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gulfed by an earthquake, or some other terrible convulsion of nature. But it happened so long ago, that all recollection of the catastrophe is completely lost. The defacement and complete obliteration of some of the ornaments, by the operation of the atmosphere, likewise indicates great antiquity. The style and workmanship of some of the temples is said to be very grand and striking. There are many colossal images of deities, and of elephants, lions, and other animals connected with their history. Human figures like dwarfs are often placed in striking contrast with these huge creatures. The Symbol of Generation in some of the temples indicates that Siva was worshipped there. But the buildings are principally consecrated to Vishnu, especially to his incarnation in the form of Crishna. There is a colossal image of Vishnu sleeping on his thousand-headed snake covered with stars. In one place Crishna is represented enfolded by the Serpent of Death; in another, treading the Serpent under his feet, in allusion to his victory over death. He is also represented with the Nine Gopias dancing round him. In fact, whole scenes from the Mahabharata are sculptured on the walls. There are inscrip tions over several of the statues, but they have not yet been deciphered. Tradition attributes these edifices and Cyclopean walls to kings of the race of Pandos, relatives of Crishna, and conspicuous in his history.

At Tanjore, in the south of India, is a very celebrated old temple, formed of massive hewn stones, piled one above another, without exterior decoration. It is in the form of a pyramid, two hundred feet high. The interior contains a large hall, lighted by lamps, where the Bramins assemble to perform certain religious ceremonies. The worship of Siva is indicated by the Symbol of Generation, and a colossal image of his Bull, called Nundi. It is formed of an entire block of brown porphyry, sixteen fees long, and twelve feet high. This animal was an object of religious worship, and his annual festival was observed with much pomp, during which the people went to his temple in procession, with flutes, cymbals, and garlands

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There is no determinate account when this structure was erected; and that circumstance, together with its primitive style of architecture, indicates high antiquity.

At Chalambron, in the district of Tanjore, are a collection of sacred buildings, within a double enclosure. On each side is a magnificent gateway, formed of large blocks of stone, with pilasters thirty-two feet high, surmounted by a pyramid one hundred and fifty feet high, ornamented from top to bottom with sculptures. There are three chapels within a separate enclosure. One contains no religious symbol to indicate the deity to whom it was consecrated. One is dedicated to Vishnu, the other to Siva. A large tank occupies the centre of the area, with a colonnade and steps of stone, by which pilgrims descend into the holy water. On the right side is the largest temple, dedicated to Parvati, whose statue stands immediately facing the entrance. The portico is supported on six rows of columns, covered from top to bottom with carved figures. The sanctuary is lighted by numerous lamps, and before it stands an image of the Sacred Bull. The pilasters which form the entrance are connected by a chain, curiously carved from one piece of stone. On the other side of the tank is a chapel standing in the middle of an enormous hall, three hundred and sixty feet long, and two hundred and sixty broad. The flat roof is formed of immense blocks of stone laid horizontally, supported by upwards of one thousand pillars. Every part of this hall is ornamented with sculptures, representing scenes from the Mahabharata, and other Sacred Writings. These various halls and chapels were intended for the reception of statues, conveyed on huge cars, during some of the annual festivals. Three thousand Bramins were employed in the services of this sanctuary. The enormous expenses were defrayed by the vast concourse of pilgrims that flocked thither. One of the Pouranas record that these edifices were erected six hundred and seventeen years before our era; but portions are believed to be of later date. One of the large gate

gulfed by an earthquake, or some other terrible conyulsion of nature. But it happened so long ago, that all recollection of the catastrophe is completely lost. The defacement and complete obliteration of some of the ornaments, by the operation of the atmosphere, likewise indicates great antiquity. The style and workmanship of some of the temples is said to be very grand and striking. There are many colossal images of deities, and of elephants, lions, and other animals connected with their history. Human figures like dwarfs are often placed in striking contrast with these huge creatures. The Symbol of Generation in some of the temples indicates that Siva was worshipped there. But the buildings are principally consecrated to Vishnu, especially to his incarnation in the form of Crishna. There is a colossal image of Vishnu sleeping on his thousand-headed snake covered with stars. In one place Crishna is represented enfolded by the Serpent of Death; in another, treading the Serpent under his feet, in allusion to his victory over death. He is also represented with the Nine Gopias dancing round him. In fact, whole scenes from the Mahabharata are sculptured on the walls. There are inscriptions over several of the statues, but they have not yet been deciphered. Tradition attributes these edifices and Cyclopean walls to kings of the race of Pandos, relatives of Crishna, and conspicuous in his history.

