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among those apostles, who did not die by martyrdom ; nor does Clement contradict him.

It is also observable, that" Chrysostom has a commendation of Matthew, consisting of divers articles : bis humility; mercifulness or liberality; piety; general benevolence; writing a gospel; finally, fortitude, inasmuch as “ he came from the presence of the council rejoicing:” referring, I suppose, to Acts v. 41: but says nothing of bis martyrdom. Which may induce us to think, that there was not any tradition about it among christians at that time, or that it was not much regarded. · II. Having thus given the history of this apostle, I proceed to the consideration of his gospel, one of the universally acknowledged books of the new Testament. Two things principally are to be the subjects of our inquiry, the time of writing it, and the language in which it was written. And I propose to recite here briefly all, or most of the authors, that have been largely quoted in the former volumes, so far as relates to those two particulars.

Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, about A. D. 116, by some supposed to have been acquainted with John the apostle, by others with John the elder only, in his five books, entitled, Explications of the Oracles of the Lord, which seem to have been collections of ancient stories and traditions, makes o express mention of Matthew's gospel, and says that he wrote the Divine Oracles in the Hebrew tongue.

Irenæus, bishop of Lyons, about the year 178, who was born in Asia, and in his youth was acquainted with Polycarp, disciple of St. John, says, Matthew, P then among

the Jews, wrote a gospel in their own language, while • Peter and Paul were preaching the gospel at Rome, and

founding (or establishing] the church there. And after • their exit, [that is, death, or departure,] Mark also, the • disciple and interpreter of Peter, delivered to us in writing, the things that had been preached by Peter. And Luke, the companion of Paul, put down in a book the • gospel preached by him. Afterwards John, the disciple • of the Lord, who leaned upon his breast, likewise pub• lished a gospel, wbilst be dwelt at Ephesus in Asia. In


* In Matt. Hom. 48. [al. 49.] T. VII. p. 491. • See of this work, Vol. ii. p. 119.

Ρ ο μεν δε Ματθαιος εν τοις Εβραιοις τη αυτων διαλεκτη και γραφην εξενεγκεν ευαγγελια, τα Πετρο, και το Παυλο εν Ρωμη ευαγγελιζομενων και OxuellevTWY TOV Erkanoiav. «. 1. Adv. Hær. 1. 3. cap. i. Et ap. Euseb. l. 5. c. 8. And in this work, Vol. ii. p. 170.

another place he says, “ the 9 gospel according to Matthew was delivered to the Jews.'

Origen, about 230, says, 'that' according to the tradition received by him, the first gospel was written by Matthew, once a publican, afterwards a disciple of Jesus • Christ: who delivered it to the Jewish believers, com• posed in the Hebrew language. And in another place he says,

• that s Matthew wrote for the Hebrews.' Says Eusebius, about 315, • Matthew having first • preached to the Hebrews, when he was about to go to other people, delivered to them in their own language the

gospel according to him, by that writing supplying the • want of his presence with those whom he was leav. ing:

Athanasius, in his Festal Epistle, “ does not say where, or in what language Matthew wrote. But in the Synopsis ascribed to him, it is said, ' that' Matthew wrote his gos. pel in Hebrew, and published it at Jerusalem.'

Cyril of Jerusalem says, ' that " Matthew wrote in He• brew.'

Epiphanius likewise says, ' that * Matthew wrote in He« brew.' And afterwards. • Matthew y wrote first, and • Mark soon after him, being a follower of Peter at Rome.' If Mark did not write till after Peter came to Rome, and Matthew but a little before him ; it follows, that Matthew's gospel was not written so soon as many later writers have supposed.

Gregory Nazianzen in his catalogue says, that? Matthew wrote for the Hebrews.'

And Ebedjesu,' that. Matthew, the first evangelist, pub• lished his gospel in Palestine, written in Hebrew.'

Theodore of Mopsuestia, says, that for a good while • the apostles preached chiefly to Jews in Judea.

