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render to the memory of a dear friend even after his death, I could not refuse to the request of a young man of very great promise and in the highest degree worthy of Cæsar.

I have also frequently been to the house of the consul Antonius to pay my respects. Yes, and those who now regard me as unpatriotic you will find going there in crowds to prefer some petition or to pocket some bounty. But what insolence is this that, whereas Cæsar never interfered with my being intimate with whom I chose, even with those whom he personally disliked, these men who have torn my friend from me should now endeavour by their captious remarks to prevent my loving whom I choose? But I have no fear either of the regularity of my life not being sufficient to protect me hereafter, or of those very men who hate me for my constancy to Cæsar not preferring to have friends like me rather than like themselves. For myself

, if I get what I like, I shall spend the remainder of my life in retirement at Rhodes : but if some accident intervenes, though I am at Rome I shall always desire the right to prevail. I am very much obliged to our friend Trebatius, for having shewn me your true-hearted and affectionate feeling towards

myself, and for having given me additional reasons for being still more bound to cultivate and respect a man for whom I have always felt a spontaneous affection. Good-bye, and do not cease to love me.

DCCLXXXIII (F XVI, 21)

M. CICERO (THE YOUNGER) TO TIRO

ATHENS (AUGUST)

AFTER I had been anxiously expecting letter-carriers day after day, at length they arrived forty-six days after they left you.' Their arrival was most welcome to me: for while I

'This was slow travelling. Cicero speaks of twenty-one days being very rapid travelling for a letter-carrier from Rome to Athens (vol. ii., p. 201), but more than double of that implies bad weather or very leisurely movements.

took the greatest possible pleasure in the letter of the kindest and most beloved of fathers, still your most delightful letter put a finishing stroke to my joy. So I no longer repent of having suspended writing for a time, but am rather rejoiced at it; for I have reaped a great reward in your kindness from my pen having been silent. I am therefore exceedingly glad that you have unhesitatingly accepted my excuse. I am sure, dearest Tiro, that the reports about me which reach you answer your best wishes and hopes. I will make them good, and will do my best that this belief in me, which day by day becomes more and more en évidence, shall be doubled. Wherefore you may with confidence and assurance fulfil your promise of being the trumpeter of my reputation. For the errors of my youth have caused me so much remorse and suffering, that not only does my heart shrink from what I did, my very ears abhor the mention of it. And of this anguish and sorrow I know and am assured that

you have taken your share. And I don't wonder at it! for while you wished me all success for my sake, you did so also for your own; for I have ever meant you to be my partner in all my good fortunes. Since, therefore, you have suffered sorrow through me, I will now take care that through me your joy shall be doubled. Let me assure you that my very close attachment to Cratippus is that of a son rather than a pupil : for though I enjoy his lectures, I am also specially charmed with his delightful manners. I spend whole days with him, and often part of the night: for I induce him to dine with me as often as possible. This intimacy having been established, he often drops in upon us unexpectedly while we are at dinner, and laying aside the stiff airs of a philosopher joins in our jests with the greatest possible freedom. He is such a man-so delightful, so distinguished—that you should take pains to make his acquaintance at the earliest possible opportunity. I need hardly mention Bruttius, whom I never allow to leave my side. He is a man of a strict and moral life, as well as being the most delightful company. For in him fun is not divorced from literature and the daily philosophical inquiries which we make in common. I have hired a residence next door to him, and as far as I can with my poor pittance I subsidize his narrow means. Farthermore, I have begun practising declamation in Greek with Cassius ; in Latin I like having my practice with Bruttius. My intimate friends and daily company are those whom Cratippus brought with him from Mitylene-good scholars, of whom he has the highest opinion. I also see a great deal of Epicrates, the leading man at Athens, and Leonides, and other men of that sort. So now you know how I am going on.

You remark in your letter on the character of Gorgias. The fact is, I found him very useful in my daily practice of declamation ; but I subordinated everything to obeying my father's injunctions, for he had written ordering me to give him up at once. I wouldn't shilly-shally about the business, for fear my making a fuss should cause my father to harbour some suspicion. Moreover, it occurred to me that it would be offensive for me to express an opinion on a decision of my father's. However, your interest and advice are welcome and acceptable. Your apology for lack of time I quite accept; for I know how busy you always are.

