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of Jove, as she was going to Pythos, bow, and an arrow at the string, lookthrough the delightful Panopeus. ing about terribly, was always like unto

And I beheld Tantalus suffering se- one about to let Ay a shaft. And there vere griefs, standing in a lake ; and it was a fearful belt around his breast, the approached his chin. But he stood thong was golden: on which wondrous thirsting, and he could not get anything forms were wrought, bears, and wild to drink; for as often as the old man boars, and terrible lions, and contests, stooped, desiring to drink, so often the and battles, and slaughters, and slayings water, being sucked up, was lost to him; of men ; he who devised that thong and the black earth appeared around with his art, never having wrought his feet, and the deity dried it up. And such a one before, could not work any lofty trees shed down fruit from the other such. But he immediately knew top, pear-trees, and apples, and pome me, when he saw me with his eyes, and, granates producing glorious fruit, and pitying me, addressed winged words: sweet figs, and flourishing olives : of “O`Jove-born son of Laertes, muchwhich, when the old man raised him- contriving Ulysses, ah! wretched one, self up to pluck some with his hands, thou too art certainly pursuing some the wind kept casting them away to evil fate, which I also endured under the dark clouds.

the beams of the sun. I was indeed And I beheld Sisyphus, having vio- the son of Jove, the son of Saturn, but lent griefs, bearing an enormous stone I had infinite labor ; for I was subwith both his hands: he indeed lean- jected to a much inferior man, who ing with his hands and feet kept thrust- enjoined upon me difficult contests : ing the stone up to the top : but when and once he sent me hither to bring it was about to pass over the summit, the dog, for he did not think that there then strong force began to drive it back was any contest more difficult than this. again, then the impudent stone rolled I indeed brought it up and led it from to the plain ; but he, striving, kept Pluto, but Mercury and blue-eyed Mithrusting it back, and the sweat flowed nerva escorted me.” down from his limbs, and a dirt arose Thus having spoken, he went again from his head.

within the house of Pluto. But I reAfter him I perceived the might of mained there firmly, if by chance any Hercules, an image ; for he himself one of the heroes, who perished in amongst the immortal gods is delighted former times, would still come ; and I with banquets, and has the fair-legged should now still have seen former men, Hebe, daughter of mighty Jove and whom I wished, Theseus, and Pirigolden-sandalled Juno. And around thoüs, glorious children of the gods ; him there was a clang of the dead, as but first myriads of nations of the dead of birds, frighted on all sides; but he, were assembled around me with a fine like unto dark night, having a naked clamor ; and pale fear seized me, lest to me illustrious Proserpine should send a Gorgon head of a terrific monster from Orcus. Going then immediately to my ship, I ordered my companions to go on board themselves, and to

loose the halsers. But they quickly embarked, and sat down on the benches. And the wave of the stream carried it through the ocean river, first the rowing and afterwards a fair wind.


Book VI. Davidson's Tr., revised by Buckley.

..... Ye gods, to whom the empire of having her viperous locks bound with ghosts belongs, and ye silent shades, and bloody fillets. Chaos, and Phlegethon, places where In the midst a gloomy elm displays silence reigns around in night! permit its boughs and aged arms, which seat me to utter the secrets I have heard; vain Dreams are commonly said to may I by your divine will disclose haunt, and under every leaf they dwell. things buried in deep earth and dark. Many monstrous savages, moreover, of ness. They moved along amid the various forms, stable in the gates, the gloom under the solitary night through Centaurs and double-formed Scyllas, the shade, and through the desolate and Briareus with his hundred hands, halls and empty realms of Pluto ; such and the enormous snake of Lerma hissas is a journey in woods beneath the ing dreadful, and Chimæra armed with unsteady moon, under a faint, glimmer- Alames; Gorgons, Harpies, and the ing light, when Jupiter hath wrapped form of Geryon's three-bodied ghost. the heavens in shade, and sable night Here Æneas, disconcerted with sudden had stripped objects of color.

