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64. A practical aim. "Manly training of the useful faculties," rather than "mental adornment."
CHAPTER IV.-EDUCATION OF THE SENSES. 65. The dawning of intelligence. Rapid early growth.
66. Distinguish between sensation and perception. The "consciousness of difference the beginning of intelligence."
67. Sense-intutions the chief source of knowledge. But mind is more than "the conscious echo of an external world."
68. Physical bearing of sepse culture. Growth by exercise. The senses mutually complementary,
69. The senses not merely the instruments but the subjects of cultivation.
70. What we owe to Rousseau, to Pestalozzi, and to Froebel, respectively, concerning the education of the senses.
71. Each sense to be separately studied and separately cultivated.
72. Smell and taste--their rank in the order of development, and their rank in educational value.
73. Hearing, the social sense. Rules to be observed in the education of the hearing.
74. Early yet slow development of the sense of touch. Susceptible of a high degree of cultivation, as in the case of the blind.
75. Quickness and accuracy of sight in children. The soul of a child is in
76. Learning to see-subject to the law of natural and progressive development.
77. Sight, the scientific sense; also, pre-eminently the æsthetic sense. What other æsthetic sense?
78. Hygienic treatment of sight. Myopia, color-blindness, etc., largely caused by improper habits of vision.
79. What the school can do in the cultivation of sight. Distinguishing colors, form and position of objects.
80 and 81. Attention, an essential condition of sense.culture. Distinction between seeing and observing. Author's estimate of apparatus for the training of the senses.
82. Studies specially adapted for the cultivation of power of observation.
83 and 84. Observation in children stimulated by a natural curiosity, which may be turned to advantage by the teacher. In what does Herbert Spencer's paradox consist ?
85. What evils might arise from an extreme or exclusive sense-training ? Would it tend toward materialism and the undermining of faith ?
86. What is the proper place of sense training in a sound education ? The value of clear and distinct perceptions.
The education of the senses is a subject of transcendent interest and value to the teacher. It involves the whole subject of object-teaching, and embraces the first principles of all educational philosopby.
Attention and memory will be under consideration at our next sitting,
RECOGNITION OF THE TEACHER'S PROFESSIONAL STUDY.
I wish I could reach the ear of all school examiners and school directors; but since educational magazines seldom do that I cannot hope to have so large an audience. But on almost every city board of examiners there will be a superintendent; and I trust there is not a county board that does not have in it one teacher. I take it for granted that such persons subscribe for at least one school journal published in their own state, and read it carefully; and many such persons may be readers of the Monthly.
Perhaps the school directors can be reached by each teacher who reads this article lending her copy to some director. But I have something to say on this subject to the teachers themselves-particularly to teachers of influence.
I never wished with greater earnestness for the eloquent pen than at this present moment; and that not for anything that might redound to me, but for the sake of those for whom I plead. Nor do I feel that in pleading for the recognition of all that a teacher does to improve herself professionally, I am pleading solely for the teacher; the truth is, I believe myself to be pleading primarily for what is best for the pupil. Every time I estimate a teacher, the question which determines the estimate takes the shape, "Should I select her to teach a child of mine if I had the power of choice?" If she has the Christian virtues of faith, hope and charity, a growing intellect, and an interest in her profession which leads her to take every opportunity to study it, I am not afraid to trust a dear one to her, even though her scholarship is not yet all that I should desire, and her experience not yet great. But a child can scarcely have a harder fate, so far as its school life is concerned than to be sent to a teacher who studies nothing beyond the common school branches in which she is to be examined, and in the manner that will prepare her for the aver. age examination of teachers; knows nothing beyond how to drill pupils in the assigned work of a certain grade; dislikes teaching but remains at it because she cannot find any other kind of work in which she will be as well paid; has no ambition beyond working her pupils up to a certain grade in written examinations; thinks money spent for educational papers wasted; wonders why teachers go to the Ohio Teachers' Association; scarcely knows what an institute means; and thinks "it is queer that teachers care to join the Teachers Reading Circle." There are such teachers. The picture is not overdrawn. They are never known to cause many pupils under their care to like school. It is by accident and not by any fanlt of theirs if any of their pupils have any other kind of ambition stirred in their souls than the mere ambition "to pass”, or at best to get a good grade ; and if the love of learning strikes root in any mind the seed has been blown there from some other direction. Now contrast with such a teacher the one who is studying something in science, language, or literature which is developing her mind and beautifying her manders and morals; is studying the works of the greatest minds that have been devoted to educational subjects; likes teaching so much that almost daily her interest in it increases; is satisfied with no meaner ambition than to arouse mind to its highest activity and make heart sensitive to the highest good of everything human; takes educational papers in order to keep up with the most advanced thought of those yet working in her own field of labor; goes to the
Ohio Teachers' Association and comes back feeling that "it is good to have been there," and to have felt the inspiration that comes from personal contact with those deeply interested in that which concerns most closely her daily lise; attends the institute to help and be helped; and joins the Teachers' Read. ing Circle for the pleasure and profit that comes not only from its home studies, but from the association it gives her with those whose work is so connected with hers that its success touches her success, its failure adds another chance to her failure. These two teachers sometimes work side by side. Parents know the difference between them, although they cannot trace its reason all along the line. They know to which teacher they would rather send their boy; and my sympathies are with them when they cannot have their choice.
