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fellow-citizens, but even of time, or 1260 years ; in other words, French officers and soldiers ; till the cominencement of the reign and some of his very enemies of the saints, or the millennium ; could not but bear testimony when the beast will be slain for sancat his grave, “ Truly a great and tioning 'the great words spoken by good man is buried here!” his little horn, and, together with it,

will be given to the burning flameBut the other three beasts, the Ba

bylonian, the Medo-Persian, and Abstract of Faber on the Prophe- the Macedonian, though their docies.

minion will be taken away, with

respect to the church, yet will have NO. II.

their lives, or idolatrous principles (Continued from p. 91.)

prolonged for a season and a time;

or during the reign of the saints, THE dream of Nebuchadnezzar and at the

close of the thousand and Daniel's vision of the four years, for their open attack on the beasts alike predict, that from the beloved city, and daring impiety, era of the Babylonian Monarchy to will be consumed by the fire of the the commencement of the Millen- Lord. It seems generally agreed nium there should be four empires, that Daniel's four:h beast is the universal, so far as the church is Roman empire ; and his ten horné, concerned. Accordingly foar, and ten independent kingdoms within only four, have existed ; the Baby the limits of that empire. There is lonian empire, the Medo-Persian some diversity of opinion, of late empire, the Macedonian empire, especially, respecting either the and the Roman empire. The Au- character of the little horn, or the thor confines himself to the history three kings whom it was to subdue. of the fourth empire, symbolized The opinion of Mr. Kett that the by the feet of the image, and by little horn symbolizes the whole the ten-lorned beast. The follow- history of antichrist, who, according will exhibit the main features of ing to him, is a triple monster comhis scheme. The fourth empire is pounded of Popery, Mahommedanrepresented as being strong as iron, ism, and Infidelity ; and that in all as breaking in pieces the three pre- its three forms it will depress three ceding empires, as divided into ten kingdoms : and also, that of Mr. kingdoms, answering to the ten toes Galloway, that the little horn is of the image, as incapable of co- revolutionary France, that the three hering together though perpetually years and an half are literal years, contracting alliances with each and that the three kings subdued other, and as being succeeded by a by it were France, Holland and spiritual empire which should stand Switzerland, the author here states for ever. The second prophecy of and confutes at considerable length, the ten-horned beast, under the and then proceeds to state his own symbol of a little horn, exhibits an opinion on that point, as follows: eleventh power, as springing up The same symbol, as before stated, among or behind the ten horns or represents both temporal and spiritkings, which should subdue three of ual objects. Thus a star symbothem, should make war with the lizes either a prince or a minister of . saints and prevail against them, for religion : the one being in the slate, & time, times and the dividing of what the other is in the church. So Vol. I. NO. 4.


a beast means: an empire either from the year 727, that is, his reign secularor ecclesiastical; and a moun- commenced 28 years before he be tain denotes a kingdom either tem- gan to exist. On these grounds the poral or spiritual. So a horn sig-author concludes, that the little horu nifies a temporal or ecclesiastical symbolizes not the temporal, but kingdom. Sir Isaac Newton, Mr. the spiritual kingdom of the Pope;

Mede and Bp. Newton suppose the and conceives that the little horn little horn of the Roman beast to and the two-horned beast of the mcan the temporal kingdom of the Apocalypse symbolize the same Papacy, which bears the name of power. The one describes its rise St. Peter's patrimony; and that and growth, till its look was more it became a horn by the subversion stout than his fellows; and the of the three horns which were des other describes it when grown up tined to fall before it. From this into an empire having had the saints opinion the author disserts.

delivered into his hand. The little Ist. Because the actions ascribed horn was already in existence when to the litile horn were never per- the saints were delivered into his formed by the Pope as the Sovereign hand; before that time indeed he cf St. Peter's patrimony ; but as was harmless, he was not then an ecclesiastical power.

apostate. The spiritual kingdom 2d. Because the little horn must of the Pope sprung up after the emhave arisen before the eradication of fire had become Christian, and the three horne, as he is said to sub-during the time that it ceased to due them ; but the scheme in ques exist as a beast, or was not, it was tion supposes the papacy became a therefore harmless, but when the horn by such eradication ; and that beast as such revived, as it did in it existed and acted previous to the the year 606, when it set up a spiritsupposed date of its existence. ual tyrant by creating Boniface the 3d. The little horn was to reign the saints delivered into the hands

third Universal Bishop, then were 1260 years ; Mr. Mede seems of the little horn, then did the 1260 to suppose this reign commenced as early as the year 365, or 410, or 455, years of the universal spiritual enand yet he supposes that the first of fire of the Pope commence, and the three horns was plucked up in then did the little horn assume a look the year 727, when the pope caused

