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BY E. H. WEBB, NORTH FAIRFIELD, 0.
We have been greatly encouraged by the articles in the MONTHLY on our Country School System.
At last, the prominent, practical teachers of Ohio are awakening to the real vital necessity of the country schools, viz: the selection of a small Board of Education in each township by a direct vote.
To say that as intelligent, as honorable, as faithful a board can not be selected in each township as now exists in the city of Cleveland, is, at least, "an hard saying."
We were particularly impressed with the article bearing the significant title of "Why Not?", which suggested a modified form of the same query, "Why Wait?"
We are waiting, for what? For legislative aid? We have been waiting for that, "lo these many years." Why Wait longer when the present law enables us to produce the very change we desire by a simple majority vote in each township?
Would any system prove very effective in a township where a majority did not favor it? We are asking of a common, human, political, Ohio legislator to force upon the people of each township a system which they can now adopt if they choose.
While we would be pleased to see him do it, we do not think he is that "kind of a bird."
This question must come down to the people. Why hesitate to present the question to an intelligent people? "Why Wait ?"
By the provisions of Sec's 3894, 3895, 3896, of the school law, at the next election of township officers, the present "Township District" (a veritable misnomer) can be changed to the "Village District" by a simple majority vote.
We can safely say that not one in twenty patrons of the country schools knows that such a change is possible. Brethren (and sisters too), let us turn our educational grape and canister in the right direction; and by means of circulars and pamphlets and stump speeches in our respective localities, let in the light, and produce this change in many of our townships on the first Monday in April next.
This simply means to adopt a system that has placed the schools in our towns and villages second to none in the world. "Why Wait?"
North Fairfield, O.
EDITOR MONTHLY:-At your request, I give briefly my opinion of the doings and the character of the Pennsylvania institute as reflected at the one held in Lewistown during Thanksgiving week. Your observations given in the December number of the MONTHLY are so full, and I presume apply so generally to the Key-stone State, that but little remains to be added.
What especially strikes the Ohio man favorably is the remarkably full attendance of teachers at every session of the institute. A few inquiries soon brought to the writer information as to where the power lies that brings about this fortunate state of things.
First; teachers are paid for attending the institute. So it ought to be in Ohio and everywhere.
Second; the roll of teachers is called at the opening of each half day session of the institute and the presence and absence are noted.
Third; the county superintendent is, ex-officio, the presiding officer of the institute. This brings under his observation and scrutiny everything done at the institute. Record is made of all neglect to attend the annual session of the institute, willful absence and other irregularities on the part of the teachers. Thus, a vigilant county superintendent, who is also by virtue of his office the sole examiner of the teachers of his county, armed with such a record of his teachers, together with frequent observations drawn from his visits to the schools where the daily work is done, showing the degree of tact and skill in managing schools each teacher may possess, must be a factor for great good in the public school work.
It appeared to the writer that unnecessary help was called in to do the work of the institute. At Lewistown the session did not begin till late in the afternoon of the first day, and on Thursday, Thanksgiving, but little work was done after ten o'clock. The thanksgiving discourse, by Dr. Higbee, State Superintendent, was attended by the institute in a body. Five evening lectures were given during the week, all of which were largely attended by citizens of Lewistown, including business men as well as those from the professions. The direct instruction was extremely meager. Nearly everything was done in lecture form. There was much, very much, talking. More illustrative teaching, it seems, would have reached the young, inexperienced teachers more effectually. It appeared to be taken for granted that all present were well qualified in the branches taught in the schools, needing only theory. This is a mistake.
The Ohio institute has doubtless many weaknesses that ought to be
remedied; but what we lack in power to bring the teachers to the institute is at least partially counterbalanced by the enthusiasm and professional zeal of all the Ohio institutes I ever attended.
J. C. HARTZler.
STATE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
[Used in the recent examination held at Columbus.]
Illustrate your plan of teaching beginners subtraction. Make clear the difference, in process, between finding Too of a number and .001 of it.
2. Explain the processes concerned in finding the area of a rectangle. Reduce 20 acres, 37 square rods, and 17 square yards to square feet, and explain each step.
Distinguish between annual interest and compound interest. Omitting days of grace, find the difference between the true discount and the bank discount of $8,000.01, for 120 days, at 9 percent.
4. An agent sold lard at a commission of 234 percent, and invested the net proceeds in coffee at a commission of 2 percent. his whole commission was $3.72, for how much was the lard sold?
