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fred and his (Manfred's) son. Other held the distaff, Lachesis spun the commentators say they were certain thread, and Atropos cut it. members of the Order of Frati Gau Odyssey, XI. : “ After him I perdenti. In 1300, the date of the poem, ceived the might of Hercules, an imAlberigo was still living.
age ; for he himself amongst the im120. A Rowland for an Oliver. mortal gods is delighted with banquets,
124. This division of Cocytus, the and has the fair-legged Hebe, daughter Lake of Lamentation, is called Ptolo- of mighty Jove, and golden-sandalled mæa from Ptolomeus, i Maccabees xvi. Juno.” 11, where “ the captain of Jericho in- 137. Ser Branco d'Oria was a Genviteth Simon and two of his sons into oese, and a member of the celebrated his castle, and there treacherously mur- Doria family of that city. Neverthedereth them”; for “ when Simon and less he murdered at table his father-inhis sons had drunk largely, Ptolomee law, Michel Zanche, who is mentioned and his men rose up, and took their Canto XXII. 88. weapons, and came upon Simon into 151. This vituperation of the Genthe banqueting-place, and slew him, and oese reminds one of the bitter Tuscan his two sons, and certain of his servants.” proverb against them : “ Sea without
Or perhaps from Ptolemy, who mur fish; mountains without trees ; men dered Pompey after the battle of Phar. without faith; and women without salia.
shame.” 126. Of the three Fates, Clotho 154. Friar Alberigo.
“Vexilla regis prodeunt,
1. The fourth and last division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca, –
“the smallest circle, at the point Of all the Universe, where Dis is seated."
The first line, " The banners of the king of Hell come forth,” is a parody of the first line of a Latin hymn of the sixth century, sung in the churches during Passion week, and written by Fortunatus, an Italian by birth, but who died Bishop of Poitiers in 600. The first stanza of this hymn is,
See Königsfeld, Lateinische Hymnen und Gesänge aus dem Mittelalter, 64.
18. Milton, Parad. Lost, V. 708:—
28. Compare Milton's descriptions of Satan, Parad. Lost, I. 192, 589, II. 636, IV. 985:
“On the other side, Satan, alarmed, Collecting all his might, dilated stood, Like Teneriff or Atlas, unremoved : His stature reached the sky, and on his crest Sat horror plumed; nor wanted in his grasp What seemed both spear and shield.”
“Thus Satan, talking to his nearest mate, With head uplift above the wave, and eyes That sparkling blazed ; his other parts besides Prone on the flood, extended long and large, Lay Aoating many a rood, in bulk as huge As whom the fables name of monstrous size, Titanian, or Earth-born, that warred on Jove, Briareus, or Typhon, whom the den By ancient Tarsus held, or that sea-beast Leviathan, which God of all his works Created hugest that swim the ocean stream: Him, haply, slumbering on the Norway foam, The pilot of some small night-foundered
skiff, Deeming some island, oft, as seamen tell, With fixed anchor in his scaly rind Moors by his side under the lee, while night Invests the sea, and wished morn delays. So stretched out huge in length the Arch-fiend
lay Chained on the burning lake.”
“He, above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent, Stood like a tower : his form had yet not lost All her original brightness, nor appeared Less than archangel ruined, and the excess Of glory obscured : as when the sun new
risen Looks through the horizontal misty air, Shorn of his beams; or from behind the
moon, In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight sheds On half the nations, and with fear of change Perplexes monarchs : darkened so, yet sbone Above them all the Archangel."
38. The Ottimo and Benvenuto both interpret the three faces as symbolizing Ignorance, Hatred, and Impotence. Others interpret them as signifying the three quarters of the then known world, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
45. Æthiopia; the region about the Cataracts of the Nile. 48. Milton, Parad. Lost, II. 527:
“At last his sail-broad vans He spreads for flight, and in the surging smoke . Uplifted spurns the ground.”
55. Landor in his Pentameron, 527, makes Petrarca say: “ This is atrocious, not terrific nor grand. Alighieri is grand by his lights, not by his shadows; by his human affections, not by his infernal. As the minutest sands are the labors of some profound sea, or the spoils of some vast mountain, in like manner his horrid wastes and wearying minutenesses are the chafings of a turbulent spirit, grasping the loftiest things, and penetrating the deepest, and moving and moaning on the earth in loneliness and sadness.”
62. Gabriele Rossetti, Spirito Antipapale, I. 75, Miss Ward's Tr., says : « The three spirits, who hang from the mouths of his Satan, are Judas, Brutus, and Cassius. The poet's reason for selecting those names has never yet been satisfactorily accounted for; but we have no hesitation in pronoun
“As when far off at sea a fleet descried Hangs in the clouds, by equinoctial winds Close sailing from Bengala or the isles Of Ternate and Tidore, whence merchants
bring Their spicy drugs : they on the trading flood Through the wide Æthiopian to the Cape Ply, stemming nightly toward the pole: so
seemed Far off the flying fiend."
cing it to have been this, — he con- in length with the change of season. sidered the Pope not only a betrayer “ These hours,” says Dante, Convito, and seller of Christ, — Where gain- III. 6, “ are short or long ..... acful merchandise is made of Christ cording as day and night increase or throughout the livelong day,' (Parad. diminish.” Terza was the first divis17,) and for that reason put Judas into ion after sunrise ; and at the equinox his centre mouth; but a traitor and would be from six till nine. Conserebel to Cæsar, and therefore placed quently mezza terza, or middle tierce, Brutus and Cassius in the other two would be half past seven. mouths; for the Pope, who was origi 114. Jerusalem. nally no more than Cæsar's vicar, 125. The Mountain of Purgatory, became his enemy, and usurped the rising out of the sea at a point directly capital of his empire, and the supreme opposite Jerusalem, upon the other side authority. His treason to Christ was of the globe. It is an island in the not discovered by the world in general; South Pacific Ocean. hence the face of Judas is hidden, - 130. This brooklet is Lethe, whose • He that hath his head within, and source is on the summit of the Mounplies the feet without' (Inf. 34); his tain of Purgatory, flowing down to treason to Cæsar was open and mani- mingle with Acheron, Styx, and Phlefest, therefore Brutus and Cassius show gethon, and form Cocytus. See Canto their faces.”
XIV. 136. He adds in a note : “ The situation 138. It will be observed that each of Judas is the same as that of the of the three divisions of the Divine Popes who were guilty of simony.” Comedy ends with the word “Stars,"
68. The evening of Holy Satur- suggesting and symbolizing endless asday.
piration. At the end of the Inferno 77. Iliad, V. 305: “ With this he Dante “ re-beholds the stars”; at the struck the hip of Æneas, where the end of the Purgatorio he is “ ready to thigh turns on the hip.”
ascend to the stars”; at the end of the 95. The canonical day, from sun- Paradiso he feels the power of “ that rise to sunset, was divided into four Love which moves the sun and other equal parts, called in Italian Terza, stars." He is now looking upon the Sesta, Nona, and Vespro, and varying morning stars of Easter Sunday.