Now, what would I have boards of examiners do in this matter? I would have them recognize distinctly in ihe length of time for which they give their certificates all the work which teachers are doing to make scholars of themselves (the word scholars is not used in its most critical sense), everything that they are doing to improve themselves professionally. If it is not legal to give this recognition in the certificate, then the law should be changed. But our authority is very high for claiming that the requirements of the law are not met at all by tests of the mere knowledge one bas of arithmetic, geography, grammar, and reading. It is a shame when teachers study the most advanced thought on the teaching of primary schools, spend money in visiting good primary schools in order to see the practical working of methods of which they have read, then take some of their time for the reading of poetry or history because they feel the need of the broadening influence of literature, to be given a one year's certificate because they fail to answer certain questions in geography, so absurd that I would not have them printed in these pages, although I have copies of them in my possession.
I feel that a great many of us are to blame in this matter. We have not lived up to what we promised. Some examiners do not know of the State Reading Circle. What effort has been made to bring examiners in general to a recognition of the studying done by its members? Have even the leaders in the Reading Circle movement done all that they could in this line? I know that great good is done the teachers, even if they receive no credit from those in authority. But it pains me deeply to know that not only is their careful reading and study in a well arranged course not acknowledged, but sometimes young teachers suffer at the hands of examiners from the very fact that they have spent their time thus profitably instead of in cramming for a narrow examination. Examiners have in their hands a wonderful lever for elevating the teachers of our State if they can be brought to use it.
Now as to the directors: What recognition of the work that the teachers are doing in a professional line do I want them to give ? I want them not only to appoint and to retain in their service teachers who are doing everything to improve themselves and consequently doing the highest good to the schools, but I want them to acknowledge their work by an advancement of salaries. It does not follow at all that because two teachers are employed in schools of the same grade that their services are worth the same money. Nor will our schools ever reach their highest excellence so long as teachers who do good work in the lowest primary grade, in order to have their salaries increased are
put in a higher grade, where, perhaps, their success is not so marked. They should be given the increase in salary, but in the position in which they have shown their ability to earn it.
I don't like it to be possible for a teacher who puts all her money in dress to be able, with a shadow of truth, to say to another who spends freely in all the lines of improvement which I have before indicated, “I wouldn't spend my money as you do. You will never make any more in this town by doing so.” And yet such things occur every year.
It is the business of superintendents and of teachers of experience who have reached as high positions as are in the gift of their own board of directors to educate school directors to a proper estimation of this work on the part of younger teachers. Some years ago, I knew a superintendent to pursue a course, the wisdom of which I think will be apparent to all who think eardestly on this subject. A vacancy in the high school corps of teachers was to be filled. He suggested for the place a teacher of one of the grammar schools who had never known what it was to save money when it was a question of what was for the highest good of her school. At the meeting for election of teachers, one of the directors present proposed that as a teacher was to be appointed who was new to that particular work that the salary be lowered. The superintendent replied, “No, gentlemen, you cannot possibly make a better investment of the school funds than in a good salary for that lady. Her salary nearly all comes back to the school in the shape of books, in the education that comes from traveling, or in increased professional ability that comes from attendance upon institutes and associations.” It is my opinion that that superintendent has never regretted the stand he took that day.
