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AFTERNOON SESSION. Dr. W. T. Harris, of Concord, Mass., delivered the Annual Address, on "The Necessity of Colleges to Supplement the High Schools."

The following resolution by Dr. Williams was adopted :

Resolved, That the thanks of this Association be extended to Dr. Harris for the very able, original and instructive discussion to which we have listened; and that we request a copy of this address for publication in the proceedings of the Association,

The following resolution by Dr. Scovel was also adopted :

Resolved, That a committee of five, with Dr. E. E. White as chairman, be appointed to continue the consideration of the relations of the institutions of secondary and higher education within our State, and to continue negotiations with the College Association of our State for co-operation in such adjustments as will bring the two nearer together and increase ihe number of educated men among us. This committee to report at our next meeting.

The committee consists of Dr. E. E. White and E. W. Coy, of Cincinnati; Abram Brown, of Columbus; W. P. Cope, of Hamilton, and M. S. Campbell, of Cleveland.

On motion of Dr. Williams, Dr. S. F. Scovel, of Wooster University, Dr. W. H. Scott, of Ohio State University, and Gen. John Eaton, of Marietta College, were added to this committee.

The committee on resolutions reported as follows:
Resolved, That the thanks of the Association be most heartily extended-

To the citizens of Sandusky for the cordial manner in which they have received us into their homes and to the hospitality of their beautiful city,

To the trustees of the Congregational Church for the use of their building in which to hold our sessions,

To the ministers of Sandusky who have officiated at the opening of our sessions,

To the Sandusky Quartette and the young ladies who have furnished such excellent vocal and instrumental music.

To the City Council and Board of Education for their liberal provision for our comfort and entertainment, –

To the committees on entertainment and reception for their untiring efforts to make our meeting a success.

ResolvedThat we most cordially and earnestly commend to the zealous co-operation and enthusiastic support of the superintendents, teachers, examiners and institute instructors of the State, the course of reading so wisely provided by the Board of Control of Ohio Teachers' Reading Circle, as the means best adapted to elevate the teachers' standard and promote professional excellence.

Resolved, That we rejoice at the hopeful status of the Albaugh Bill in our Legislature, and that we hereby pledge ourselves to exert every effort and use every reasonable influence to secure its early enactment, and thereby to engraft upon the school system of Ohio the important feature of township organization.

Resolved, That we thank Hon. N. H. Albaugh for his presence in this body, and for his able advocacy of the bill abolishing sub-district directors and making the township the elementary unit of our school system.

Resolved, That we request the Executive Committee to restrict papers road in the Association to 30 minutes, and that they instruct leaders and participants in the discussion of papers to make their efforts unwritten, and that we will heartily support the officers of the Association in their efforts to carry out these regulations.

Resolved, That we recognize with profound approbation and commend with fullest accord the very pronounced Christian sentiment and decided ethical bias characterizing alike the papers and discussions of this session.

Resolved. That while we bow reverently to the Divine Will as expressed in the removal from our fellowship of the late Dr. I. W. Andrews, we yet feel that. our Association has met with a loss which is irreparable, and that only as we follow his example of unselfish and constant work for the up-building of the race, are we living up to our God-given opportunities and privileges.

The report of the committee was adopted.
The following, presented by Dr. Burns, was unanimously adopted :

WHEREAS, Our honored friend and fellow-member of the Ohio Teachers' Association, Reuben McMillan, has served with eminent success for six years as chairman of the Executive Committee, and now at his own request is released from service;

Resolved, That we fully and thankfully appreciate Mr. McMillan's wise, unselfish and untiring efforts to promote in every way the good and the comtort of this Association, and that we salute him, as he steps down from among the officiary and resumes his place in the ranks, with a hearty well done, good and faithful!

The committee on nominations submitted their report, recommending the following officers for 1889 :

President-C. W. Bennett, Piqua.

Vice PresidentsW. J. White, Dayton ; F. Treudley, Youngstown; F. M. Ginn, Clyde; Miss Harriet L. Keeler, Cleveland; H. N. Mertz, Steubenville.

Secretary-S. T. Logan, Westwood.
Treasurer-M. S. Campbell, Cleveland.

Executive Committee-J. W. McKinnon, London ; Margarett W. Sutherland, Mansfield.

