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reign of Constantine; the affairs of which have been related by several ecclesiastical historians, as Eusebius Pampbili, and Theodoret, whom we are not obliged to receive; for, beside the Acts of the Apostles, no such writings are appointed to be received by us.'
5. This shows the great regard which was paid to the book of the Acts of the Apostles.
6. I scarce need to make any remarks upon the cataJogues above transcribed ; every one perceives how clean they are. The catalogue of the books of the Old Testament is exactly and completely the canon of the Jews, except that the book of Esther is not mentioned. Here is no notice taken of those books of the Old Testament which protestants generally call apocryphal ; and it affords a strong argument, that those books never were reckoned to be of authority:
7. The catalogue of the books of the New Testament contains all which are now generally received by us, and no others: here is no notice taken of the Constitutions, or Recognitions, or any other christian writings; the books above named were all which were esteemed canonical by that part of the church with which this writer was acquainted.
8. However, he presently afterwards mentionsmany teachers and fathers, as Ignatius, Irenæus, Justin, and others, before and after Constantine : but their writings were not of authority; they had not been transmitted down from the beginning with that character.
9. It is observable, that Leontius divides the scriptures of the New Testament into six books : this is a particularity; nevertheless, we saw a like division formerly in the Synopsis ascribed to Athanasius: the only difference is, that there the four gospels are each reckoned one book; and the catalogue of Gelasius, bishop of Rome, about 496, very much resembles, in this respect, that in the Synopsis.
10. It should not be entirely overlooked by us, that this writer says, ' Afterk the return to Jerusalein, Ezra, perceiving that the sacred books had been burnt in the time of the captivity, it was reported, that he wrote them again out of his own memory, even all the two and twenty books of the ancient scripture before mentioned.' Theodoret' speaks to the like purpose : some other learned christian writers in former times have been of the same opinion ; wbich may be seen examined and confuted by Dr. Prideaux,m in his Connection of the History of the Old and New Testament.
8 Εγενοντο δε εν τοις χρόνους τους απο της γενέσεως τ8 Χρισ8 μεχρι της βασιλειας Κωνσταντινα διδασκαλοι και πατερες οιδε. . Ib. Act. iii. p. 503. C.
b See vol. iv. p. 163.
Κ ο δε Εσδρας συνεγραψατο την επανοδον αυτων. . Και ελθων εις τα Ιεροσολυμα, και εύρων, ότι παντα τα βιβλια ησαν καυθεντα, ήνικα ηχμαλωτισθησαν, απο μνημης λεγεται συγγραψασθαι τα κβ' βιβλια, άπερ εν τοις ανω απηριθμηDaueda. Act. 2. fin. p. 502. D.
11. I shall put down but one select passage only, in which Leontius says, ' that" our Lord was baptized when he was thirty years of age, and having wrought many miracles, and taught the Jews, he was crucified in the thirtythird year of bis age. Whence it may be argued, that he computed not more than three passovers in our Lord's ministry, according to St. John's gospel.
1. VENERABLE Bedea is placed by Cave as flourishing about the year 701. He was born in England, in the county of Durham, in 672, as some say ; in 673, or 674, as c others: be died ind 735.
2. Bede, beside many other works, wrote Commentaries upon all the books of the New Testainent, now generally received.
3. He seems not to have had in his copies the doxology, which we now bave at the conclusion of the Lord's Prayer in St. Matthew's gospel ; for he has twicee explained every other part of the prayer, without taking any notice of it.
4. Cave, in bis article of Bede, has published, from an ancient manuscript, a prologue to the seven catholic epistles, wanting in all the editions of Bede's works.
See ch. cxxxi. p. 15, 16. in this volume. * See Part. i. Book v. at the year before Christ, 446.
Ετεχθη γαρ-και ηυξησε, και γενομενος ετων Χ' εβαπτισθη, και μετα το βαπτισμα ηρξατο σημεια ποιειν, και διδασκειν της Ιεδαιος, και τη λγ ετει εσαυρωθη, κ. λ. Ιb. Act. i. p. 495. C.
