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from the above-named Persian, it may be argued, that there were some in the east, who rejected or doubted of the epistle of James, as well as the other four: which indeed appears to me very probable.
8. In another place" he mentions the books of the New Testament in this order : the four gospels, the apostolical epistles, and the Acts.
9. He puts the question ; · Howo do we know the authors of the books of scripture ? The answer is : Some are known by the titles, and introductions, as the books of the prophets, in the Old Testament, and the epistles of the apostles, in the New. Some are known by their titles only, as the gospels; some by tradition from the ancients, as the five books of Moses. Of some books the authors are unknown, as those of Ruth, the Judges, and the Kings.'
10. He likewise puts the question : How P do we know the books of our religion to be written by divine inspiration ? I transcribe his answer below, though it be somewhat long ; where he also says, “ that miracles were wrought till the
scripture (or the christian religion) was received by the Gentiles : but now it is sufficient, that it is universally received; which may be considered as a standing miracle.'
11. Before I conclude this chapter I should refer to 9 James Basnage, who bas observations upon this writer's catalogues of the books of scripture, that part especially, wbich concerns the books of the Old Testament.
Quis est ordo divinorum voluminum ?- -Evangelia (ut supradictum est) quatuor, apostolicæ epistolæ, et Actus. Ib. c. 10. p. 342. B.
• D. Scriptores divinorum librorum quâ ratione cognoscimus ? M. Tribus modis. Aut ex titulis, et procemiis, ut propheticos libros, et apostolorum epistolas ; aut ex titulis tantum, ut evangelistas; aut ex traditione veterum, ut Möyses creditur scripsisse quinque primos libros historiæ.--Similiter et Jesu Nave liber, ab eo quo nuncupatur, traditur scriptus.—Sciendum præterea, quod quorumdam librorum penitus ignorantur auctores, ut est Judicum, et Ruth, et Regum, &c. Ib. c. 8.
P Disc. Unde probamus, libros religionis nostræ divinâ esse inspiratione conscriptos ? M. Ex multis, quorum primum est ipsius scripturæ veritas : deinde ordo rerum, consonantia præceptorum, modus locutionis sine ambitu, puritasque verborum. Additur conscribentium et prædicantium qualitas ; quod divina homines, excelsa viles, infacundi subtilia, non nisi divino repleti Spiritu tradidissent. Tum prædicationis virtus, quæ, dum prædicaretur, licet a paucis despectis, obtinuit. Accedunt his rectificatio [f. testificatio] contrariorum, ut Sibyllarum vel Philosophorum, expulsio adversariorum, utilitas consequentium, exitus eorum, quæ per acceptationem et figuras pradicationesque prædicta sunt. Ad postremum, miracula jugiter facta, donec scriptura ipsa susciperetur a Gentibus. De quâ nunc ad proximum miraculum sufficit, quod ab omnibus suscepta cognoscitur. Ib. I. ii. c. 29. p. 350.
9 Hist. de l'Eglise, 1. viii. c. 10. p. 443, 444.
MAGNUS AURELIUS CASSIODORIUS SENATOR.
1. His time. JI. Three catalogues of the books of the Old
and New Testament inserted by him in his Institution ; Jerom's, Augustine's, and that of the old Latin version. III. General remarks upon those catalogues, as here rehearsed. IV. An account of his Complexiones, or short Commentaries, and extracts from them.
I. MAGNUS: AURELIUS CASSIODORIUS SENATOR 6 is placed by Cave as flourishing in the year 514, when he was consul: but as I am to quote his works, written after his retirement from the world, particularly bis • Institution of Sacred Letters,' or Theology, written in 556, or thereabouts, I place him at that year. He lived to a great age: but the time of his death is not certainly known. I beg leave to refer tor some places in this work, where this writer has been already mentioned.
II. Cassiodorius, in that work, bas put down three Catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament.
1. The first he callse Jerom's : what was St. Jerom's catalogue or canon of the books of the Old Testament, is well known from his Prologus Geleatus, still extant, aud transcribed' formerly: his canon was the same with that of tbe Jews; and there can be no mistake about it. But the catalogue, as published in Cassiodorius's work, is not ex
Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 501. Du Pin, Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p. 63. Fabric. ap. Bib. Ecc. ad Honorii Aug. l. xiii. cap. 21. Trithem. de Scr. Ec. cap. 212. Le Long. B. Sacr. p. 670. Vit. Cassiod. a Garetio conscript. Pagi Ann. 493. n. iii. 514. n. i. 562. n. iv. S. Basnag. Ann. 534. n. ü. 535. n. x. 562. n. i.
b Senator absque collega annum aperuit, ut habent omnes Fasti, et ipsemet in Chronico suo prodit. Est is Cassiodorus.-Cumque in omnibus Fastis et in epistolarum subscriptionibus vocetur tantum Senator, eo cognomine uti proprio appellatum fuisse, : et ita in Fastis citandis appellandum intelligimus. Pagi Ann. 514. n. i.