Board of Control, 0. T. R. C.-Mrs. D. L. Williams, Delaware; John Hancock, Chillicothe.

After singing the Doxology, the Association adjourbed.


Dec. 12, 1887–Rec'd of Abram Brown, former Treasurer...

.$389 28 June 28, 1888- for Membership Tickets.......

263 00 Total Receipts.........

.$652 28 Dec. 31, 1887–Paid expenses of Ex. Com. meeting

.$ 26 75 June 27, 1888-Paid for printing membership tickets .........

2 09 28, - Paid to Sec'y of Ex. Com. for postage.....

7 00 -Paid to R Me Millan for telegrams, etc....

4 54 -Paid to Dr. W. T. Harris for address

41 75 July 2, -Paid to Beacon Pub Co. for programs..

16 75 Total expenditures

98 79 Balance in hands of Treasurer....

.$553 49 Respectfully submitted,

M. S. CAMPBELL, Treasurer.



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BY 1. M. CLEMENS, PRESIDENT OF SUPERINTENDENTS' SECTION. The common school is said to be "a modern thought." However this may be, it bas existed long enough to take very deep root in American soil.

There is, perhaps, no other institution in this country so highly esteemed, and so generally appreciated. There is pone whose advantages are sought after to a greater extent and none which pays a larger dividend to those who invest in it. It is an institution which brings its lasting benefits to all who will receive them. It is not a special privilege inherited by the aristocrat, neither is it a charity bestowed upon the outcast and the p-uper. The door of the public school house stands wide open. It does not close at the approach of the freedman's child, and open at the coming of the treeman's offspring. It knows no difference of natural, social, civil or religious condition. It is most emphatically, an institution of the people for the people," and the one more valuable to the masses than any other which they possess.

Am I warranted in making this statement? Is not the civil government under which we live of more value than the public school? If we must lose either shall vot the school go first?

If our greatest statesmen have not erred in their judgment, it would not be long till the civil government would go after the public school bad gone.

Garfield said, ' Next in importance to freedom and justice is popular education, without which neither justice nor freedom could be permanently maintained.” Madison said, “It is universally admitted that a well instructed people alone can be permanently a free people."

But are not our religious establishments of higher value than public education? It is true that no eartbly possession is to be compared with true religion, and for that very reason education is invaluable. Where there is no enlightenment the inculcation of religious truth is very difficult, and to the extent that ignorance prevails, to that extent vice and immortality exist. It is not claimed that education is a preventive of all irreligion, but it may, with safety, be asserted that schools, such even'as we now have, without churches, are of more value than churches without schools

We need no better evidence of the value put upon education in this country than the time and money devoted to it. More than seven millions of children were in daily attendance at the public schools during the present year. It is not easy to estimate the money value of the time of these children. If they had been put to work, their earnings would have gone a great way toward the support, not only of themselves, but of the families to which they belong. It is quite impossible to determine the amount paid for books, clothing, and other supplies necessary to keep these children in school. The amount experded yearly by public school oflicers, is a little more definitely known. From the most reliable information at my command, I am satisfied that the value put upon common school education by the people of the United States, is not less than two hundred and filliy millions of dollars annually. Our people are altogether too practical to make such liberal investments of time and money in enterprises that promise little or no return. They know there is value in education.

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The claim is often made that people are indifferent, and are so devoted to other interests that but little effort is made for the education of their children. This may be true to some extent, but there is good reason for believing that neither religion nor politics, nor even the getting of money is more persistently followed by the majority of all classes than is the education of children.

Multitudes of people care little for religion, and do less for its support. Multitudes, also, have little concern for the political affairs of the country, notwithstanding they must live under the laws made by those elected to office. There are, however, comparatively few who are not deeply interested in the education of their children, and who make great sacrifices for its accomplishment. Even the most eager money getter will not, as a rule, allow his money getting to stand between his child and the school. I am well aware that this is not the popular view of this subject; moreover, if a judgment were based upon the long array of figures, and graphic representations of illiteracy usually set forth as evidence, it might be concluded that the statements just made are erroneous. But what is the story these figures tell? Briefly this: In a population of over fifty millions, but seventeen percent could not read and write. Seventeen percent of fifty millions is indeed a large number, and at first thought this vast body of ignorant persons would seem to be a standing menace to the existence of our republican institutions.

