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of such proceedings, he entered heartily into the project and took part in the next game.

Now, he never knew it, but from that day he sustained such a sudden rise in popularity in that school as the most indefatigable office labor could not have superinduced.

"Three kingdoms and twenty-four questions is introduced by a careful explanation, from the teacher, of the three kingdoms, and from which of the three, different articles are produed. Let one take his place in front, and decide upon some article, only telling the school to which kingdom it belongs, all other facts to be gained by the most skilful questioning, as the one having the floor is taught to answer the questions evasively though truthfully; the rest are to guess but not until twenty-four estions have been asked, the answers to these questions give a description of what the person has in his mind. Whoever guesses correctly gets the next turn. It may be the bell rings right here, but that turn will be remembered, and like a good book once begun, will be taken up at the first opportunity. By means of this exercise not only the pupils but the teacher oftimes gains much valuable information.

“I have a word to rhyme with cat,” is the signal for and introduction of a definition lesson on which no percent is marked, but in which

a all in the room except one will be busily engaged in thinking of words to rhyme with cat, and, at the same time, trying to shape a good but not too plain definition--for instance, "Is it a winged quadruped ?" While this one is busy deciding from the definitions what words are meant, and answering as he guesses, "No, it is not a bat," The one guessing and defining the right word, gets to make the next poetical statement.

An excellent history review is to announce a game of character. One pupil is sent out of the room while those in the room with the teacher decide to let the pupil without represent a certain historical character, then invite him in, question and talk to him as though he were the veritable John Smith, George Washington, or Mollie Pitcher, which we have decided upon. This keeps all thinking. The honored person must call all his historical lore into requisition in order to discover his identity. When he has done so, some one else goes out.

By way of variety, characters from reading lessons, authors, popular fairy tales, or even real people known to all may be used.

Another language exercise. Allow one pupil to come forward and give a verbal description of some person known to all, and see who in the room can guess who is described.

Last but not least of all, I would mention the popular games of history and geography cards which have proved to be the most pleasant and lasting method of storing the mind with the collection of facts which must necessarily be there.

In all these exercises the teacher has better opportunities of noticing and calling attention to incorrect pronunciations and expressions, because there is more originality, more of the use of the pupil's own materials, and more freedom in the use of the same than in recitations from books.

We feel sure that all who favor the new education would consider these recreations time well spent.

Only a few minutes each day will serve to leave a pleasant aggregate of happy memories.-W. Vii. School Journal.


BY T. C. KARNS, KNOXVILLE, TENN. Grammar is the most difficult branch taught in the common schools. Its abstract nature is the first cause of this. Many of its principles can be apprehended only by a well-developed mind.

For this reason the study of grammar should be put late in the common-school course, and even then, only the leading principles should be taught. The rest should be relegated to the high school and the college. This does not mean that language culture should be neglected in the lower classe's. On the contrary, it should be made more general.

Practice is the road to success in the use of language. When grammar comes properly to be taught, much of the friction usually encountered by teachers may be avoided. In the first place, you will make children hate grammar by having them memorize it. The science of grammar itself is taught, by the wise teacher, mainly through practice. He adopts the inductive plan and leads the pupil to see the principle from the example. It is best to have a good book for a guide-this the pupil should study—but the teacher, by no means, is confined to the book in teaching and illustrating. The true teacher will be so full of his subject and make everything so clear as often to be charged with not making his pupils work. The pupils themselves, when accustomed to the old drudge methods, at first think that they are not learning. However, they soon recognize the difference between thought and the mere forms of thought.

To teach grammar successfully, avoid routine. First, teach the children, in a practical way, to recognize all the parts of speech. Let them go through sentences and pick out all the names, or nouns; then all the verbs. Afterwards they learn from the instructor's clear teaching to recognize all the parts of speech at sight. Avoid formal parsing. It does little good. All the principles involved can be readily taught in a practical way. Ask questions, such as will bring out the child's knowledge of each principle, but do not waste time in memorizing a set frame-work and order for all these things. As long as the attention is centered on the thought, or the principle, and not on the form of thought, there is healthy and rapid mental progress. "The form killeth but the spirit maketh alive."

Analysis can be very easily taught to pupils who are properly advanced, provided the teacher is practical and avoids set forms. Don't think of confining your instruction to the book or to the examples given. Make any number of examples of your own and have your pupils do the same. Take the subject and predicate first and to these build all the rest, little by little. The book, even, is not necessary. The qualified teacher can often instruct better without it.

Analysis is much more important than parsing. The parsing exercise is more useful in the study of Latin and Greek where translation is the object. In these languages the words are much more inflected in order to express grammatical relation, and the drill in parsing is, in some degree, necessary to give a proper familiarity.