· Vid. Cav. H. L. L. E. Du Pin, Bib. T. vi. et Bedæ Hist. Ec. a Jo. Şmith. Cantabr. 1722.
b Cav. ubi
supra. .c Vid. Pagi Ann. 693. n. viii. et 731. n. v.
Pagi Ann. 731. n. iv. v. vi. • Exposit. in Matth. Evang. cap. vi. p. 18. Et Conf. p. 91. T. v. Colon. 1688.
5. Bcde there enumerates the seven epistles in the order now used by us: he says, ' that the epistle of James is placed first, either because he was bishop of the church of Jerusalem, where the gospel was first preached, and from whence it was sprcad over the whole world; or else, because the epistle was written to the twelve tribes of Israel, who were the first believers. Peter's epistles,' he says, 'are placed next, because he wrote to the elect strangers,' that is, to such as had been proselyted from Gentilism to Judaism, and after that were converted to the christian religion; and,' he says, 'that John's epistles are fitly placed after the foregoing, because he wrote to believers from anong the Gentiles, who before were not the people of God, neither by nature, nor by profession : moreover, as he adds, 'many ecclesiastical writers had said, that his first epistle was written to Parthians. The epistle of Jude is placed last ; for though he was great, he was inferior to the three forementioned apostles; and besides, their epistles having been first placed, his comes last of course.' Bede proceeds, and says, It is certain, that James completed his testimony in the thirtieth year after our Lord's passion; Peter suffered in the thirty-eighth year, that is, the last year of Nero; and in his second epistle he speaks of his death as then approaching ; whence it appears, that epistle was written a good while after the death of James; his two epistles could not be separated from each other, since they were written to the saine churches : and long after this John wrote his
* Jacobus, Petrus, Joannes, Judas, septem epistolas ediderunt, quas ecclesiastica consuetudo catholicas, i. e. universales, cognominat. In quibus ideo prinia epistola Jacobi ponitur, quia ipse Jerosolymorum regendam suscepit ecclesiam -vel certe quia ipse duodecim tribubus Israëlis, quæ primæ crediderunt, suam epistolam misit, merito prima poni debuit. Merito Petri secunda, quia ipse "electis
advenis' scripsit, qui de Gentilitate ad Judaismum de Judaismo ad electionis evangelicæ gratiam, conversi sunt. Merito Johannis epistolæ tertio loco sunt positæ, quia his scripsit ipse, qui de Gentibus crediderunt, cum nec professione exstitissent. Denique multi scriptorum ecclesiasticorum, in quibus est S. Athanasius, Alexandrinæ præsul ecclesiæ, primam ejus epistolam scriptam ad Parthos esse testantur. Merito Judæ posita est ultima, quia, quamvis et ipse magnus est, tribus tamen præcedentibus apostolis minor est; vel quia. Constat enim quia beatus Jacobus tricesimo post passionem Domini anno suum consummavit martyrium. Petrus tricesiino octavo, hoc est, ultimo anno Neronis, passus est, et ipse in secundà suâ scripsit epistolâ : Certus sum' [Cap. i. 14.] Unde patet, quia imminente passione hanc scripsit epistolam, cum multo ante Jacobus migravit ad Christum. Neque vero conveniebat ejus epistolas ad invicem separari, quas iisdem scripsit ecclesiis
. Porro Joannes multo post tempore suas cpistolas simul et evangelium scripsit, qui post occisionem Dominicam (Domitiani] reversus de exilio turbatam se absente per hæreticos reperit ecclesiam, quos in suis epistolis percutiens sæpe cognominat antichristos. Ap. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 614.
epistles, and his gospel, all about the same time; for after the death of Domitian, being returned froin his exile, be found the church disturbed by heretics, which had arisen in his absence, whom, in his epistles, he often calls anticbrists.'
6. I would add, that the late Dr. Humphry Hody has distinctly considered Bede's testimony to the books of the Old Testainent,
1. His time. II. A catalogue of the books of the Old and
New Testament. Ill. Remarks upon it. IV. Select passages and observations, showing his respect for the scriptures.
I. JOHN DAMASCENUS, descended of a good family at Damascus, and, in the latter part of his life, monk and presbyter, flourished about the year 730.