But the case is not a hopeless one. Thousands of these are still of school age and may be educated. Even if they are not, it must be remembered that the illiterates are not to be found in one body in any of the states. They are very generally distributed among the intelligent portion of our people. * Except in some of the large cities, and in some of the southern states, the illiterates form but a very small part of the whole population. Not only so, they are the least influential class.

One well educated person can do more to mould the sentiment of a community, than a dozen ignorant ones. It must be remembered, also, that at least one-balf of the illiterate population are colored. While it is true that a colored man's vote counts as much as the vote of a white man,

is not yet true that the in nce, either socially or politically, of the colored people, is anywhere near equal to that of the white race. It may be said that on this very account they are all the more dangerous, as they may be used by designing and corrupt men to carry elections; but it is not at all certain that the colored people will yield more readily to the incitements of evil men than to those of good men, and if good men fail to do their duty, the resulting evils should not be charged to illiteracy.

Statistics of education are not always used fairly, nor are they interpreted correetly. The editor of the American Journal of Education, who is a very earnest advocate of national aid to education, in his zeal for that cause, has allowed himself to make some very wild statements and to draw some very erroneous conclusions.

He says: "There are more than 40,000 children in the great city of Cincin. nati to-day who are growing up in ignorance as dense as that of the jungles of Africa, while they are subjected to the influence of the sharpened culture of civilized vice." Yet Cincinnati is one of the best of our great cities, and Ohio is a model state." If these statements be true, the people of Cincinnati care little for the education of their children, and avail themselves less of the privi.


leges provided for education in that city. But a glance at any of the reports of the Cincinnati schools will show that they are false and misleading.

The picture drawn of his own city is black indeed. He says, "St. Louis has a school population of 106,000; 55,000 are enrolled ; 36,000 is the average attendance; 50,000 are growing up in the savage state, aggravated by those capacities for proficiency in evil which come from contact with civilized depravity."

Such statements should not go uncontradicted. The writer must have known that the school age in Missouri is from six to twenty, and in Ohio from six to twenty one, and that it requires but eight years to obtain a good common school education. He must have known, therefore, that there are thousands of children under twenty-one, not now in the schools of these cities, because they have already secured . a good education. They are however, still enumerated.

When he says, “27,000 was the average daily attendance" in Cincinnati, he must kuow this does not mean that only that number was attending school more or less regularly. The Report for 1882-3 from which his figures were probably taken, shows that the average daily attendance was a little more than 27,000, and that the total enrollment was 34,388, of wbich number, 33,892 were absent from school less than one day per week. This accounts for at least 7,000 of the 40,000 growing up in dense ignorance. It is not easy to see by what twist of logic or by what light of imagination the absence from school of one day per week could make a child grow up in ignorance. The unmarried youth of this state, between sixteen and twenty one years of age, are probably 30 percent of the total enumeration. Suppose this is to be the percent of youth between these ages in Cincinnati; then at least 25,000 more had eight years in which to escape the dense ignorance of the Queen City. If these estimates are only approximately correct, and that is all that is claimed for them, they show that instead of 40,000 children growing up without education in the metropolis of our State, there are probably not one-twentieth of that number who are not taking advantage of the school facilities provided, to an extent sufficient to enable them to learn to read and write and to use the fundamental rules of aritbmetic.

A truer and a far more encouraging picture is drawn in the Fifty-first Annual Report of the Massachusetts Board of Education. A paper on "Illiteracy in Massachusetts” is contributed to that Report by the Hon. Horace G. Wadling, a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. The statistics given were taken from the decennial census of 1885, and they are, therefore, sufficiently recent to give the present educational condition of the Old Bay State. The paper notes three classes of illiterates : 1. Those who can neither read nor write. 2. Those who can read but cannot write. 3. Those who say they can read and write, but who cannot. Persons under ten years of age are not counted illiterate, whatever their intellectual condition, for the reason that they are not yet beyond the age in which a good education may be obtained.

Less than seven percent of the total population are illiterates, as classified above, 90 percent of these being over twenty years of age, wbile 3 percent are between ten and thirteen.

The illiterates born in the state are but one-fifth of one percent of the


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