After* wards Providence made way for conducting them to re• mote countries. Peter went to Rome, the rest elsewhere : • John, in particular, took up his abode at Ephesus—About • this time the other evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, * published their gospels, which were soon spread all over the • world. This supposeth a late date of the gospels, as was argued, Vol. iv. ch. cxiii. num. iii.2, that is, after the beginning of Nero's reign, when Peter went to Rome, and not long before the war in Judea, which broke out in 66, about which time Jobn left that country, and settled at Ephesus.

9 Vol. ii.

Ib. p. 494.

& P. 515. ! Vol. iv. p. 95, 133.

( P. 155.

v P. 165. w P. 173.

» P. 188. 5 Ευθυς δε μετα τον Ματθαιον ακολαθος γενομενος ο Μαρκος τω αγιω Πετρώ EV 'Pwup. Citat. ib. p. 305. 2 See Vol. iv. p. 287.

· P. 321.

6 P. 398.

Says Jerom in the prologue to his Commentary upon St. Matthew : . The first evangelist is Matthew, the publi• can, surnamed Levi, who wrote his gospel in Judea, in the • Hebrew language, chiefly for the sake of the Jews that be• lieved in Jesus, and did not join the shadow of the law • with the truth of the gospel.' To the like purpose in the article of St. Matthew, in his book of Ecclesiastical Writers: • Matthew,' called also Levi, of a publican made an apostle, • first of all wrote a gospel in Judea in the Hebrew language,

for the sake of those of the circumcision, who be• lieved. Who afterwards translated it into Greek, iş un• certain.'

Chrysostom in the introduction to his homilies upon this gospel : • Matthewe is said to have written bis gospel at

the request of the Jewish believers, who desired him to * put down in writing what he had taught them by word of . mouth : and he is said to have written in Hebrew. He speaks with hesitation, and is not positive about the occasion of writing this gospel, or the language in which it was written. Afterwards he says: “In' what place • each one of the evangelists wrote, cannot be said with • certainty.'

Cosmas of Alexandria, about the year 535, says: Mat• thews is the first evangelist that wrote a gospel. There

being a persecution, when Stephen was stoned, and he • also being about to go from that place, the believers en• treated bim to leave with them a written instruction, with • which request be complied.'

And what follows. The author of the Imperfect Work upon St. Matthew, in the sixth century, about the year 560, observes to this purpose: The occasion of Matthew's writing is said to be

this. There being a great persecution in Palestine, so • that there was danger, lest all the faithful should be dis• persed: that they might not be without teaching, though • they should have no teachers, they requested Matthew to * write for them a history of all Christ's words and works, that · wherever they should be, they sbould have with them the • ground of their faith.' This writer does not say, that this was the persecution that arose about the time of the death of Stephen.

He seems to speak of a later, and more c P. 439.

d P. 441. e P. 538.

f P. 539. 6 Vol. v. p. 94.

h P, 119, 120.

general persecution and dispersion, such as may be well supposed to have been in Judea, near the war in 66 ; when most, or all of the apostles, and many of the Jewish believers, removed, and were dispersed into other countries.

In the Paschal Chronicle, a work composed in the seventh century, as formerly cited, it is intimated, that i St. Matthew published bis gospel in Palestine, about fifteen years after our Lord's ascension, and soon after the council at Jerusalem, of which an account is given Acts xv.

And to draw to a conclusion of this list of writers. Theophylact, in the eleventh century, says :

• Matthew then k first wrote a gospel in the Hebrew language, for • the sake of the Hebrew believers, eight years after our * Saviour's ascension.'

Euthymius in the beginning of the twelfth century: • That! Matthew's gospel was the first, and written in Ju· dea, in Hebrew for the Jewish believers, eight years after our Lord's ascension.'

