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him good-will on account of their kindred: he also gave him a secret injunction, that if Antony slew him, he would slay her. But Joseph without any ill design, and only in order to demonstrate the king's love to his wife, how he could not bear to think of being separated from her, even by death itself, he discovered this grand secret to her; upon which, when Herod was come back, and as they talked together, confirmed his love to her by many oaths, and assured her that he had never such an affection for any other woman as he had for her. "* Yes, says she, thou didst, to be sure, demonstrate thy love to me by the injunctions thou gavest Joseph, when thou commandest him to kill me."

5. When he heard this grand secret was discovered, he was like a distracted man, and said, that Joseph would never have disclosed that injunction of his unless he had debauched her. His passion also made him stark mad, and leaping out of his bed, he ran about the palace after a wild manner ; at which time his sister Salome took the opportunity also to blast her reputation, and confirmed his suspicion about Joseph; whereupon, out of his ungovernable jealousy and rage, he commanded both of them to be slain immediately; but as soon as ever his passion was over he repented of what he had done, and as soon as his anger was worn off, his affections were kindled again. And indeed the flame of his desires for her was so ardent, that he could not thịnk she was dead, but would now appear, under bis disorders, to speak to her as if she were still alive, till he were better instructed by time, when his grief and trouble, now she was dead, appeared as great as his affection had been for her while she was living.


CHAP. XXIII. Calumnies against the sons of Marianne. Antipater is pre

ferred before them. They are accused before Caesar, and Herod is reconciled to them.

8 1. Now Mariamne's sons were heirs to that hatred which had been borne their mother; and when they con

• * Here is either a defect, or a great mistake in Josephus's present copies, or memory, for Mariamne did not now reproach Herod with This his first injunction to Joseph to kill her, if he himself were slain by

Pol. v.

sidered the greatness of Herod's crime towards her, they were suspicious of him, as of an enemy of theirs; and this first while they were educated at Romne, but still more when they were returned to Judea. This temper of theirs increased upon them, as they grew up to be men; and wher they were come to an age fit for marriage, the one of them married their aunt Salome's daughter, which Salome had been the accuser of their mother ; the other married the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia. And now they used boldness-in speaking, as well as bore hatred in their ininds. Now those that calumniated them took a handle from such their boldness, and certain of them spake now more plainly to the king that there were treacherous designs laid against him by both his sons; and he that was sonin-law to Archelaus, relying upon his father-in-law, was preparing to fly away, in order to accuse Herod before Caesar; and when Herod's head had been long enough filled with these calumnies, he brougbt Antipater, whom he had by Doris, into favour again, as a defence to him against his other sons, and began all the ways he possibly could to prefer him before them.

2. But these sons were not able to bear tbis change in their affairs; but when they saw him that was born of a mether of no family, the nobility of their birth made them unable to contain thefr indignation; but whensoever they were uneasy, they showed the anger they had at it. And as these sons did day after day improve in that their anger, Antipater already exercised all his own abilities, which were very great, in flattering his father, and in contriving many sorts of calumnies against his brethren, while he told some stories of them himself, and put it upon other proper persons to raise other stories against them, till at length he entirely cut his brethren off from all hopes of suceeeding to the kingdom; for he was already publicly put in his father's will as his successor. Accordingly, he was sent with royal ornaments, and other marks of royalty, to Caesar, excepting the diadem. He was also able in time to introduce his mother again into Mariamne's bed. The two sorts of weapons he made use of against bis brethren, were flattery and calumpy, whereby Antony, but that he had given the like command a second time to Soemus also, when he was afraid of being slain by Augustus, Ant. B. xv. ch. iii. $ 6.

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he brought things privately to such a pass that the king had thoughts of putting his sons to death : 3. So the father drew Alexander as far as Rome, and charged him with an attempt of poisoning him before Caesar. Alexander could hardly speak for lamentation, but having a judge that was more skilful than Antipater, and more wise than Herod, he modestly avoided laying any imputation upon his father, but with great strength of reason confuted the calumnies laid against him: and when he had demonstrated the innocency of his brother, who was in the like danger with himself, he at last bewajled the craftiness of Antipater, and the disgrace they were under. He was enabled also to justify himself, not only by a clear conscience, which he carried within him, but by his eloquence ; for he was a shrewd man in making speeches. And upon his saying at last, that if his father objected this crime to them, it was in his power to put them to death, he made all the audience weep ;. and he brought Caesar to that pass, as to reject the accusations, and to reconcile their father to them immediately. But the conditions of this reconciliation were these, that they should in all things be obedient to their father, and that he should have power to leave the kingdom to which of them he pleased.

