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2. It would be a most commendable practice for retiring teachers to give their successors a formal welcome, thus giving them the advantage of their good will. In business successions the good will of the seller is a matter of negotiation and has a recognized money value; it retains patronage and has the attributes of actual capital. On the contrary, a seller's ill will alienates patronage and obstructs business. So a new teacher has a sort of natural right to the good will of his predecessor, and he should inherit the kindly feeling of parents, pupils, and friends. I have known cases where the old teacher has given a formal reception to the new, thus making a transfer of good will and kind offices. I think this custom is quite common among clergymen, and it is a fine example of christian magnanimity and brotherhood.

A new superintendent's prospects have sometimes been ruined by the malevolence of his assistant teacher who seemed to fancy that loyalty to an old friend demanded disloyalty to the new. I have known instances in which revolt has been fomented at long range by a retired superintendent. His partisans in the school were encouraged to circumvent and undermine the new administration. On the principle of contrast, the glory of the old is hightened by the failure of the new.

These illustrations plainly show what ought not to be done, and I trust they suggest the course that an honorable man would pursue. There may be cases where the express commendation of one's successor is not to be demanded, but at least the neutral ground of silence should be maintained. Here as elsewhere, we shall not go amiss if we shape our conduct by the Golden Rule.-S. W. Jour. Education.

TARDINESS.

BY FLORENCE C. SLACK.

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Tardiness, like whispering, is the curse of many schools. Only a few learn how to abolish it from their schools. It seems to be an art which cannot be taught like those of a mechanical or manual character. Yet much can be learned by those who wish to improve themselves in this part of school management.

Tardiness can be much diminished by making the opening exercises more interesting

Routine is repulsive to children. They like new things. The prosy repetition of set formulas, and the reading of what is not understood, are certainly objects of disgust. The greatest interest can be excited in a class of pupils by saying, “There is something in this box which you have never seen, but which you have wanted to see. To-morrow morning at the opening of the school, I will show it to you, and you can all look at it as much as you please.”

It is certain sew members of the school would be absent under such circumstances. While an opening exercise cannot be made in this way an object of curiosity, yet it can be made an object of interest. The charm of novelty has great attractions. It is next to the power of curiosity. The same manner of opening a school need not be followed daily; in fact, these exercises should be varied.

Tardiness can also be diminished by making the standing of the school an object of pride on the part of the pupils.

The perfection of a school consists in four particulars: Punctuality, Attendance, Scholarship and Deportment. Some teachers have punctuality and attendance cards. The display of one or more of the cards constitutes a source of school pride. By skillful use of the punctuality card the force of a whole room can be brought to bear upon a few careless scholars who are most frequently tardy.

And then again, tardiness can be dirninished by influencing parents to prevent it. Personal visits to parents is the best way.

This is a troublesome and often a very self-sacrificing method of treating the difficulty, but it is a very effective one. Parents sometimes are not aware of the injury tardiness causes a school. To them it is a matter of little consequence whether their children are at school at nine or fifteen minutes past nine; but when it is made plain that the success of the school depends upon having all its members on hand at the proper time, they will exert themselves to start their children in time. It brings to bear upon the tardy one a force at each end of his linethe house end and the school end. When a scholar knows that the parents co-operate with the teacher and approve his course, most of the danger of insubordination on his part is obviated; but if he understands at home that it is a matter of indifference whether he is tardy or not, he is not likely to exert himself to be in time. Teachers making such visits should first request, then explain, then urge parents, and if this does not secure their sympathy and co-operation, they should personally appeal to their better judgment and sense of duty.

Tardiness can be much lessened by reading, each morning at the opening, a part of a continuous story or history. It must be interesting. This is essential: but it must be more-it must contain elements of instruction.

An exciting story should not be read. It may easily create a depraved taste, or excite a love for the sensational. In these particulars it would do harm, so no reading should be more carefully selected than that which is presented at the opening of the school when the children are fresh and easily susceptible to permanent impressions. The lives of Alexander the Great, Peter the Great, Grant, Washington and Garfield, or incidents in Revolution or Civil war, afford abundant sources for the selection of most valuable materials. These readings must not be long. Usually ten minutes should be the limit, unless the story be intensely interesting, then five will be long enough. It is best to stop, I think, in the most interesting place, leaving the hearers in a condition of great curiosity as to what is to follow. If this plan is wisely pursued, it will be found an element of great benefit, for these stories can be made the basis of conversations and written language lessons.

There are several other ways by which tardiness can be prevented, among which the following have been successfully tried. A small illuminated card can be given at the close of each week to those who have been punctual.

The subjects of school work that the pupils like best come first in the morning.

Those who have been punctual for a certain time may be excused an hour earlier on Friday afternoon.

