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then this last being of a disposition that was mutable and polite, he knew how to hold his tongue, and used a great deal of cunning, and thereby concealed the hatred he bore to them; while the former, depending on the nobility of their births, had every thing upon their tongues which was in their minds. Many also there were who provoked them farther, and many of their (seeming) friends insinuated themselves into their acquaintance, to spy out what they did. Now every thing that was said by Alexander was presently brought to Antipater, and from Antipater it was brought to Herod, with additions. Nor could the young man say auy thing, in the simplicity of his heart, without giving offence, but what he said was still turned to calúmny against him. And if he had been at any time a little free in his conversation, great imputations were forged from the smallest occasions. : Antipater also was perpetually 'setting some to provoke him to speak, that the lies he raised of him might seem to have some foundation of truth; and if, among the many stories that were given out, but one of them should be prored true, that was supposed to imply the rest to be true also. And as to Antipater's friends, they were all either naturally so cautious in speaking, or had been so far bribed to contain their thoughts, that nothing of these grand secrets got abroad by their means. Nor should one be mistaken if le called the life of Antipater a mystery of wickedness; for he either corrupted Alexander's acquaintance with money, or got into their favour by flatteries; by which two means he gained all his designs, and brought them to betray their master, and to steal away, and reveal what he either did or said. Thus did he act a part very cunningly in all points, and wrought himself a passage by his calumnies with the greatest shrewdness; while he put on a face as if he were a kind brother to Alexander and Aristobolus, but suborned other men to inform of what they did to Herod. And when any thing was told against Alexander, he would come in, aud pretend to be of his side,] and would begin to contradict what was said; but would afterward contrive matters so privately, that the king should have an indignation at hin His general aim was this, to lay a plot, and to make it be lieved that Alexander lay in wait to kill his father; for nothing afforded so great a confirmation to these calumnies as did Antipater's apologies for him.
2. By these methods Herod was inflamed, and as much
as his natural affection to the young men did every day diminish, so much did it increase towards Antipater. The courtiers also inclined to the same conduct, some of their own accord, and others by the king's injunction, as particularly did Ptolemy, the king's dearest friend, as also the king's brethren, and all his children; for Antipater was all in all; and what was the bitterest part of all to Alexander, Antipater's mother was also all in all; she was one that gave counsel against them, and was more harsh than a stepmother, and one that hated the queen's sons more than is usual to hate sons-in-law. All men did therefore already pay their respects to Antipater, in hopes of advantage; and it was the king's command which alienated every body [from the brethren, he having given this charge to his most intimate friends, that they should not come near, nor pay any regard to Alexan. der, or to his friends. Herod was also become terrible, not only to his domestics about the court, but to his friends abroad $ for Caesar had given such a privilege to no other king as he had given to him, which was this, that he might fetch back any one that fled from him, even out of a city that was not under his own jurisdietion. Now the young men were not acquainted with the calumnies raised against them; for which reason they could not guard themselves against them, but felt under them ; for their father did not make any public complaints against either of them: though in a little time they perceived how things were, by his coldness to them, and by the great uneasiness he showed upon any thing that troubled him... Antipater had also made their uncle Pheroras to be their enemy, as well as their aunt Salome, while he was always talking with her, as with a wife, and irritating her against them. Moreover, Alexander's wife, Glaphyra, augmented this hatred against them, by deriving her nobility and genealogy, [from great persons,] and pretending that she was a lady superior to all others in that kingdom, as being derived by her father's side from Tema neus, and by her mother's side from Darius, the son of Hys. taspes. She also frequently reproached Herod's sister, and wives, with the ignobility of their descent; and that they were every one chosen by him for their beauty, but not for their family. Now those wives of his were not a few; it being of old permitted to the Jews to * marry many wives;
* That it was an immemorial custom among the Jews, and their forefathers, the Patriarchs, to have sometimes more wives, or wives
and this king delighting in many, all which hated Alexander, en account of Glaphyra's boasting and reproaches. · 3. Nay, Aristobulus had raised a quarrel between himself and Salome, who was his mother-in-law, besides the anger he had conceived at Glaphyra's reproaches ; for he perpe. tually upbraided his wife with the meanness of her famiand complained, that as he had married a woman of a loir family, so had his brother Alexander married one of royal blood. At this Salome's daughter wept, and told it her, with this addition, that Alexander threatened the mothers of his other brethren, that when he should come to the crown, he would make them weave with their maidens, and would make those brothers of his country schoolmasters, and brake this jest upon them, that they had been very carefully instructed to fit them for such an employment. Hereupon Salome could not contain her anger, but told all to Herod : nor could her testimony be suspected, since it was against her own son-in-law. There was also another calummy that ran abroad, and inflamed the king's mind, for he heard that these sons of his were perpetually speaking of their mother, and, among their lamentations for her, did not abstain from cursing him; and that when he made presents of any of Mariamne's garments to his latter wives, these threatened, that in a little time, instead of royal garments, they would clothe them in no better than hair-cloth.
