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Heredity in Education..

38 Observations on Child-Life in School. By
High School Teacher, The. By M. W. John E. Morris

-516, 569
-639 Odious Name, An...

History of Ashtabula County, Early. By Ohio Day. By Nellie Moore....

I. M. Clemens..

56 Ohio School History, A Chapter of. By
Home Reading of Pupils, The. By C. F. B. A. Hinsdale..


-250 Ohio Teachers' Association, The.
Illustrative Teaching. By F. Lillian Tay-

135, 235, 273
111 Ohio Teachers' Bureau..

Inaugural Address. I. M. Clemens.....-313 “Oh, Wad Some Power".

Inaugural Address. Alston Ellis.. -395 "Old Northwest, The”.

Inaugural Address. N. E. O. T. A.. -462 Opportunities and Responsibilities. By
Independence Bell, Who Rang it?..

J. E. Williams...

224, 269, 581 Order. By Leila Ada Thomas.

> Insomnia, Cure for. By D. J. Evans.... 260. T. R. C., Secretary and Treasurer's
Intellectual Life in Rural Schools. By G. Report...... 87, 183, 279, 511, 595, 644

-562 Patriotism and Loyalty, Teach... .309
Intemperance, Profanity, Tobacco. By Pedagogical Chairs in Colleges and Uni-
Horace Mann


versities. By B. A. Hinsdale...... -484
Interest, First Lesson in. By E. R. S....626 Pennsylvania, In. By J.C. Hartzler.... 65
Language Training....
-588 Pennsylvania, In..

Laura Bridgman, A Second.

-170 Personal. -.45, 95, 139, 190, 237, 282,
Law of Mental Exercise, The. By B. A.

331, 456, 501, 551, 597, 619

-262 Physiology, and Alcohol and Narcotics..537
Learn Something Carefully.

.181 Pleasure in Education, Element of... 539
Learning to Read, Stages in..
_572 Points Worth Remembering..

Letter, A. By Margaret W. Sutherland..277 Primary Work. By Mary Sinclair.......152
Letter from Dixie, A...

-571 Primary Instruction. By Anna M. Tor-
Letter Writing, Graded Work in. By rence.

Julia Richman

-297 Proceedings of Onio Teachers' Associa-
Life Certificates, Teachers'.
-455 tion

Little Ones, A Year With-A Discussion..411 Professional Ethics..

Literature, Reader. By F. D. Ward.....108 Promotions, School. By J. H.

Manly Speech an Element of Power. By Proposed Primary Department.. 636
J. R. Skelly

294 Psychical Development, Conditions of.
Manual Training..

By Elmer H. Stanley..... .1, 97, 209, 305
Manual Training Exposition, A.

-274 Public Schools not Reformatories.- 234
Melancholy Days....

-275 Reading Circle, Ohio Teachers'. .413, 498
Membership Roll, State Association.....451 Reading Circle Studies....... -511, 591, 642
Memorizing and Understanding. -637 Reading Lessons...

Might of Gentleness, The...

.255 Reading Suggestions. By Cora W. Fos-
Minutes - Superintendent's Section. 0. ter

T. A...


Response to Address of Welcome. Dr. E.
Minutes of General Association.... 338


T. Tappan

Multiplication Table in Five Days, How Retrospect and Prospect.

to Teach. By D. L. Ellis...

-578 Rivalry Between Schools. By Chas. W.
Multiplication Table, Teaching the...... 76 Super

Music as a School Study. By S. H. Light-

Sandusky Meeting, The...-


-218 School Boy's Honor. By Leila A.
Muskingum. By Mrs. E.K. Crawford.... 13


"My Boys Did Rather Badly”.


School Commissioner, Opinions of the..540
Narrowness and Breadth in Teaching, School Examiners, Letters to...

Concerning. By B. A. Hinsdale..... -505 School Expositions. By Henry G. Will-
Naturalness, The Charm of. By M. W. iams ...


496 School Government. By C.I. Gruey.. 104
Nature and Education.
-589 School Legislation.

New Department, A.-

-323 School Legislation Affecting Teachers...273
Notable Report, A...

-494 School-Room Recreation...
Notes and Queries.. 76, 121, 174, 224, 269, School Sentiment. By D.J. Evans.. 259
319, 491, 533, 581, 627 | Selection of Teachers, The...


- 468


Sierras, From the.

