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who were to be given into his hand and certainly not two of the first bya

formal grant of the secular pow- ten horns of the beast. The scheme er during the space of three years of Sir Isaac and Bp. Newton are and an half, or 1260 prophetic days: equally objectionable ; because, the While the two witnesses should Exarchate of Ravenna never was prophecy, in sackcloth, and the per. a horn or independent kingdom but secuted church should be nourished

a mere dependent province of the in the wilderness.

Accordingly Greek empire. If any of the orisince the Pope was created Universal Bishop, by the Emperor Phocas, the sinal ten horns of the beast were

independent kingdoms, we have reasaints have been formally delivered into his hand, they have been the son to conclude all were so; the de sfiiritual vassals of the man of sin; scription of all is the same, and it and have been worn out under his would completely violate the harcruel tyranny. It has not, at all mony of symbolical language to suptimes, indeed raged with equal vio- | pose some of the horns represent lence, and has been greatly check- sovereign states, and others, mere ed by the reformation ; still the provinces of sovereign states.witnesses are prophesying in sack- Agam, allowing the Exarchate to cloth, and will continue so to do, in be a horn, neither it nor the state one part or other of the world, to of Rome are part of the ten prithe end of the 42 months.

mary kingdoms. Sir Isaac's list of 7th. The little horn was to subdue the ten kingdoms does not even inthree out of the ten kings. Mr, clude all those powers which he Mede supposes that the three kings supposes to be the three horns. And or kingdoms marked in the prophe- the Bishop justly censures this incy were that of the Greeks in Italy consistency ; but he seems chargeawhom the Pope caused to revolt ble himself with a mistake of a simfrom the Emperor Leo Isaurus-ilar nature. The three horns are that of the Longobards, whose certainly to be sought for among the kingdom he caused by the aid of ten original kingdoms into which the Franks, to be extirpated, there the Roman empire was divided. by to get the Exarchate of Ra. We ought then first to enquire venna for his own principality, and which they were ; secondly whether that of the Franks itself. Sir Isaac three of them were in fact ever and Bp. Newton incline to the opin-pilucked up before the little horn. ion, that the three eradicated prow. Not surely first to fix upon three ers were the Exarchate of Ravenna, states which we conceive may be the kingdom of the Lombards and the three horns ; and then contrive the state of Rome.

a list of ten kingdoms, as the Bishop The author thinks these opinions does, which may include them.untenable on the following grounds : Certain it is, that neither the ExarIf, on Mr. Mede's plan, the Greeks chate of Ravenna, nor the state of and Franks are taken for the Con- | Rome, is among the ten primary stantinopolitan and Carlovingian kingdoms, and yet the Bishop inempires neither of them ever was cludes them in his list of ten kingplucked up by the roots before the doms, to give an air of probability, little horn : and if they are taken to his scheme; though he confesses for Greek and Germanic firovinces the list he gives is calculated for in Italy, they cannot be esteemed the eighth century, and not for the horns or independent kingdoms :period when the Roman empire was originally divided. Having standing in the way of papai aggranconfuted these opinions the author dizement, equally with the former, observes, It is said in one passage, was destined also to fall before the that the three horns were plucked up papal horn ; for, after it had subbefore the little horn: in another sisted in Italy its allotted time, it that they fell before the little horn: was attacked, at the instigation of and in a third, that the little the Pope, by Bellisarius, and utterly horn should subdue or depres8 eradicated by Norses, Lieutenants the three horris or kings : but of the Eastern Emperor, aided by whether the little horn should effect the Lombards. this directly, or by the instrumental- 3d. Italy now became a province ity of others, is a point which his of the Constantinopolitan empire, tory must decide; the words of the and was governed by an imperial prophesy do not determine it cx-officer, who bore the title of Exarch pressly. To discover these three of Ravenna. The Erarchate howkings we must ascertain the ten