© Ad num. v. et seqq. pluribus de Magno Aurelio Cassiodoro Senatore agit hoc anno Baronius, quo ejus mortem consignat. Verum annus mortis ejus, deficientibus veteribus monimentis, definiri non potest. Unde plures eum in annum DLxxv. differunt. Pagi Ann. 562. n. iv.
d See vol. ii. ch. xxii. num. iv. 3. and num. viii. 6.
e Divisio scripturæ divinæ secundum Hieronymum. Auctoritas divina secundum sanctum Hieronymum, in Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vetus et Novum, &c. De Institut. Divinar. Lit. cap. 12. T. ii. p. 516. Venetiis, 1729
* See vol. iv. ch. cxiv.
act : for the book of the Kings, which should follow after Samuel, is wanting : and instead of Ecclesiastes, is put Ecclesiasticus. Upon this part of the Catalogue, as published by Garetius, Martianay made some free and just remarks, which I place belowh for the sake of curious readers. The remainder of the catalogue, consisting of the books of the New Testament, is thus : • The evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John. After them follow the epistles of the apostles; two of Peter; fourteen of Paul; three of John; one of James; one of Jude; one book of the Acts of the Apostles by Luke; one book of the Revelation of John.'
2. The next is called the Division of the Divine Scripture according to Augustine. We have already considered very largely Augustine's testimony to the scriptures : nevertheless I shall here transcribe ihe titles of the books of the New Testament, as enumerated by Cassiodorius.
Thek New Testament consists of one-and-twenty epistles of apostles, that is, one epistle of the apostle Paul to the Romans: to the Corinthians two; to the Galatians one; to the Ephesians one; to the Philippians one; to the Thessalonians two; to the Colossians one ; to Timothy two; to Titus one; to Philemon one; to the Hebrews one; two epistles of Peter, three of John, one of Jude, one of James ; the four gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; one book of the Acts of the Apostles; one book of the
6 Salomon: Proverbia, Ecclesiasticus, Canticum Canticorum. Ibid. * Hæc ex Prologo Hieronymi Galeato afferebat Cassiodorius. Sed vitiosa est prorsus illa divisio, tam in editis, quam in manuscriptis libris. l. quidem omissà ubique voce Malachim, post verbum Samuel.-3. pro nomine isto Ecclesiastes posuerunt Ecclesiasticum, qui non est Salomonis, sed liber Jesu filii Sirach ; quique in canonem nusquam admissus est ab Hieronymo. Neque tamen negligentiæ vel inscientiæ accusandus est Garetius noster, qui in ultima Cassiodori operum editione hos non emendârit codicuin, seu editorum, seu manuscriptorum, errores, &c. Martian. Prolegom. iii. n. i. in Divin. Bib. Hieron.
In evangelistas, qui sunt Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, Johannes. Post hos sequuntur epistolæ apostolorum, Petri duæ, Pauli quatuordecim, Johannis tres, Jacobi una, Judæ una, Actuum Apostolorum Lucæ liber unus, et Apocalypsis Johannis liber unus. De Institut. Divin. Lit. cap. 12.
k In epistolis apostolorum viginti una id est, Pauli apostoli ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duæ, ad Galatas una, ad Ephesios una, ad Philippenses una, ad Thessalonicenses duæ, ad Colossenses una, ad Timotheum duæ, ad Titum una, ad Philemonem una, ad Hebræos una, Petri duæ, Johannis tres, Judæ una, Jacobi una: In evangeliis quatuor, id est, secundum Matthæum, secundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, secundum Johannem : In Actibus Apostolorum liber unus. In Apocalypsi liber
Beatus igitur Augustinus--secundo libro de Doctrina Christianâ Scripturas Divinas septuaginta unius librorum calculo comprehendit. Ib. c. 13. p. 516.
Revelation. And having put down this catalogue, Cassiodorius refers to Augustine's second book of the christian doctrine: nevertheless he does not transcribe exactly. And the books of the New Testament are here rebearsed in a different order from that in Augustine, as any one may perceive by comparing them.
