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would not cite in argument the case of a pupil who had studied geography four years and read United States History for one year, who after one pupil had stated that the first battle of the Revolutionary War was fought at Lexo ington, replied to the question "Where is Lexington ?” “In Kentucky.But it is fair to base arguments upon the work of an entire class. A teacher once said to me in support of her position that it was right to have the pupils learn the words of the geography, that she tried to explain so that they did not give them unthinkingly, but that so many of them would make such a sad jumble of words if they attempted to use their own, that she had to have them adhere to the words of the text.

Their poverty of expression is a very strong argument in support of allowing this subject which can be taught in such a way as to be a powerful auxiliary in language culture to fulfill its noble purpose. Imperative is the duty to labor zealously in this direction if many of her pupils come from homes where the English language is spoken neither with elegance nor with force. Will anything justify the course of the teachers in our public schools if pupils are allowed to reach the age of fifteen or sixteen without any careful drill in expressing in their own words what they have gotten from the printed page? When pupils have been eight years in our public schools, we ought not to be obliged to throw the mantle of charity over pitiable weakness in their use of English; and this, except in cases where careful instruction at homc preserves the boy or girl, is the inevitable necessity where even geography has been recited in the words of the book.

I know that the many who have advanced far beyond this method of teaching geography will rather resent the serious attention that I have given it; but, fellow-teachers, if there be five cities in Ohio or ten isolated country schools where this method is still pursued, I have a right to protest in the name of the children that must be taught there.

Perhaps some one will say that I have torn down one method (I bope I have) but have not built up another. In my next article I shall suguest some plans which I have tried successfully, some which I have observed skilfully used by others, and some that I have gathered from reading. These plans will not be at all new to many of you, but may be helpful to those for whom I am writing.

MARGARET W. SUTHERLAND,

GRADED COURSE IN ARITHMETIC.
Time for each grude, five months, or half a school year.

I.
Learn to know, write, add and subtract numbers within a limit of 10.
Learn the meaning and use of the signs +,-,

II.
Continue practice in Addition and Subtraction.
Multiplication and Division, within a limit of 10.
Learn the meaning and use of the signs X, *.
Simple concrete problems involving one operation.

III.
Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division within a limit of 20.
Roman numerals to XX.
Concrete problems involving one or two operations.

IV.
Numeration and notation to 1000, taught objectively. Roman Notation to C.
Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division within a limit of 50.
Practice addition of columns, “carrying tens.”
Continue practice of concrete problems.

V.
Numeration and Notation to 1,000,000.
Subtraction taught and illustrated, objectively.
Learn the terms, Minuend, Subtrahend and Remainder.
Practice in addition continued.
Multiplication and Division tables through the 7's.

Practice Multiplication and Division, neither multipliers nor divisors to exceed 7. Concrete problems involving operations learned.

VI. Multiplication and Division tables completed.

Slate exercises in Multiplication and Division, neither multipliers nor divisors to exceed 12.

Terms used in Multiplication and Division.
Practice in Addition and Subtraction continued.
Concrete problems involving four fundamental rules. Single step analysis.

VII. Text-book-such as White's Intermediate, combining mental and written practice.

Notation and Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, and Multiplication, with much practice in rapid addition.

VIII. Fundamental operations completed, with much extra practice in Addition and Long Division.

IX.
Continue praetice in Addition and Long Division.

Properties of Numbers and Common Fractions. Mental and written practice combined.

X.
Continue practice in Addition and Long Division.
Continue practice in Common Fractions.
Decimal Fractions and U. S. Money.

XI.
Continue practice in Addition and Long Division.
Continue practice in Common and Decimal Fractions.
Compound Denominate Numbers.

XII.
“Complete" Arithmetic, from beginning through Common Fractions.

XIII.
Decimal Fractions and Compound Denominate Numbers.

XIV. Percentage, and applications to Profit and Loss, Commission, Insurance and Interest.

XV.
Applications of percentage completed.
Whole subject of Percentage reviewed.
Ratio and Proportion.

XVI.
Powers and Roots.
Whole Subject reviewed.

one.