I have no doubt that other superintendents have been as wise; but I want all brought to the point where they will feel it a solemn duty incumbent upon them to recognize the work done by any teacher to improve her mind and heart, and her knowledge of the science and art of education.
MARGARET W. SUTHERLAND.
0. T. R. C.
DEAR Editor:-I desire to acknowledge through the Monthly the receipt of the following sums for membership fees, since my report of Sept. 20, 1888 : Sept. 26.-E. B. Cassell, Mt. Healthy, Hamilton Co.............
.$ .25 26.—Miss Eva A Robb, New Richmond, Clermont Co............... 1.25 Oct. 1.—Miss Kate Brennan, Cleveland, Cuyahoga Co
11.00 1.-Aaron Grady, Wheelersburg, Scioto Co.........
.25 8.-Harry Corns, Columbus, Franklin Co..........
1.75 9.-Miss M. A. Boggs, Rosemont, Mahoning Co............
1.00 12.-Miss Kittie M. Smith, Weston, Wood Co.......
.75 16.–Mollie V. Foster, Winfield, Darke County......
.50 16.-E. M. Howald, Columbus, Franklin Co..........
4.50 16.-Frank G. Houle, Shelby, Richland Co...........
$21.50 Massillon, Ohio, Oct. 19, 1888.
E. A. Jones, Treas. 0. T. R. C.
The sad tidings of the death of Dr. Eli T. Tappan, State School Commissioner, reaches us, just as this last form goes on the press.
If you have not ordered your magazines and papers for next year, look our club list over, make your selection, and send in your order. If you do not see what you want, write and inquire for it.
During the month of November, we will receive subscriptions for the MonthLY and the Forum for $5.00, the price of the Forum alone. This offer is good only until Dec. 1. Be prompt. Send cash with order.
Turn to the advertising pages at the beginning of this number, and see what some of the readers of the Monthly have to say about it; then ask the teachers in your neighborhood to subscribe. If you think you can send a large club, write for special terms.
-Ginn & Co., Boston, are to be the American publishers of the Classical Review, which is published in London and numbers among its contributors the most eminent classical scholars of Great Britain. American scholars will be associated in the editorial management.
- The Columbiana County institute is to be held at Salineville, beginning October 29, with the following program of instruction : 1, School Management and Arithmetic, Dr. S. Findley, Akron, Ohio; 2. Physiology and Hygiene, Prof. E. T. Nelson, Delaware, Ohio; 3. Language and Geography, Supt. C. C. Miller, Ottawa, Ohio; 4. Four Years of primary Work, Miss Mary Sinclair, Leetonia, Ohio.
- The next annual meeting of the Eastern Ohio Teachers' Association will be held at Newcomerstown, Friday and Saturday immediately following Thanksgiving. Among the names on the program are Commissioner Tappan, Supt. Compton, of Toledo; J. M. Yarnell, W. H. Ray, L. H. Watters, John McBurney, H. L. Peck, J. A. McDowell, H. N. Mertz, M R. Andrews, James Duncan, Arthur Powell, E. B. Thomas, C. F. Palmer, 0. T. Corson, J. W. Pfeiffer, C. L. Cronebach, S. K. Mardis, W. D. Lash, Chas. Guinther, J. C. Hartzler, J. A. McKean, H. V. Merrick, and Misses Maude Potts and Ada V. Johnson. It is safe to predict 8 rousing meeting. The E. O. people never do things by halves.
-The twenty-first annual session of the Delaware County institute was held at Delaware, the week beginning August 27. Instructors: Profs. Williams, of Delaware, and Brown, of Dayton, and Miss Marie Jacque, of Dayton. The attendance was 210, somewhat less than late years. Officers for the ensuing year: President, J. S. Campbell, making 21 years of actual service; Secretary, Jno. Shoemaker; Treasurer. Prof. W. G. Williams; Ex Committee D. L. Pritchard, Mrs. Powers, D. C. Meck, Oren Poppleton and David Blackledge. The county has no teachers' association outside of the institute, and no educational meetings are held. The Reading Circle has life enough to whistle once a year, as Prof. C. expresses it. Why is this thus, in such an educational center as Delaware ?