4. After this the king came back from Rome, and seemed to have forgiven his sons upon these accusations : but still so, that he was not without his suspicions of them, They were followed by Antipater, who was the fountainhead of those accusations; yet did not he openly discover bis hatred to them, as revering him that had reconciled them. But as Herod sailed by Cicilia, he touched at * Eleu. sa, where Archelaus treated them in the most obliging man. ner, and gave him thanks for the deliverance of his son-infaw, and was much pleased at their reconciliation; and this the more, because he had formerly written to his friends at Rome, that they should be assisting to Alexander at his trial. So be conducted Herod as far as Zephyrium, and made him presents to the value of thirty talents.

* That this island Eleusa, afterward called Sebaste, near Cicilia, had in it the royal palace of this Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, Strabo testifies, B. xv. page 671. Stephanus of Byzantium also calls it, “An island of Cicilia, which is now Sebaste;" both those testimonies, are pertinently cited here by Dr. Hudson. See the same history, Antiq, B. xvi. ch. x. $7.

5. Now when Herod was come to Jerusalem, he gathered the people together, and presented to them his three sons, and gave to them an apologetic account of his absence, and thanked God greatly, and thanked Caesar greatJy also for settling his house when it was under disturbances, and had procured concord among his sons, which was of greater consequence than the kingdom itself, and which I will render still more firm ; for Caesar hath put into my power to dispose of the government, and to appoint my successor. Accordingly, in way of requital for his kindness, and in order to provide for mine own advantage, I do declare, that these three sons of mine shall be kings. And in the first place, I pray for the approbation of God to what I am about; and, in the next place, desire your approbation also. The age of one of them, and the nobility of the other two, shall procure the succession. Nay, indeed, my kingdom is so large that it may be sufficient for more kings. Now do you keep those in their places whom Caesar hath joined, and their father hath appointed ; and do not you pay undue or unequal respects to them, but to every one according to the prerogative of their birth; for he that pays such resa pects unduly, will thereby not make him that is honoured beyond what his age requires, so joyful, as he will make him that is dishonoured sorrowful. As for the kindred and iviends that are to converse with them, I will appoint them to each of them, and will so constitute them that they may be securities for their concord; as well knowing that the ill tempers of those with whom they converse, will produce quarrels, and contentions among them, but that, if these with whom they converse be of good tempers, they will preserve their natural affections for one another. But still I desire, that not these only, but all the captains of my armny, have for the present their hopes plaeed on me alone ; for I do not give away my kingdom to these my sons, but give them royal honours only; whereby it will come to pass, that they will enjoy the sweet parts of government as rulers themselves, but that the burden of administration will rest upon myself whether I will or not. And let every one consider what age I am of, how I have conducted my life, and what piety I have exercised ; for my age, is not so great that men may soon expect the end of my life; nor have I indulged such a luxurious way of living, as cuts off men when they are young: and we have been so religious ton wards, God, that we have freason to hope wel may arrive at a very great age. But for such as cultivate a friendship with my sons, so as to aim at my destruction, they shall be punished by me on their account. I am not one wlio envy my own children, and therefore forbid men to pay them great respect ; but I know that such extravagant] respects are the way to make them insolent. And if every one that comes near them does but revolve this in his mind, that if he prove a good man, he shall receive a reward from me, but that is he proves seditious, his ill intended complaisance shall get him nothing from him to whom it is shown, I suppose they will all be of my side, that is, of my sons side ; for it will be for their advantage that I reign, and that I beat concord with them. But do you, O my children, reflect upon the holiness of nature itself, by whose means natural affection is preserved, even among the wild beasts ; in the next place, reflect upon Caesar, who hath made this reconciliation among us; and, in the third place, reflect upon me, who intreat you to do what I have power to command you, continue brethren. I give you royal garments, and royal honours ; and I pray to God to preserve what I have determined, in case you be at concord one with another." When the king had thus spoken, and had saluted every one of his sons after an obliging manner, he dismissed the multitude; some of which gave their assent to what he had said, and wished it might take effect accordingly, but for those who wished for a change of affairs, they pretended they did not so much as hear what he said.

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CHAP. XXIV. The malice of Antiputer and Doris. Alexander is very un

easy on Glaphyru's account. Herod pardons Pherorus, whom he suspected, and Salome, whom he knew to make mischief among them. Herad's eunuch's are tortured, and Alexander is bound.

8 1. But now the quarrel that was between them still accompanied these brethren when they parted, and the'sus. picions they had one of the other grew worse. Alexander and Aristobulus were much grieved that the privilege of the first-born was confirmed to Antipater; as was Antipater very angry at his brethren, that they were to succeed him. But

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