more stout than his fellows. We

are to date the commencement of the Italians to revolt from the em- this period from the time the Pope peror Leo; and consequently, must, had the power of persecution, and according to him, then begin to ex- not froni the time that he began 'ist ; that is, he began to exist near actually to persecute. Now this three centuries after he began to power was not conferred by the reign. Bp. Newton rejects these down fall of the western emfare, dates because they are confuted by by the revolt of the Pape from the the event ; still he falls into the Greek Emperor, or by his acquisisame inconsistency: for he supposes tion of the Exarchate. We disthe first of the three horns was cover nothing in these events like plucked up in the year 755, when delivcring the saints into his hand, the Pope became master of the but we plainly discover it, in the Exarchate of Ravenna : when of grant of Phocas, usurper of the course, according to him, the little throne of Constantinople, in the year horn must begin to exist; and yet | 606, constituting Boniface the he is inclined to date the 1260 years third Universal Bishop and 81


preme head of the church; this made this even after it had acquired q. the ecclesiastical kingdom a great temporal principality, otherwise it empire. But if the saints were then appears, in no respect different delivered into the hand of the little from others. horn, the spiritual kingdom of the 2d. The little horn had

eyes papacy must be symbolized by it, the eyes of a man. This symbolizes and not his temporal kingdom, which a spiritual not a temporal kingdom. did not exist till long after. It is By its eyes, according to Sir Isaac manifest the little horn must have Newton it was a seer, ETICHOTOS, arisen prior to the apostacy, and or Bishop in the literal sense of the Daniel teaches us it must arise word, and this church claims the among the ten firse horns, into Universal Bishopric ; and by its which the empire should be divided, mouth spcaking great things, and by the inroads of the Northern na-changing times and laws, it was a tions. Now the first of these, prophet. that of the Hins, arose about the

3d. The little horn had a look more year 356, and the last of them, that stout than his fellows. The Popes of the Lombards, about the year

have assumed an unlimited superi526, in Hungary. Within these two ority over other bishops, their equals, limits we are to look for the rise of and have affected greater authority, the little horn. The temporal king

in temporal matters, than even dom of the Pope, as Bp. Newton sovereign princes, and have prehimself allows, did not come up whole earth belonged to them,

tended that the dominion of the among the ten first horns ; he constructs a catalogue of ten assigning all new discovered coun kingdoms adapted to the eighth cen- tries, to Spain, the western, and to tury, very diverse from the true Portugal, the Eastern Hemisphere.

4th, The little horn spake great The temporal kingdom of the Pope, then, cannot be intended by the little words, by the side of the Most horn; but the spiritual kingdom of High, affecting an equality with

God. So the Popes claim infallibilthe Pope arose in fact, at this period. And the voice of history proclaims of God, and are not offended at

ity an incommunicable attribute this truth that the power of the church of Rome augmented, as Pope, king of kings and lord of

being styled, Our Lord God the fast as that of the Roman empire inrds. Nor do they refuse, on the declined. The little horn, indeed, day of their election, to receive the was to acquire temporal dominion adoration of their Cardinals, on the by the successive eradication of the three horns; still, it must have ex

5th. The little horn thought to isted as a horn before this, and so

change times and laws. So the could not symbolize the prapacy Popes have perpetually changed considered as a secular principality, the calendar, by the canonization of This will appear still more evident

new saints; have introduced an inby adverting to the particular traits finite number of superstitious laws, of the character of the little horn.

instituting new modes of worship, Ist. The little horn was, at its and imposing new articles of faith, first rise, not only to be a small daring to strike the secondi comkingdom, but different from all the mandment out of the decalogue, other horns, or kingdoms. This is and reversing, at pleasure, the laws true, if we suppose the first to be both of God and man. a spáritual sovereignty, and the 6th. The little horn was to wear othiers temporal sovereignties, and out the saints of the Most High

very altar,

who were to be given into his hand | and certainly not two of the first bya

formal grant of the secular pow- ten horns of the beast. The scheme er during the space of three years of Sir Isaac and Bp. Newton are and an half, or 1260 furophetic days : equally objectionable ; because, the While the two witnesses should Exarchate of Ravenna never was prophecy, in sackcloth, and the per la horn or independent kingdom but secuted church should be nourished

a mere dependent province of the in the wilderness. Accordingly Greek empire. If any of the orisince the Pope was created Universal Bishop, by the Emperor Phocas, the ginal ten horns of the beast

were saints have been formally delivered independent kingdoms, we have reainto his hand, they have been the son to conclude all were so; the de sfiiritual vassals of the man of sin; scription of all is the same, and it and have been worn out under his would completely violate the har cruel tyranny. It has not, at all mony of symbolical language to suptimes, indeed raged with equal vio- pose some of the horns represent lence, and has been greatly check-sovereign states, and others, mere ed by the reformation ; still the provinces of sovereign states.witnesses are prophesying in sack- Agam, allowing the Exarchate to cloth, and will continue so to do, in be a horn, neither it nor the state one part or other of the world, to of Rome are part of the ten pirithe end of the 42 months.

