas.

$ 1. Ar the same time that Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, had a quarrel with the sixth Ptolemy about bis right to the whole country of Syria, a great sedition fell among the men of power in Judea, and they had a conten: tion about obtaining the government ; while each of those that were of dignity could not endure to be subject to their equals. However, Onias, one of the high-priests, got the better, and cast the sons of Tobias out of the city; who fled to Antiochus, and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea The king, being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favoured Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. But Onias the high-priest fled to Ptolemy, and received a place from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling Jerusalem, and a temple that was like * its temple; concerning which we shall speak more in the proper place hereafter.

* I see little difference in the several accounts in Josephus about the Egyptian temple Onion, of which large complaints are made by his commentators. Onias, it seems, hoped to have made it very like that at Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions; and so he appears to have really done, as far as he was able, and thought proper of this temple, see Antiq. B. xiü. ch. iii g 1, 2, 3. and of the War, B. vii. ch. X. $ 3.

2. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there ; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suvered during the siege, he compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their infants uncircm.icised, and to sacrifice swine's flesh upon the altar; vinst which they all opposed themselves, and the most anpid ong them were put to death. Bacchides also, who 1 13 sent to keep the fortresses, having these wicked communi's joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts i the extremest wickedness, and tormented the vorthiase of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened the cier every day with open destruction; tili at length he provoked the poor sufferers by the extremity of his wicked coins to avence themselves.

3. Accordingly Maidias, the son of Asamoneus, one of the priests, who lived at a village called Modin, armed himself, together with his own family, which had five of his sons in it, and siew Bacchides with da gers; and thereupon, out of the fear of the many garrisons of the enemy, he fled to the mountains; and so many of the people followed him, that he was encouraged to come down from the mountains, and to give battle to Antiochus's generals; when he beat them, and drove them out of Judea. So he came to the government by his success, and became the prince of his own people by their own free consent, and then died, leaving the government to Judas, his eldest son.

4. Now Judas, supposing that Antiochus would not lie still, gathered an army out of his own countrymen, and was the first who made a league of friendship with the Romans, and drove Epiphanes out of the country when he had made a second expedition into it, and this by giving him a great defeat there; and when he was warmed by this great success, he made an assault upon the garrison that was in the city, for it had not been cut off hitherto; so he ejected them out of the upper city, and drove the soldiers into the lower, which part of the city was called the Citadel. He then got the temple under his power, and cleansed the whole place, and walled it round about, and made new vessels for sacred ministrations, and brought them into the temple, because the former vessels had been profaned. He also built another altar, and began to offer sacrifices; and when the city had already received its sacred constitution again, Antiochus

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