fear, grasps his sword, and presents the Before the vestibule itself, and in the naked point to each approaching shade: first jaws of hell, Grief and vengeful and had not his skilful guide put him Cares have placed their couches, and in mind that they were airy unbodied pale Diseases dwell, and disconsolate phantoms, Auttering about under an Old Age, and Fear, and the evil coun- empty form, he had rushed in and with sellor Famine, and vile, deformed Indi- his sword struck at the ghosts in vain. gence, forms ghastly to the sight! and Hence is a path which leads to the Death, and Toil; then Sleep, akin to floods of Tartarean Acheron : here a Death, and criminal Joys of the mind; gulf turbid and impure boils up with and in the opposite threshold murder- mire and vast whirlpools, and disgorges ous War, and the iron bedchambers all its sand into Cocytus. A grim of the Furies, and frantic Discord, ferryman guards these floods and rivers, Charon, of frightful slovenliness ; on of Cocytus, and the Stygian lake, by whose chin a load of gray hair neg- whose divinity the gods dread to swear lected lies; his eyes are fame : his and violate their oath. All that crowd vestments hang from his shoulders by which you see consists of naked and una knot, with filth overgrown. Himself buried persons : that ferryman is Chathrusts on the barge with a pole, and ron : these, whom the stream carries, tends the sails, and wafts over the bod. are interred; for it is not permitted to ies in his iron-colored boat, now in transport them over the horrid banks, years: but the god is of fresh and green and hoarse waves, before their bones are old age. Hither the whole tribe in quietly lodged in a final abode. They swarms come pouring to the banks, wander a hundred years, and flutter matrons and men, the souls of magnan- about these shores : then, at length adimous heroes who had gone through mitted, they visit the wished-for lakes. life, boys and unmarried maids, and The Offspring of Anchises paused young men who had been stretched and repressed his steps, deeply musing, on the funeral pile before the eyes of and pitying from his soul their unkind their parents; as numerous as withered lot. There he espies Leucaspis, and leaves fall in the woods with the first Orontes, the commander of the Lycian cold of autumn, or as numerous as feet, mournful, and bereaved of the birds flock to the land from the deep honors of the dead: whom as they ocean, when the chilling year drives sailed from Troy, over the stormy seas, them beyond sea, and sends them to the south wind sunk together, whelmsunny climes. They stood praying ing both ship and crew in the waves. to cross the flood the first, and were Lo! the pilot Palinurus slowly adstretching forth their hands with fond vanced, who lately in his Libyan voydesire to gain the farther bank: but age, while he was observing the stars, the sullen boatman admits sometimes had fallen from the stern, plunged in these, sometimes those ; while others the midst of the waves. When with to a great distance removed, he debars difficulty, by reason of the thick shade, from the banks.

Æneas knew him in this mournful Æneas (for he was amazed and mood, he thus first accosts him: What moved with the tumult) thus speaks : god, O Palinurus, snatched you from O virgin, say, what means that focking us, and overwhelmed you in the middle to the river ? what do the ghosts de- of the ocean? Come, tell me. For sire? or by what distinction must these Apollo, whom I never before found recede from the banks, those sweep false, in this one response deceived my with oars the livid food ? To him mind, declaring that you should be safe the aged priestess thus briefly replied: on the sea, and arrive at the Ausonian Son of Anchises, undoubted offspring coasts. Is this the amount of his plightof the gods, you see the deep poolsed faith ?