mary kingdoms. Sir Isaac's list of 7th. The little horn was to subdue the ten kingdoms does not even inthree out of the ten kings. Mr; clude all those powers which he Mede supposes that the three kings supposes to be the three horns. And or kingdoms marked in the prophe- the Bishop justly censures this incy were that of the Greeks in Italy consistency; but he seems chargeawhom the Pope caused to revolt ble himself with a mistake of a simfrom the Emperor Leo Isaurus ilar nature. The three horns are that of the Longobards, whose certainly to be sought for among the kingdom he caused, by the aid of ten original kingdoms into which the Franks, to be extirpated, there the Roman empire was to get the Exarchate of Ra. We ought then first to enquire venna for his own principality, and which they were ; secondly whether that of the Franks itself. Sir Isaac three of them were in fact ever and Bp. Newton incline to the opin-plucked up before the little horn. ion, that the three eradicated pow. Not surely first to fix upon three ers were the Exarchate of Ravenna, states which we conceive may be the kingdom of the Lombards and the three horns ; and then contrive the state of Rome.

a list of ten kingdoms, as the Bishop The author thinks tliese opinions does, which may include them.untenable on the following grounds : Certain it is, that neither the ErarIf, on Mr. Mede's plan, the Greeks chate of Ravenna, nor the state of and Franks are taken for the Con-Rome, is among the ten primary stantinopolitan and Carlovingian kingdoms, and yet the Bishop inempires neither of them ever was cludes them in his list of ten kinga fuucked up by the roots before the doms, to give an air of probability, little horn : and if they are taken to his scheme; though he confesses for Greek and Germanic ferovinces the list he gives is calculated for in Italy, they cannot be esteemed the righth century, and not for the horns or independent kingdoms : I period when the Roman cmpire was originally divided. Having standing in the way of papai aggranconfated these opinions the author dizement, equally with the former, observes, It is said in one passage, was destined also to fall before the that the three horns were plucked up rapal horn ; for, after it had subbefore the little horn: in another sisted in Italy its allotted time, it that they fell before the little horn : was attacked, at the instigation of and in a third, that the little the Pope, by Bellisarius, and utterly horn should subdue or depres8 eradicated by Norses, Lieutenants the three horns or kings : but of the Eastern Emperor, aided by whether the little horn should effect the Lombards. this directly, or by the instrumental- 3d. Italy now became a province ity of others, is a point which his- of the Constantinopolitan empire, tory must decide; the words of the and was governed by an imperial prophesy do not determine it cx officer, who bore the title of Exarch pressly. To discover these three of Ravenna. The Exarchate howhings we must ascertain the ten

ever was scarcely established, when primary kingdoms. These, accord- the Lombards began to meditate the ing to the historian Machiavel, and conquest of Italy for themselves, that eminent chronologer Bp. Lloyd), Norses was engaged for the settlewere 1 The Huns, 2 The Ostrogoths, ment of that country under the Em3 The Visigoths, 4 The Franks, perors from the year 554, to the year 5 The Vandals, 6 The Sueves and 569. Eut in the year 567 Alboin Alans, 7 The Burgundians, 8 The king of the Lombards undertook the Heruli and Rugii, 9 The Saxons, subjugation of it; he succeeded; 10 The Lombards. These, then are and became master of Italy, from the ten first horns of which we are the Trentine hills, to the gates of in quest

. The three horns or king- Ravenna and Rome. The Exardonus, then, must be of this number. chate, however, still feebly subsistAccordingly, we shall find, that the ed, but at length, in the year 752, kingdom of the Heruli, the king it was completely subdued, by the dom of the Ostrogoths, and the Lombards, under the reign of kingdom of the Lombards were Aistulphus. 'This third horn, lowsuccessively eradicated before the ever, was destined soon to fall before little papal horn ; in consequence the papal horn, as the two former of which, it became a temporal no had done. Alarmed at the growless than a spiritual power.

ing power of Aistulphus, the Pope 1st. In thc ycar 476, Odoacer king applied for assistance to Pepin king of the Heruli put an end to the of France; he listened to the Pope's Festern empire, and caused him overtures, and, in the course of two self to be proclaimed king of Italy. expeditions into Italy, wrested froni He now stood before, or in the way that prince the whole of the Exof the papal horn, and must be archate, and bestowed it in perplucked up to make way for the petual sovereignty upon the Bishexpansion of it. This was effected, in op of Rome. After this, the the year 493, by Theodoric king of Lombards languished about twenthe Ostrogoths who made a com- ty years, when Charlemagne, who picte conquest of Italy fromthe Alps, had succeeded his father Pepin, to the extremity of Calabria. assumed the character of the cham

2d. This second of the threc horns, 1 pion of the church, and, at the re

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