At Tanjore, in the south of India, is a very celebrated old temple, formed of massive hewn stones, piled one above another, without exterior decoration. It is in the forın of a pyramid, two hundred feet high. The interior contains a large hall, lighted by lamps, where the Bramins assemble to perform certain religious ceremonies. The worship of Siva is indicated by the Symbol of Generation, and a colossal image of his Bull, called Nundi. It is formed of an entire block of brown porphyry, sixteen feet long, and twelve feet high. This animal was an object of religious worship, and his annual festival was observed with much pomp, during which the people went to his temple in procession, with flutes, cymbals, and garlands.

There is no determinate account when this structure was erected; and that circumstance, together with its primitive style of architecture, indicates high antiquity.

At Chalambron, in the district of Tanjore, are a collection of sacred buildings, within a double enclosure. On each side is a magnificent gateway, formed of large blocks of stone, with pilasters thirty-two feet high, surmounted by a pyramid one hundred and fifty feet high, ornamented from top to bottom with sculptures. There are three chapels within a separate enclosure. One contains no religious symbol to indicate the deity to whom it was consecrated. One is dedicated to Vishnu, the other to Siva. A large tank occupies the centre of the area, with a colonnade and steps of stone, by which pilgrims descend into the holy water. On the right side is the largest temple, dedicated to Parvati, whose statue stands immediately facing the entrance. The portico is supported on six rows of columns, covered from top to bottom with carved figures. The sanctuary is lighted by numerous lamps, and before it stands an image of the Sacred Bull. The pilasters which form the entrance are connected by a chain, curiously carved from one piece of stone. On the other side of the tank is a chapel standing in the middle of an enormous hall, three hundred and sixty feet long, and two hundred and sixty broad. The flat roof is formed of immense blocks of stone laid horizontally, supported by upwards of one thousand pillars. Every part of this hall is ornamented with sculptures, representing scenes from the Mahabharata, and other Sacred Writings. These various halls and chapels were intended for the reception of statues, conveyed on huge cars, during some of the annual festivals. Three thousand Bramins were employed in the services of this sanctuary. The enormous expenses were defrayed by the vast concourse of pilgrims that flocked thither. One of the Pouranas record that these edifices were erected six hundred and seventeen years before our era; but portions are believed to be of later date. One of the large gateways was rebuilt not many years ago, by a pious widow, at the cost of about seventy-five thousand dollars.

On the river Bunas is a magnificent temple to Crishna, called Nathdwara, or The Portal of God. It contains a statue of Crishna, said to have been in existence many ages, if not from the time when he was himself on earth. No terrible austerities are practised here, no animals sacrificed; but from all points of the compass are poured in offerings to this most popular incarnation of compassionate Vishnu. Some give large landed estates, others bestow rich coronets and costly jewels to adorn his image. Spices are sent from the Indian Isles, frankincense from Tartary, dried grapes from Persia, rich shawls from Cashmere, silks from Bengal, grain and fruit from the husbandmen, flowers from women and children. The presiding Bramin appoints consuls in all the great commercial cities to collect and transmit the donations of millions of votaries.

One of the oldest and most venerated temples is that of Jaga Nath, commonly called Juggernaut; one of the titles of Vishnu, signifying Lord of the World. It is at Orissa, on the northern extremity of the Coromandel coast. Europeans generally call it the Black Pagoda, because its dark colour, relieved by the sandy shore, makes it a conspicuous object to mariners a great distance off. It is a huge grotesque pyramid of granite blocks, three hundred and fifty feet high, crowned with copper balls and ornaments, flashing in the sunshine. It is covered with sculptures, among which is a large Sphinx, and many sexual emblems. An enormous Bull carved in granite projects from the front, which is toward the east. There is a tradition that when it was built it was ordained that distinctions of caste should be laid aside in the worship conducted there, and consequently that superiors and inferiors might eat together without pollution. This place is the scene of one of the most shocking festivals observed in modern times, as will be seen in succeeding pages.

On an island between the continent and Ceylon are three pagodas within one enclosure, with a gate forty feet

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