4. Now upon these accounts, though Herod was somewhat afraid of the young mens high spirits, yet did he not despair of reducing them to a better mind; but before he went to Rome, whither he was now going by sea, he called them to him, and partly threatened them a little, as a king; but for the main, he admonished them as a father, and exhorted them to love their brethren, and told them, that he would pardon their former offences if they would amend for the time to come. But they refuted the calumnies that had been raised of them, and said they were false, and alleged, that and concubines, than one at the same time, and that this polygamy was not directly forbidden in the law of Moses, is evident; but that polygamy was ever properly and distinctly permitted in that law of Moses, in the places here cited by Dean Aldrich, Deut. xvii. 16, 17, or xxi. 15, or indeed any where else, does not appear to me. And what our Saviour says about the common Jewish divorces, which may lay much greater claim to such a permission than polygamy, seems to me true in this case also: that Moses for the hardness of their hearts suffered them to have several wives at the same time, but that from the beginning it was not so, Matt. xix. 8. Mark, s. 5.'
their actions were sufficient for their vindication; and said withall, that he himself ought to shut his ears against such tales, and not be too easy in believing them, for that there would never be wanting those that would tell lies to their disadvantage, as long as any would give ear to them.
5. When they had thus soon pacified him, as being their father, they got clear of the present fear they were in. Yet did they see occasion for sorrow in some time afterward; for they knew that Salome, as well as their uncle Pheroras, were their enemies ; who were both of them heavy and severe persons, and especially Pheroras, who was a partner with Herod in all the affairs of the kingdom, excepting his diadem. He had also an hundred talents of his own revenue, and enjoyed the advantage of all the land beyond Jordan, which he had received as a gift from bis brother, who had asked of Caesar to make him a tetrarch, as he was made aca cordingly. Herod had also given him a wife out of the royal family, who was no other than his own wife's sister, and after her death had solemnly espoused to him his own eldest daughter, with a dowry of three hundred · talents ; but Pheroras refused to consummate this royal marriage, out of his affection to a maid-servant of his. Upon which account Herod was very angry, and gave that daughter in marriage to a brother's son of his [Joseph, who was slain afterward by the Parthians; but in some time he laid aside, his anger against Pheroras, and pardoned him, as one not able to overcome his foolish, passion for the maid-servant.
6. Nay, Pheroras had been accused long before, while the queen (Mariamne) was alive, as if he were in a plot to poison Herod: and there came then so great a number of informers, that Herod himself, though he was an exceeding lover of his brethren, was brought to believe what was said, and to be afraid of it also : and when he had brought many of those that were under suspicion to the torture, he came at last to Pheroras's own friends; none of which did openly confess the crime, but they owned that he had made preparations to take her whom he loved, and run away to the Parthians. Costobarus also, the husband of Salome, to whom the king had given her in marriage after her former husband had been put to death for adultery, was instrumental in bringing about this contrivance, and flight of his. Nor did. Salome escape all calumny upon herself; for her brother Pheroras accused ber, that she had made an agreement to
marry Sylleus, the procurator of Obodas, king of Arabia, who was at bitter enmity with Herod ; but when she was convicted of this, and of all that Pheroras had accused her, she obtained her pardon. The king also pardoned Pheroras himself the crimes he had been accused of. • 7. But the storm of the whole family was removed to Alexander, and all of it rested upon his head. There were three eunuchs who were inthe highest esteemwith the king, as was plain by the offices they were in about him; for the one of them was appointed to be his butler, another of them got his supper ready for him, and the third put him into bed, and lay down by him. Now Alexander had prevailed with these men by large gifts, to let him use them after an obscene manner: which, when it was told to the king, they were tortured, and found guilty, and presently confessed the eriminal conversation he had with them. They also discovered the promises by which they were induced so to do, and how they were deluded by Alexander, who had told them, that “they ought not to fix their hopes upon Herod, an old man, and one so shameless as to colour his hair, unJess they thought that would make him young again ; but that they ought to fix their attention to him, who was to be his successor in the kingdom, whether he would or not; and who in no long time would avenge himself on his enemies, and make his friends happy and blessed, and themselves in the first place: that the men of power did already pay respects to Alexander privately, and that the captains of the soldiery, and the officers, did secretly come to him."
8. These confessions did so terrify Herod, that he durst pot immediately publish them; but he sent spies abroad prie vately by night and by day, who should make a close inquie ry after all that was done and said; and when any were but suspected [of treason,) he put them to death, insomuch that the palace was full of horribly unjust proceedings; for every body forged calumnies, as they were themselves in a state of enmity or hatred against others ; and many there were who abused the king's bloody passion to the disadvantage of those with whom they had quarrels, and lies were easily believed, and punishments were inflicted sooner than the calumnies were forged: he who had just been accusing another, was accused himself, and was led away to execution together with him whom he had convicted; for the danger the king was in of his life made examinations be very short. He also