NEXT AT SANDUSKY. The Executive Committee of the State Teachers' Association held a meeting at Columbus on the evening of Dec. 26th, and the morning of Dec. 27th.

Sandusky having extended a very cordial invitation to the Association to hold its next session there, and arrangements having been promised that seemed very satisfactory, it was unanimously agrerd that the next meeting should be held in that city, June, 26, 27, and 28. It was decided that the papers read before the Association should be limited to thirty minutes in length. This rule, however, is not to apply to the annual address, the inaugural addresses, or the evening papers.

One evening is assigned to the Ohio Teachers' Reading Circle, and the Executive Committee of that Circle will prepare the program for that evening.

Gov. Foraker has promised, if possible, to be present at some session of the Association and speak a few words to the teachers. He does not wish, however, to be placed on the program for an address as he has not time to prepare

The following are the subjects that have been chosen for consideration :Township Supervision, Training for Citizenship in our Public Schools, The Buckeye Centennial, The County Teachers' Institute, Primary Instruction (exact statement of subject not determined), The Examination and Promotion of Pupils, Report of Committee on Harmonizing College and High School Courses of Study, Defects in the Public Schools of Ohio.

One or two persons have been appointed to open the discussion of each paper; but it is earnestly desired that many members consider these subjects beforehand and come prepared to help along in their careful study.

Up to date of writing, Jan. 14, the following persons have agreed to the placing of their names on the program:-Commissioner E. T. Tappan, Supt. R. W. Stevenson, Supt. J. J. Burns, Supt. Alston Ellis, Dr. Samuel Findley, Supt. J. C. Hartzler, and Supt. H. N. Mertz. Other names just as good will be added to this list; but it is deemed best to withhold them until answers are received to the invitations which have been extended.

The Executive Committee is now ready for congratulation upon its good work.

MARGARET W. SUTHERLAND,

Sec. of Ex. Com, of 0. T. A.

STATE CERTIFICATES. The following are the names of the successful applicants before the State Board of Examiners, at a meeting held at Columbus, December 27, 28 and 29, 1887.

LIFE CERTIFICATES:-Lida Baldwin, Niles; Kate R. Blair, Marion; Lauretta Barnaby, Salem; J. W. Pfeiffer, Bolivar; John A. McDowell, Millersburg ; W. E. Lumley, Perry; W. 0. Bailey, La Rue; David N. Cross, Moscow, Total, 8.

Tex YEAR CERTIFICATES :- Alice C. Ackley, Moscow; Ida L. Baker, Woodville; Eva B. Cowan, Lebanon; Gertrude Jones, New Vienna; Jeannette Shields, Newark; Harriet E. Stevens, Newark; Mary E. Stevens, Lebanon ; Clara Wheatley, West Alexaodria; Jumes L Young. New Loudon; J. W. Wod, New Cariisle; G. T. Whitney, Fitchville; Charles J. Weeks, Duver; John V. Webb, Salem Center; O. L. Watkins, Etua; J. O. Versoy, Vermillion; A. E. Taylor, Springfield; T. C. Taylor, Lockbourne; I N. Van Tassell, Haskins; Frank W. Stoll, Green Camp, John D Sloop. Biooningsbuit; Charles A. Shaw, Canton; Grant Sheller, West Sonora; W. A. Sager, La Rue; E. E. Roberts, Edinburg; Charles S. Richardson, Barnesville; E. E. Richards, Hillsboro; I. Franklin Patterson, Steubenville; W. W. Pennell, Eastwood; S. E. Pearson, Piqua; J. E. Ockerinan, Frankfort; George A. Nelson, Plainville; Hugh A. Myers, Berlin Heights; A. T. Moore, Conover; W. Allison Monroe, Newark; W. H. McFarland, Springfield; E. E. Marshall, Circleville; D. K. Luthy, Jerusalem ; John A. Long, Lockbourne; Harry S. Latham, Columbus; C. A. Krout, Plattsburg; George Krichbaum, Canton; Charles A. Kizer, Dialton; E. E. Helman, Canton; C. W. Gilgen, Orrville; W. G. Garvey, Hopedale; James W. Fisher, Midland City; W. S. Earseman, Hanoverton; E. H. Colvin, Spring Valley; Benjamin F. Buxer, Beach City; J. J. Bunger, El Dorado; W. H Brate, Westehester; E. K. Barnes, Walbridge; A. A. Bartow, Sandusky; L. L. H. Austin, Zanesville. Total, 54.