-274 Teaching Reading, Natural Method of.
Sill, Hattie A....
_324 By Mrs. R. S. Pollard..

Smyth, Anson, D.D. By Samuel Findley.. 193 Temperance Instruction.

191, 520
Social Status of the Teacher. By M. W. Test in Geography. By E. E. White..... .625
36 Too Much Red Tape....

Spelling, What Value in? By H. L. Peck. 16 Township Supervision. By Hon. N. II.
State Association at Sandusky.
86 Albaugh ....

State Board Questions.... -66, 486, 527 | Township Unit in a State School System.
State Certificates...
.86, 120, 276 By H. R. Gass....

State Certificates. By J. A. Shawan.... 169 Training for Citizenship. By Chas. W.
State Teachers' Association, Reasons for Super

Attending. By M. W. Sutherland......325 Training for Citizenship in Public
Studies in the Book of Nature. By Mrs. Schools. By R. W. Stevenson... 360
A. H. De Voir....

-558 Training to Unconscious Activity. 129
Superannuated Teachers..

Use of the Hyphen.....

System and the Man, The. By J. A.

Utilize the Local Papers...


Tappan, Dr. Eli T.


Village School Master, The. By H. L.
Tardiness. By Florence C. Slack.


Teachers' Institute, The County. A Dis- West Virginia, In......

-406 When School Lets Out..

Teachers know their Work, Do?. -538 Why Wait? By E. H. Webb..

Teacher's Opportunity, The....

32 Working for the Children. By F. Treud-
Teacher's Professional Study. Recogni- ley...

tion of. By M. W. Sutherland.. -593 Working Libraries. By F. Treudley. ..603
Teacher's Responsibility, The...... -318 Writing, Teaching. By G. Bixler.... 22

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II. PHYSIOLOGICAL. While in this life the soul, whose powers as the primary condition of its development were considered briefly in a former article, communicates with the outer world through a physical organism called the body. As far, then, as such communication is necessary to psychical development, the body is indespensable, for no other means has the soul of receiving impressions from the world or of acting thereupon or therein. And such experience is absolutely necessary to the development of a conscious life in any such form as we now know. No matter what may be the unconscious activities of the soul, those that are conscious as we know them in psychical life do not even begin until aroused by sensations-visual, tactual, auditory, etc.-received through the senses. That this is true is evident from the limited development attained or attainable by those deprived of many of these avenues of communication. If the soul were deprived of all the senses, as it would be without the body, there could be no development in any form known to human experience. Through the body, its activities are awakened and its food for development


furnished, but when once it is aroused to a conscious state and has begun to unfold its powers it maintains a relative independence of the body. It develops, indeed, by laws of its own and in a great degree independently of the body, but that its development in this life is through the sensations and their reproduced images must be admitted.

When the soul has been thus aroused and its stock of ideas accumulated, the body is no longer a necessity and no reason exists why the psychical life may not continue in independence of its physical organism; but in this life it has the world as a necessary physical environment, and the more perfectly the body performs its functions as a means of communication there with the greater are the possibilities of the soul, not only as to what it may receive and become but also as to what it can do while here. Plato and Paul, and even Jesus, could never have done for this world what they did had they not had bodies to give expression to their souls.

Moreover the soul is greatly aided in its intellectual operations by physical helps. By use of diagrams and figures it can solve problems otherwise impossible. In fact all thinking is aided in some such way, as appears from the connection of thought with language and physical images. If, then, certain nervous states greatly assist the soul in its operations, it follows that any disturbance of the brain whereby it should affect the soul less sensitively or whereby it should in turn become less sensitive to the soul's activities would hinder its operations as much as it would a mathematician to take away


and pencil.

But this leads further, and the fact that until death there is no escape from this prison and that every act of the soul implies nervous action brings out even more clearly the profound significance that the body has for psychical life and development. No matter how the soul may act after it escapes, its every activity in this life is through the nervous system and involves more or less of physical activity. In such work as reading or talking this is very evident. It is clearly seen also in the tiresome demand made upon the organs of sense when

But beyond all this, there is nervous action and hence nervous waste involved in all thinking. Just as a given nervous state tends to produce a specific sensation, so the thought of that sensation tends to produce the corresponding physical state, as is seen in the so-called watering of the mouth at the thought of savory food.

Since, then, until freed by the Angel of Life, we are thus bound to a physical organism upon whose action and energy our very thoughts and feelings depend, it is of momentous concern to us what kind of a

in use.

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