In general, the price of punctuality, like liberty, is eternal vigilance. When the teacher becomes careless the pupils instantly catch his spirit. Do not scold; never threaten; never hold up delinquents to ridicule, or make them objects of contempt.

Let all methods be encouraging and positive. Dɔ not think when you have brought your school almost to perfection in this particular you can relax your efforts. That is when you will need more than ever to be on the alert.

Tardiness is an omnipresent enemy, appearing in full vigor at the very time you are most certain it is dead. — W. Va School Journal.

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OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES.

BY J. E. WILLIAMS.

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Evolution means development of a new life. It does not create a new life, but to develop it after it is created; to give it increased energy and increased vital force. It is a subject so deep, so broad, and so long that we may be pardoned for omitting to discuss every aspect or phase pertinent to it. We will not even have space to discuss its entire aspect from the professional teacher's standpoint.

The professional teacher views every subject from the standpoint of developing a perfect man. No professional teacher will admit the right of any school to send out a one-sided man. The professional teacher views every minutia and detail of process from this high standpoint. They say that no one is entitled to be called a good scholar until his education of both matter and spirit is complete. That, if either of these properties belonging to his humanity is left undeveloped, he lacks “balance.” Now, “balance” is one of the foundation pillars supporting a good education. And why? Simply because if it is not developed by a system of training which, in all cases, requires rule, it is sequestered by neglect until it is practically dead. To sum it all up it is simply this, if the spiritual part of our humanity is not developed in proportion to the mental part, then the spiritual part, although seemingly there, is practically without vitality and energy. He is a mental man, not an educated humanity. Yea, more, he is in fact a deformed specimen of humanity, and by no means a perfect man. Is it not practically impossible for any workman, no matter how skilled he may be, to make a perfect thing of any kind, if he puts all his labor upon one side of the material ?

Now, the evolution taught by nature and the Bible is this, "That new life can only come by a creative act, but that a developed power may come by contact with another life having vitality and energy." This law holds true, no matter to which of the kingdoms you apply it. Evolution may also be called “growth,” since it disclaims to be the author of any creation. Now, we think many teachers mistake "work” for “growth.” That is, if his pupils work hard he accepts it as a proof that they are growing. Now, we think this may be true, or it may be false. There are most certainly two distinct processes going on when a pupil is growing. If he is growing it is certain that he has been working, but it is possible for him to work without growing--that is, in the sense of developing an increased mental or spiritual power which alone can be called evolution, or conformity to a higher and better type. Receptivity is a condition precedent to growth. By receptivity, or mean condition, a body organic, inorganic, or spiritual must first be brought to a certain condition before it is possible for it to grow. This condition must be such as to enable such body to receive the elements of its environment. Then it must be brought into contact with such environment as will, when received and assimilated, build it up. At this stage it is only possible for it to begin to grow, so this process must be kept up during the entire process of development.

Now, the object of work is to prepare the body for the reception of these needed elements, and to bring it into contact with such environment as may contain these elements in quality and quantity. But now remember that the real growth or building up is the result of an entirely different process. The body is just ready to begin to develop. It assimilates or appropriates these elements to itself by a certain very mysterious process, which we call digestion. So we see that work is no more growth than eating and drinking. One is the preparation, the other the process. This law holds true, apply it where you may It can now be seen that there are other things quite as important as work in the process of evolution. Work, active unceasing work, is necessary as a preparative measure. But the growth can never come unless it is placed in contact with a suitable environment. Suppose, for instance, you should labor with all your might for a whole day to open a cave, expecting to find bread to satisfy your appetite, but instead of bread you find arsenic. Do you suppose that that work will make you grow? True, the labor of digging prepared you to receive the element that would have contributed to your growth, but you found something instead that you could not digest or assimilate ; besides if you should attempt such a thing it would be certain death, unless you followed it up with an antidote. Here, the bread or the arsenic would be a part of your environment, so this holds true all along the line. It proves that the pupil may work, and work hard, too, and still not grow. Now, take a plant, for instance. In the seed is the germ of life. You place it in the ground, it is now in contact with an environment that will bring it to the surface, and no farther. It must then come in contact with air of a proper temperature, and sunshine; still, as it developes upward, it must still remain rooted and fixed within its first environment, else it can utilize, or even appropriate any of the elements of its new environment. Sequestration sets in the moment that you take away either of these elements forming its entire environment. Take a child, the highest type in the organic kingdom; does he not grow by appropriating and assimilating the elements of his environment? Can he grow, if you deny him the privilege of a contact with an environment such as he is capable of receiving or assimilating? Is it not plain, then, that since his mind and his soul is a part of this humanity, that it or they must be under the same law? This is the positive teaching of science.

Let us ask that other witness-the Bible. “By the sweat of your brow shall you earn your bread.” Paul may plant, Apollos may water, but God giveth the increase. The husbandman prepares the ground and sows the seed, and then waits patienily for the har

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