ever was scarcely established, when primary kingdoms. These, accord- the Lombards began to meditate the ing to the historian Machiavel, and conquest of Italy for themselves, that eminent chronologer Bp. Lloyd, Norscs was engaged for the settlewere 1 The Huns, 2 The Ostrogoths, ment of that country under the Em3 The Visigoths, 4 The Franks, perors from the year 554, to the year 5 The Vandals, 6 The Sueves and 565. Eut in the year 567 Alboin Alans, 7 The Burgundians, 8 The king of the Lombards undertook the Heruli and Rugii, 9 The Saxons, subjugation of it; he succeeded; 10 The Lombards. These, then are and became master of Italy, from the ten first horns of which we are the Trentine hills, to the gates of in quest. The three horns or king- Ravenna and Rome. The Exardoms, then, must be of this number. chate, however, still feebly subsistAccordingly, we shall find, that the ed, but at length, in the year 752, kingdom of the Heruli, the king- it was completely subdued, by the dom of the Ostrogoths, and the Lombards, under the reign of kingdom of the Lombards were Aistulphus. This third horn, howsuccessively eradicated before the ever, was destined soon to fall before little pafal horn ; in consequence the papal horn, as the two former of which, it became a temporal no had done. Alarmed at the growless than a spiritual power. ing power of Aistulphus, the Pope

1st. In the year 476, Odoacer king applied for assistance to Pepin king of the Heruli put an end to the of France; he listened to the Pope's Western empire, and caused him-overtures, and, in the course of two self to be proclaimed king of Italy. expeditions into Italy, wrested from He now stood before, or in the way that prince the whole of the Exof the pafal horn, and must be archare, and bestowed it in perplucked up to make way for the petual sovereignty upon the Bishexpansion of it. This was effected, in op of Rome. After this, the the year 493, by Theodoric king of Lombards languished about twenthe Ostrogoths who made a com- ty years, when Charlemagne, who plete conquest of Italy fromthe Alps, had succeeded his

ther Pepin, to the extremity of Calabria. assumed the character of the cham

2d. This second of the threc horns, I pion of the church, and, at the re

quest of the Pope, entered Italy, at has been shown. This likewise the head of a large army, and com- will be found equally significant pletely eradicated the horn of Lom- and proper. It was foretold to bardy; and bestowed great part of Pharaoh by Moses, that upon his dominions on the Pope. Thus, the very next morning there in the words of the author, were should be a grievous rain, attenthree of the first horns plucked up ded with hail and thunder.--by the roots before an eleventh little This must have been a most inhorn which silently arose among credible circumstance to an them, till it had supplanted the three Egyptian ; for no country upon horns, which stood in its way and earth, to which we have access, prevented its full expansion.

has so little rain as Egypt: and The sum of the argument is this, particularly the upper part of it. the little horn of Daniel's fourth The want of rain is supplied by

dews, and by the overflowing of beast symbolizes the papacy as a

the Nile. The Egyptians therespiritual power, because, the actions

fore must have perceived them. ascribed to it were performed in that character ; because, it is repre- these fearful events; which were

selves particularly aimed at in sented in existence as a horn pluck

so contrary to all experience. For ing up kingdoms by tire roots before they were witnesses to not only it became a temporal horn, and as deluges of rain, but hail minthe cause of its becoming a temporal gled with rain; and these attendhorn ; because, it is true of the ed with thunder and fire, to their papacy, and cf no other power great amazement. whatever, that three of the primary It may be further observed kingdoms, into which the Roman with regard to this people, that empire was divided, were rooted up they were superstitious above all before it ; and because, the saints people, upon earth.

They were were formally, and authoritatively, particularly addicted to the obdelivered into the hand of the little servance of portentous appearhorn, as a spiritual, but never as a ances. Every uncommon cirtemporal power.

cumstance was esteemed of this [To be continued.]

class. But as these were imaginary portents, which arose

merely from a superstitions An Abridgment of Bryani's Ob-their blind credulity by bringing

dread, it pleased God to punish servations on the Plagues of. upon them some real prodigics, Egypt, &c.

-some preternatural evils, to (Continued from p. 94.)

which they had never been wil

Such was the rain and Seventh Plague. Rain, Hair, hail, and the fire which ran on AND FIRE, ATTENDED WITH the ground to their great amazeTHUNDER. Exodus ix. 13-ment and ruin. Its coming was 34.

determinately, foretold ; nor

could all the deities of Egype N the foregoing instances, the prevent its fearful effects.

apiness of each judgment Those of the people, who took si respect to the people of Egypt warning, were preserved: but


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all who neglected the caution, , their trade, and to their private and who did not shelter them- advantage. They had vines in selves, were destroyed. There Egypt; but instead of the juice seems farther a great fitness of the grape, they made a liquor and propriety in the Egyptians called barley wine, which was being punished by fire, and by particularly serviceable during water ; as they were guilty of the time that the Nile was turbid, gross idolatry towards these el. and not fit to be drank. These ements, and adored them as dei- advantages were lost to them ties.