II. In a work, entitled Of the Orthodox Faith, he has a chapterb concerning scripture; where he has inserted a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament. It is to this
purpose: • There is one God declared by the Old and New Testament.- Itd is to be observed, then, that there are two and twenty books of the Old Testament, according to the letters of the Hebrew language; for they have two and twenty letters, five of which are written two ways, so as to make seven and twenty.-According to this method of computing, the books are reckoned 22 in number, but are really 27, for five of them are double : Ruth, joined with the Judges, is reckoned one book by the Hebrews; in like manner the first and second of the Kingdoms are one book; the third and fourth of the Kingdoms also are one
8 De Bibl. Text. Orig. p. 654. col. 73.
* Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 624. Oudin. de Scrip. Ecc. T. i. p. 1714, &c. Du Pin, T. vi. p. 101. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. viii. p. 772, &c. Περι γραφης. .
Εις εσιν θεος, υπο τε παλαιας διαθηκης kat kaivns inputtOuevos, &c. De Fide Orthodoxa. 1. iv. c. 17. in. T. i. p. 282. B.
σεον δε, ως εικοσι και δυο βιβλοι εισι της παλαιας διαθηκης, κατα τα τοιχεία της Εβραϊδος φωνης. Ιb. p. 283. C.
book; the first and second of the Remains, one book; the first and second of Ezra, one book : soe that there are four pentateuchs, and two over, which are in the canon; [or, . in the Testament']; and they are these : Five of the Law : Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; that is the first pentateuch, called the Law: thens five more, sometimes called Hagiographa; (or sacred writings ;') Joshua the son of Nun; Judges, with Ruth; the first and second of the Kingdoms, reckoned one book; the third and fourth of the Kingdoms, one book; and the two books of the Remains, also reckoned one book : that is the second pentateuch. The third pentateuch contains the books written in verse; the book of Job; the Psalter ; the Proverbs of Solomon; the Ecclesiastes, of the same; the Song of Songs, of the same. The fourth pentateuch takes in the prophets; the twelve prophets, one book ; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel ; then the book of Ezra, two joined in one book; and Esther; thek book of the Wisdom of Solomon, and the Wisdom of Jesus, which the father of Sirach published in Hebrew, and bis grandson, Jesus, the son of Sirach, afterwards translated into Greek, are excellent and useful ; but they are not nuinbered with the former, nor were they placed in the ark.
• The books of the New Testament are these : the four gospels, according to Matthew, according to Mark, according to Luke, according to John ; the Acts of the Apostles, by the evangelist Luke; seven catholic epistles, one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude; fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul; the Revelation by the evangelist John; the canons' of the holy apostles by Clement.'
III. Upon this we may make a few remarks :
1. This author, though a native of Damascus, wrote in Greek, and is supposed to represent the sentiment or doctrine of the Greek church of his time.
2. His catalogue of the books of the Old Testament, as has been already observed by learned men, is the same with
• Ούτως 8ν συγκεινται αι βιβλοι εν πεντατευχοις τετρασι, και μενεσιν αλλαι δυο ως ειναι τας ενδιαθετες βιβλες ουτως. Ιbid. p. 283. D.
Αυτη πρωτη πεντατευχος, ή και νομοθεσια. p. 284. Α. 8 Ειτα αλλη πεντατευχος, τα καλεμενα γραφεια, παρα τισι δε αγιογραφα. Ibid.
σιχηρεις βιβλοι. Ιbid. . Τεταρτη πεντατευχος, η προφητικη.
Η δε παναρετος, τ8τεσιν η Σοφια το Σολομωντος, και η Σοφια τα ίησε, ήν ο πατηρ μεν το Σιραχ εξεθετο εβραϊσι, ελληνισι δε ηρμηνευσεν ο τοτε εγγονος Ιησες, τα δε Σιραχ υιος εναρετοι μεν και καλαι" αλλ' εκ αριθμονται, εδε εκειντο εν τη κιβωτφ. Ιbid. p. 284. Β. Κανονες των αγιων αποσολων δια Κλημεντος. .