5. A note of $3,000, dated March 1, 1887, due in six months, interest 6 percent, was sold June 16, 1887, so that the buyer could make 8 percent on his investment. For what sum was the note sold?
6. The diagonal of a square floor is 25.4557+ feet; how many yards of carpet, 3/4 of a yard wide, will cover the floor?
What sum must be invested in 6 per cent bonds, at 120, brokerage percent, to give an annual income of $900 ?
8. A jeweler gave $900 for a dozen watches. What price must he place upon them so that he can sell 15 percent below the marked price and yet gain 25 percent ?
ab-ax bc-bx ac-ax
If 10 apples cost a cent, and 25 pears cost 2 cents, and you buy 100 apples and pears for 91⁄2 cents, how many of each will you have?
3. A waterman rows a given distance a and back again in 6 hours, and finds that he can row miles with the current for d miles against it; required, the time of rowing down the stream, up the stream, the rate of the current, and the rate of rowing.
Divide1⁄21⁄2 by √ 2 + 3 √ 1⁄2.
Divide 100 into two such parts that their product may be equal to the difference of their squares.
There are three numbers, the difference of whose differences is 5; their sum is 44, and continued product 1,950: find the numbers. 9. Demonstrate: Every complete equation of the second degree, reduced to the form of x2 + 2px q, may be decomposed into two binomial factors, of which the first term in each is x, and the second, the two roots with the signs changed.
I. The diagonal of a parallelogram divides the figure into two equal triangles.
2. A straight line cannot intersect a circumference in more than two points.
3. To describe a circumference through three points not in the same straight line.
To construct a triangle equivalent to a given polygon.
To inscribe in a given circle a regular decagon.
To find the value of the chord of one-half an arc in terms of the chord of the whole arc and the radius of the circle.
To compute the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, approximately.
8. A truncated triangular prism is equivalent to the sum of three pyramids whose common base is the base of the prism, and whose vertices are the three vertices of the inclined section.
9. The lateral area of a cone of revolution is equal to one-half of the product of the circumference of its base by the slant height.
The volume of a sphere is equal to the area of its surface multiplied by one-third of its radius.
1. In right angled triangles, show that the perpendicular is equal to the base into the tangent of the angle at the base.
Demonstrate: Sin. 60° = 1⁄2 V 3.
4. Develop a formula for finding the difference between the true and apparent level.
5. Develop formulas: (1) for finding distance between two objects separated by an impassable barrier; (2) for finding height of an inaccessible point above a horizontal plane.
I. How does England compare with Mexico in area, climate, productions, society, government, and religion?
2. If you were standing to-day on the Tropic of Cancer, in what direction would your shadow fall?
3. (a) Give the laws of rainfall. (b) Name and locate the ocean
4. Name the different countries that are benefitted by these currents, and state in what respect?
5. Trace the 40th parallel around the earth, naming the States through which it passes, and important cities on or near it?
6. An explanation for volcanoes, earthquakes and ocean currents. 7. Compare United States and Europe in soil and climate with reference to their influence on the physical and intellectual development of man?
8. What was the cause of a prehistoric civilization in Mexico and Peru? Also in Egypt? Why a decline in each ?
9. Name the Counties in the Miami, Scioto, Muskingum and Maumee Valleys, and give dates of first settlements?
What is the difference between physical and chemical changes? Illustrate.
2. State the laws of the pendulum.
What is latent heat? Illustrate the conversion of sensible into latent heat?
4. Why is the rainbow circular?
How far will a body fall the first
Illustrate your answer.
second on Neptune, the density of Neptune being .16 that of the earth, and its diameter being 36,000 miles?
6. Find the result of mixing 6 lbs. of snow at o° C. with 7 lbs. of water at 50° C.
7. A ball thrown vertically upward, returns in 15 seconds to the place of projection. How far did it descend?
8. How high can a liquid with a specific gravity of .95 be raised by a lifting pump, when the barometer stands at 28.4 inches ?
9. To what temperature would a cannon ball weighing 100 lbs. and moving 2,000 feet a second, raise 5,000 lbs. of water from 32° F., if the motion were suddenly converted into heat?
Two bodies are attracting a third with forces as 325 to 410, the first weighing 40 lbs., at a distance from the third of 60 feet, and the second at a distance of 70 feet; what is the weight of the second ?