now through the devastation We are further told, that the made by the rain, hail, and fire. far and the barley was smit. As this calamity came upon ten; for the barley was in the them towards the time of barley rar, and the flax was bolled, harvest, we may form a judgThese circumstances may to ment of the month when it hapsome appear of little conse- pened. We are told by modern quence. And it may be asked, travellers that corn in Egypt is & When it is intimated, that fit for reaping in March and men and cattle were slain, in April : that is, the barley comes great numbers, what occasion was to maturity first, and is cut there for adding this trivial ar- down in the former month, and ticle about flax and barley ?" It the wheat in the latter. The is by no means trivial, but of sacred writer says, that the great moment. The Egyptians barley was in the ear ; though, were doomed to undergo many as is intimated, not quite fit to terrors; and besides these to be cut, but the wheat and the suffer no small losses ; and rye were not grown up. This scarce any thing could have dis- judgment therefore must have tressed them more than the ruin happened about the beginning of of their flax. It has been be- March, before the precise time fore mentioned that this people, of harvest ; so early as to leave above all nations, affected out- room for the three succeeding ward purity and cleanliness. On plagues to take place. These this account the whole nation were over by the 15th, of Abib, wore linen garments; and the which answers to the first of priests never put on any other April, at which time the Israelkind of clothing. This linen was ites went forth from the land of manufactured from that fine flax, Egypt. The history by these for which the country was parti- means is wonderfully authenticularly famous. Hence the decated, and the divine purpose molition of the flax was atten- in each operation more plainly ded with great inconvenience, discovered. and must have proved a heavy loss; so that this judgment par- Eighth Plague. Locusrs. ticularly affected this people Exodus x. 3—19. above all other nations; and their priests more especially In this instance, as well as in suffered.

others which preceded, the time The ruin of their barley was of the approaching calamity equally fatal, both in respect to was precisely foretold by God's servants, which plainly pointed | these insects comes upon a counout the hand from whence the try. Though it were a parajudgment proceeded. To some dise before, it is soon rendered a however it may appear strange, desert. They devour to the that aftersuch a display of terror, very root and bark, so that it is as the preceding plague exhibit- a long time before vegetation ed, God should introduce the can be renewed. Scarcely any locust or grasshopper, seeming- | misfortune can so effectually ly a poor instrument of divine damage a land, but that room vengeance ; whose effects after will be left for them to add to such a general devastation could the mischief. not have been very material, The prophets, in describing however they may be represent. cruel and destructive nations, ed. But the case was far other often borrow their allusions from wise. A swarm of locusts is a locusts ; so great was the terror very fearful evil, though not out of them. Hence Joel, when he wardly accompanied with any mentions the inroad of the Asalarming appearance ; and the syrians and their confederates, consequences of their introduc. upon Israel, accompanies it with tion were very fatal to the Egyp- references to this purpose. And tians.

the prophet Nahum, describing We may observe that it was the ruin of the Assyrian mo. the purpose of God to carry on narch, and the various nations these judgments in a series, and of his empire, makes use of the by degrees to cut off all hopes, same allusions, and every resource, upon which The Egyptians trusted much the Egyptians depended. By to the fertility of their soil, and the hail and thunder, and fire to the deities Isis and Sarapis mingled with rain, both the flax who were the conservators of all and barley were entirely ruined; plenty. They likewise placed and their pastures must have great confidence in other gods, been greatly injured. But the who were, as they supposed, the wheat and the rye were not yet directors of their times and seain ear ; and such was the fecun- sons. But these powers could dity of the soil in Egypt, that not stand before Moses, the sera very short time would have vant of the true God. He bro's sufficed for the leaves of the upon them an host of enemies, trees, and for the grass of the who laid waste the fruits of their field to have been recruited. To ground, and rendered all their complete therefore these evils, confidence vain. As Egypt is and to confound the stubborn in great measure bounded to the prince and his magicians, it east and north by seas, and is pleased God to send an host of fair removed from those regions locusts, to devour every leaf, | in Africa, where locusts parand blade of grass, which had ticularly generate, it is not been left in the former devasta- much infested with them. Howtion; and whatever was begin- ever, at the time spoken of, an ning to vegetate. It is hard to east wind prevailed all day and .conceive how widely the mis- all night ; and the whole counchief extends, when a cloud of lry in the morning swarmed

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