But he answers : Neither the oracle wretch, and bear me with you over the of Phæbus beguiled you, prince of the waves, that in death at least I may rest line of Anchises, nor a god plunged me in peaceful seats. in the sea ; for, falling headlong, I Thus he spoke, when thus the prophdrew along with me the helm, which etess began : Whence, O Palinurus, I chanced with great violence to tear rises in thee this so impious desire ? away, as I clung to it and steered our Shall you unburied behold the Stygian course, being appointed pilot. By the floods, and the grim river of the Furies, rough seas I swear that I was not so or reach the bank against the command seriously apprehensive for myself, as of heaven ? Cease to hope that the that thy ship, despoiled of her rudder, decrees of the gods are to be altered by dispossessed of her pilot, might sink prayers; but mindful take these prewhile such high billows were rising. dictions as the solace of your hard fate. The south wind drove me violently on For the neighboring people, compelled the water over the spacious sea, three by portentous plagues from heaven, wintry nights : on the fourth day I shall through their several cities far descried Italy from the high ridge of a and wide offer atonement to thy ashes, wave whereon I was raised aloft. I erect a tomb, and stated anniversary was swimming gradually toward land, offerings on that tomb present; and and should have been out of danger, the place shall forever retain the name had not the cruel people fallen upon of Palinurus. By these words his cares me with the sword (encumbered with were removed, and grief was for a time my wet garment, and grasping with banished from his disconsoiate heart: crooked hands the rugged tops of a he rejoices in the land that is to bear mountain), and ignorantly taking me his name. for a rich prey. Now the waves pos- They therefore accomplish their sess me, and the winds toss me about journey begun, and approach the river: the shore. But by the pleasant light whom when the boatman soon from of heaven, and by the vital air, by the Stygian wave beheld advancing him who gave thee birth, by the hope through the silent grove, and stepping of rising sülus, I thee implore, invin- forward to the bank, thus he first accible one, release me from these woes: costs them in words, and chides them either throw on me some earth (for unprovoked: Whoever thou mayest be, thou canst do so), and seek out the who art now advancing armed to our Veline port; or, if there be any means, rivers, say quick for what end thou if thy goddess mother point out any, comest; and from that very spot re(for thou dost not, I presume, without press thy step. This is the region of the will of the gods, attempt to cross Ghosts, of Sleep, and drowsy Night : such mighty rivers and the Stygian to waft over the bodies of the living lake,) lend your hand to an unhappy in my Stygian boat is not permitted. Nor indeed was it joy to me that I re- weed. Huge Cerberus makes these ceived Alcides on the lake when he realms to resound with barking from came, or Theseus and Pirithous, though his triple jaws, stretched at his enorthey were the offspring of the gods, mous length in a den that fronts the and invincible in might. One with gate. To whom the prophetess, seehis hand put the keeper of Tartarus ing his neck now bristle with horin chains, and dragged him trembling rid snakes, Aings a soporific cake of from the throne of our king himself; honey and medicated grain. He, in the others attempted to carry off our the mad rage of hunger, opening his queen from Pluto's bedchamber. " three mouths, snatches the offered mor

In answer to which the Amphrysian sel, and, spread on the ground, relaxes prophetess spoke: No such plots are his monstrous limbs, and is extended at here, be not disturbed ; nor do these vast length over all the cave. Æneas, weapons bring violence : the huge now that the keeper of hell is buried porter may bay in his den forever, ter- in sleep, seizes the passage, and swift rifying the incorporeal shades : chaste overpasses the bank of that food whence Proserpine may remain in her uncle's there is no return. palace. Trojan Æneas, illustrious for Forthwith are heard voices, loud piety and arms, descends to the deep wailings, and weeping ghosts of inshades of Erebus to his sire. If the fants, in the first opening of the gate : image of such piety makes no impres- whom, bereaved of sweet life out of sion on you, own a regard at least to the course of nature, and snatched from this branch (she shows the branch that the breast, a black day cut off, and burwas concealed under her robe). Then ied in an untimely grave. his heart from swelling rage is stilled: Next to those are such as had been nor passed more words than these. He, condemned to death by false accusations. with wonder gazing on the hallowed Nor yet were those seats assigned them present of the fatal branch, beheld after without a trial, without a judge. Mia long season, turns toward them his nos, as inquisitor, shakes the urn: he lead-colored barge, and approaches the convokes the council of the silent, and bank. Thence he dislodges the other examines their lives and crimes. souls that sat on the long benches, and The next places in order those mournclears the hatches; at the same time re- ful ones possess who, though free from ceives into the hold the mighty Æneas. crime, procured death to themselves The boat of sewn hide groaned under with their own hands, and, sick of the the weight, and, being leaky, took in light, threw away their lives. How much water from the lake. At length gladly would they now endure povhe lands the hero and the prophetess erty and painful toils in the upper resafe on the other side of the river, gions ! Fate opposes, and the hateful on the foul, slimy strand and sea-green lake imprisons them with its dreary

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