Nicephorus Callisti, in the fourteenth century, says: • Matthew m baving preached the saving word to the Jews, • when he was about to go abroad to the Gentiles, thought • it best to write in bis native language an account of his preaching, to supply the want of his presence; which • he did at about fifteen years after our Saviour's ascension.'

III. Who now of all these writers deserves the greatest regard ? Irenæus, I think, as being the most ancient. And with bim agree Epiphanius, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and the author of the Imperfect Work, as it seems. Nor is he contradicted by Eusebius of Cæsarea, so far as I can perceive;" he says, ' that when Matthew was about to go to • other people, he delivered his gospel to the Hebrews in • their own language.' But he does not say in bis Ecclesiastical History, nor any where else, when this apostle left Judea. Someo


have understood biin to mean about eight years after our Saviour's ascension, and others about fifteen years after it, as Nicephorus and perhaps the Paschal Chronicle; but himself 'has not expressly mentioned the time : and he may have been undetermined in bis mind about the time when Matthew left Judea. Moreover, he has inserted P in bis Ecclesiastical History the passage of Irenæus above quoted, upon which we insist. And a late See vol. iv. p. 133.

* Vol. v. p. 158, 159. I P. 166. m P. 168, 169.

"Vol. iv. p. 133. o P. 132-134.

p L. 5. cap. 8. p. 172. I.

date of the gospels is agreeable to his own, and others' observations, before taken notice of, that the apostles of Cbrist did not write many books, and were not very forward to write but as they were compelled by a kind of necessity,

There are divers learned moderns of good judgment in these matters, who pay a great regard to this testimony of Irenæus, particularly, 9 Fabricius, ' Mill, S. Basnage, and before them · Martin Chemnitius.

Mill supposed it to be bighly probable, that " Irenæus had this account from Papias. Le Clerc' likewise seems to have thought, that Irenæus found this in the five books of Papias: but that is only conjecture. Eusebius quoting Papias observes, that he said, Matthew wrote in Hebrew. But he does not say, that Papias mentioned the time of writing his gospel. However, it was the opinion of Irenæus ; and it may be reckoned not improbable, that he had a tradition to that purpose, which he relied upon as right, for he speaks of it without hesitation. It might be derived from several, one of whom was Papias.

Irenæus says, that. Matthew published his gospel when • Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome : ibat is, says

Mill, in the year 61. For,' adds be, I understand him of the first time that Paul was at Rome :' But if Irenæus says right, it must have been at the second time that Paul was at Rome ; for we have no reason to believe that Peter was at all in that city when Paul was sent thither by Festus: but, very probably, Peter and Paul were there together afterwards, and suffered martyrdom there about the same time. That is the season to which we should be led for fixing the writing of St. Matthew's Gospel, if Irenæus may be relied upon. Accordingly Basnage * in his annals



9 De tempore, quando scripserit, cui potius fidem habeamus, quam S. Irenæo, temporibus illis proximo, qui tradit eum edidisse evangelium, te Πετρο και το Παυλο εν Ρωμη ευαγγελιζομενων και θεμελιοντων την εκκλησιαν. Bib. Gr. I. 4. c. 5. T. 3. p. 126. 'Prolegom. num. 61.

A. 64. n. xii. · Examen Concil. Trid. p.

16. u Tamen Irenæus l. 3. c. i. expresse dicit, (ex auctoritate Papiæ, nullus dubito, qui napadooi hanc a Johanne presbytero, apostolorum familiari, acceperat,) Matthæum evangelium suum edidisse, ‘cum Petrus et Paulus evangelizarent Romæ, et fundarent ecclesiam.' Proleg. num. 61.

Vid. Diss. de iv. Evang. sub init. " Atque hoc ipso quidem anno LXI. prodiisse videtur evangelium Matthæi -Ego quidem de priori adventu intelligendum Irenæum omnino arbitror. Ib. num. 61, 62.

* Quo tempore Petrus Paulusque Romæ operam dabant evangelio, Matthæus, si creditur Irenæo, evangelium exaravit suum-Annum tamen perinde

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