Much of the machinery of the old grammars can be very profitably dispensed with. Teach the pupil to recognize principles all the way through. When he so understands language that he can recognize all the fundamental principles that govern it, that is enough, even if he can't parse in regular form or give the number of a single "rule.” Of course such a knowledge of the technical nomenclature of grammar should be acquired as will enable the pupil to express his grammatical ideas with clearness and precision. The great point to be kept constantly in mind is, that we want facts and not forms.

A fair knowledge of grammar is quite necessary to a clear appreciation of the principles involved in punctuation, though punctuation is, by no means, to be neglected till the pupil has studied technical grammar. Punctuation should be taught with the first sentence that the pupil ever writes. There are teachers by whom this is not always done and some of us are obliged to teach pupils who come from them, to punctuate, after the grammar has been studied. Facility in punctuation, like all other genuine acquirements, is gained by practice. I do not spend much time in having my pupils recite rules for punctuation. Suppose I have a class of twenty boys. I tell each to bring paper and pencil to recitation. I begin with those rules which embrace the most commonly occurring punctuation. They are about periods and commas. I dictate a sentence illustrating the first rule and have every pupil write it. The sentence is not the one given in the book but its construction is the same. I then have a certain boy read what he has written, calling each mark of punctuation as he comes to it. All


and correct at once. The pupil is then required to explain the reasons for his punctuation of the sentence. His explanation must embrace the substance of the rule. This is all the "learning of the rule" that I want. Anything further would involve a waste of time and be worse than useless. We proceed in the same manner through the lesson. My pupils do not find such study irksome. It is delightful work. I pass around among them and suggest to one a better arrangement on the page; to another, a correction as to capitals; to a third, that he try to write a better hand; to a fourth, a better way to paragraph. We correct everything on the spot and get the good of it. There is no stack of papers to be corrected at night in red ink and handed back next day to pupils who never look at them. Teachers, if you ever have imposed such senseless drudgery upon yourselves, stop it now and forever. Do I take up my papers? Yes, certainly, and, in a general way, glance over every one of them. If I notice any characteristic mistakes not yet corrected, I call attention to them the next day, and all the class have the benefit. I look over the papers of a large class in a few minutes and do not hand them back. Now and then, I may have a special paper written, which I correct carefully and hand back, but then I take extra time from recitations to criticise and call attention to mistakes. My pupils improve rapidly in their ability to write English correctly, and besides they find the work pleasant. Most of them soon write beautiful papers. The matter is properly arranged on the page. The paragraphing and all those things usually neglected, but which are so necessary to the beauty and finish of the composition, are carefully attended to. My pupils learn to do by doing, and at the bottom of all lies a correct knowledge of the principle.

I may add much more about what I conceive to be a correct method of teaching English Grammar, but I hope I have said enough to indicate the general plan. Yet, with all my care, I fear my class would make a poor show if submitted to the examination of one of the oldtime grammar grinders.” They could not parse. They might answer my questions about the principles involved, but could not run through the form. They would probably fail on several of the learned technical terms. They could not repeat “Rule VI” nor “Rule XLIX”


nor even “Rule I.” All the “Orthography and orthæpy” at the first of the book and the “Prosody'' at the last of the book they may have skipped. They don't know it; but they do know how to write good English.-S. W. Journal of Education.





In a recent article I called attention to the duties we owe to our predecessors in office, and the reader's attention is now called to another phase of this general subject.

It may seem a curious remark to make, but it requires no little magnanimity to be heartily and thoroughly benevolent to one's successor; to wish him well, and to take active measures to insure his success. Is there not too often a malevolent pleasure in noting the misfortunes and misadventures of the one who has presumed to follow in our footsteps ? How this fortifies our conviction of our own superiority, and, perhaps, punishes the presumption of aspiring to our place! Something of this feeling is almost inevitable in cases where one has been unjustly treated, and in those occasional cases where a succession has been secured by dishonorable means. Then a feeling of resentment inclines us at least to look with complacency on what seems to be the natural rewards for treachery.

Need it be pointed out that even in these worst cases any shade of hostility to one's successor is unworthy of a true man? What is it to connive at failure in such cases ? It is not merely to punish an enemy, but to afflict a whole community. Such revenge may be sweet, but at what a price it is bought ! Innocent children must suffer in order that an aggrieved teacher may be avenged!

It has been assumed that a teacher may be decisively helped or hurt by the intervention, friendly or sinister, of his predecessor. This power must be acknowledged, and I would counsel that it should always be used for benevolent ends. Some modes of doing this will now be suggested.

1. On vacating his place a teacher should place all necessary information relating to the school within easy reach of his successor. Records, class books, programs, and courses of study should be preserved in accurate form so as to put the new teacher in prompt possession of all the important facts of the school organization.

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