3. The third catalogue is called, the Division of Sacred Scripture, according to the Ancient Translation : meaning, I suppose,
the ancient Latin translation of the Old Testament from the Greek of the Seventy, which was in use before Jerom made a translation from the Hebrew. And for the New Testament, meaning the old Latin translation from the original Greek, which had been in use before Jerom corrected it. I intend to transcribe this catalogue at length. • Them holy scripture, according to the ancient translation, is divided into two Testaments, the Old and the New. In the Old are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the son of Nun, the Judges, Ruth, four books of the Kings, two books of the Chronicles, one book of the Psalter, five books of Solomon, that is, the Proverbs, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, the Canticles : The prophets, that is, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Amos, Micah, Joel, Obadiah, Jonab, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, who is called the Angel, Job, Tobit, Esther, Judith, two books of Ezra, two books of the Maccabees. After these follow the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, Jobn, the Acts of the Apostles, the epistles of Peter to the Gentiles, the epistle of Jude, of James to the twelve tribes, of John to the Parthians, the epistles of Paul; to the Romans one ; to the Corinthians two; to the Galatians one ; [to" the Ephesians
I See vol. iv. ch. cxvii.
m Scriptura sancta, secundum antiquam translationem, in Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vetus et Novum. In Genesim, Exodum, Leviticum, Numerorum, Deuteronomium, Jesu Nave, Judicum, Ruth, Regum libros quatuor, Paralipomenón libros duos, Psalterii librum unum, Salomonis libros quinque, id est, Proverbia, Sapientiam, Ecclesiasticum, Ecclesiasten, Canticum Canticorum, Prophetas, id est, Isaïam, Jeremiam, Ezechielem, Danielem, Osee, Amos, Michæam, Joël, Abdiam, Jonam, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophoniam, Aggæum, Zachariam, Malachiam, qui et Angelus, Job, Tobiam, Esther, Judith, Esdræ duos, Maccabæorum duos. Post hæc sequuntur evangelistæ quatuor, id est, Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, Johannes, Actus Apostolorum, epistolæ Petri ad Gentes, Judæ, Jacobi ad duodecim tribus, Johannis ad Parthos, epistolæ Pauli, ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duæ, ad Galatas una, [ad Ephesios una,] ad Philippenses una, ad Colossenses una, ad Hebræos una, ad Thessalonicenses duæ, ad Timotheum duæ, ad Titum una, ad Philemonem una, Apocalypsis Johannis. Ibid. cap. 14. p. 516.
“. The epistle to the Ephesians is wanting in the edition of Cassiodorius, which I make use of : but I suppose it to be only an error of the presse
one ;] to the Philippians one; to the Colossians one; to. the Hebrews one; to the Thessalonians two; to Timothy two; to Titus one; to Philemon one; the Revelation of John.'
This catalogue, so far as relates to the Old Testament, should be compared with the canon of the third council of Carthage, formerly' transcribed, with which it mightily agrees. Here, as well as there, are reckoned five books of Solomon : in both catalogues are placed Tobit, Judith, and the two books of Maccabees : in both are reckoned two books of Ezra, meaning our Ezra and Nehemiah, without any notice of other books ascribed to Ezra. But with regard to the New Testament, there are several differences in the two catalogues, and particularly in the order of the books, as may be observed by any one.
III. Upon these catalogues, so far as relates to the New Testament, I would make two remarks.
In the first place, it seems hence to appear, that the number of books to be received as canonical scripture, had not then been determined by any authority, universally acknowledged, and submitted to by christians : for Cassiodorius does not say so. And bis manner of delivering these several catalogues seems to show, that he bad no knowledge of any such determination.
Secondly, Nevertheless there was a very general agreement among christians concerning the books of the New Testament, which ought to be received as canonical, or the rule of faith. There is no remarkable difference in any of these catalogues: the first two have all the books of the New Testament, which are now generally received by us. And if St. John's first epistle only be mentioned in the third and last, possibly, the omission of the other two epistles is only a fault of the transcriber. However, it is well known, and allowed, that the second and third epistle of John were not universally received in the first ages. Once more, for showing the harmony of these three catalogues, it ought to be observed, that here is no mention made of any books of the New Testament as canonical, which are not received as such by us. There are not inserted, in any of these catalogues, Barnabas, or Clement, or Ignatius, or any other christian writers whatever: which affords a cogent argument, that there were not any other christian writings, which were placed by the churches upon a level with those in these catalogues.
o Vol, iv. ch. cxvi.