The total number of applicants was 91.

The next examination will be hew at Sandusky, O., on June 29 and 30, and July 2, 1888, in the High Schovi rooms.

Alston Ellis, Clerk.

66

0. T. R. C. Mr. Editor:- I desire to acknowledge through the Monthly the receipt of the following sums for membership fees since my report of Nov. 19th, 1887: Nov. 22.-J. W. Stauffer, Canton, Stark Co.........

.$.50 29.- Miss Eva Robb, New Richmond, Clermont Co,.........

3.25 29.-E, G. Chamberlin, Dudley, Noble Co........

7.00 Dec. 5-G. J. Graham, Xenia, Greene Co.........

2.25 12.-Lester L. Nave, Massillon, Stark Co......

.25 14.-Sebastian Thomas, Ashland, Ashland Co.........

.25 14.- Miss Eva Robb, New Richmond, Clermont Co...........

1.50 17.- Miss Mary A. Sheaffer, New Berlin, Stark Co....

.25 24.-W. 0. Bailey, La Rue, Marion Co........

2.25 24.-Miss Eva Robb, New Richmond, Clermont Co..........

2.75 23.-M. S. Webster, Syracuse, Meigs Co.

1.00 30.—Miss M. W. Sutherland, Mansfield, Richland Co......

4.00 Jan, 10,1888.-J. W. Shafer, New Bedford, Coshocton Co..........

.25 12, -Supt. S. Thomas, Ashland, Ashland Co.......

1.25 17, --E. G. Chamberlin, Caldwell, Noble Co........

3.50 Total.......

. $30.25 E. A. Jones, Treas. 0. T. R. C.

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The following persons have received diplomas since my last report :-Supt. Charles Nease, Greenville, Mich., formerly from Meigs County in this State Geo. H. Bailey, Xenia, Greene Co.; Mrs. Royal Church, Harrisonville, Meigs Co.

The History of Ohio, prepared by Prof. Geo. W. Knight, of the Ohio State University, and published under the direction of the Ohio Historical Society, will be ready by Feb. 1. The price of the book will be fifty cents. It will be furnished through the regular trade, or orders may be sent to A. A. Graham, Esq., Sec. of the Hist. Society.

The Board of Control will have a meeting in Columbus at some time in the month of February, probably the twenty.second.

The Board is anxious to provide such a Course of Reading as will best meet the wants of the teachers of the Siate.

Those members who have taken the entire Course are the best able to judge of its value and to point out its defects.

We shall be pleased at any time to have the opinion of such members in reference to the work.

Any candid criticism of the Course, as thus far arranged, and any suggestions for the future, will be presented to the Board and will receive careful consideration at its next meeting.

E. A. JONES,

Cor, Sec. 0. T. R. C. Massillon, Ohio, Jan. 20, 1888.

EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.

a

-Ohio University, at Athens, has more students now than at any time in the last twenty years.

- The teachers of Darke Co. met at Arcanum, January 14. We infer from the program that a good time was had, but we have no report.

- The Erie County Teachers' Association held a meeting at Sandusky, Jan. 14. A good program was provided, but no report of the proceedings has Teached us.

- The Jackson Township (Wood County) Board of Education has recently elected a superintendent-the first in the county. The good work goes on. May there be many more to follow.

-“The Old Northwest" is the title of an important work by Dr. B. A. Hinsdale, now going through the press of Townsend Mac Coun, 150 Nassau Street, New York. It will be complete in one octavo volume, with maps, and sold at $2.50.

-The Monroe County institute, held during holiday week, was characterized by unusual life and enthusiasm. Supt. Hartzler and Prof. Ridge were the instructors. Five evening sessions were held. The court house was filled at every session.

-Superintendent Geo. W. Welsh, in his last annual report to the Lancaster (O.) Board of Education, recommends such a modification of the course of study as to require one year more (making nine years) of preparation before entering the high school.

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