I am very glad that you have bought an estate, and you have my best wishes for the success of your purchase.

Don't be surprised at my congratulations coming in at this point in my letter, for it was at the corresponding point in yours that you told me of your purchase. You are a man of property! You must drop your city manners : you have become a Roman country-gentleman. How clearly I have your dearest face before my eyes at this moment! For I seem to see you buying things for the farm, talking to your bailiff, saving the seeds at dessert in the corner of your cloak. But as to the matter of money, I am as sorry as you that I was not on the spot to help you. But do not doubt, my dear Tiro, of my assisting you in the future, if fortune does but stand by me; especially as I know that this estate has been purchased for our joint advantage. As to my commissions about which you are taking trouble-many thanks! But I beg you to send me a secretary at the earliest opportunity—if possible a Greek; for he will save me a great deal of trouble in copying out notes. Above all, take care of your health, that we may have some literary talk together hereafter. I commend Anteros to you.'

1 This amusing letter from young Cicero gives a curious picture of DCCLXXXIV (F X, I)

TO L. MUNATIUS PLANCUS (IN GALLIA

COMATA)

ROME? (SEPTEMBER)

In the first place I have been out of town intending to embark for Greece: and in the next place, having been recalled by the voice of the Republic from the very midst of my journey, I have never been let alone by Marcus Antonius, whose I won't call it insolence, for that is a mere everyday fault—but whose brutal tyranny is such that he cannot endure not only any man's voice, but even any man's look to be free. Therefore I am exceedingly anxious—not about my life indeed, for I have nothing left to do for that, whether you regard my age or my achievements or (if that, too, is to the purpose) my glory-but it is for my country that I am uneasy, and first and foremost about the time that we have to wait for your consulship, my dear Plancus, which is so long that one scarcely ventures to hope to be able to keep

undergraduate life at Athens. It, however, labours under the disadvantage of being a report sent home by the young man himself rather than by his tutors—an arrangement that would suit many students in all universities. The account of his reformation is therefore perhaps a little too rosy.

? That is, Transalpine Gaul, with the exception of the Province the south-eastern part, called also Gallia Narbonensis. This latter was being held by Lepidus along with Hispania Citerior ; while Pollio held Hispania Ulterior. .Decimus Brutus is holding Gallia Cisalpina, from which Antony-having got himself named to it by a lex—is determined to oust him. These provincial arrangements must be remembered in following the remainder of the correspondence.

? Cicero after giving up his voyage to Greece returned to Rome, which he reached on the 31st of August. On the ist of September he absented himself from the senate, because Antony was to propose certain votes in honour of Cæsar's memory. Antony therefore used some violent language about him, which Cicero answered next day-2nd September -in the speech known as the First Philippic.

* Among the arrangements of Cæsar was the nomination of Plancus to the consulship of B.C. 42.

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alive up to that point in the history of the Republic. For what hope can there be in a state in which everything is held down by the arms of the most violent and headstrong of men: in which neither senate nor people has any power of control : in which there are neither laws nor law courts -in fact, no shadow or trace even of a constitution. But as I suppose a complete gazette of public affairs is transmitted to you, there is no reason why I should enter into details. However, the affection which I conceived for you when you were a boy, and have not only maintained but have even increased, seemed to demand that I should admonish and exhort you to devote yourself heart and soul to the service of the Republic. If it survives till your term of office, all will be plain sailing. But that it should so survive demands not only great assiduity and care on your part, but also great good fortune.

But to begin with we shall have you with us, I hope, a considerable time before that day: and in the next placeover and above the consideration which I am bound to have for the interests of the Republic-I also so completely give myself up to supporting your dignity, that I direct all the skill, zeal, devotion, exertion, labour, and attention of which I am capable to the promotion of your high position. It is thus, I am convinced, that I shall most readily do my duty both to the Republic, which I love above everything, and to our friendship, which I think it my most sacred duty to foster.

I am not surprised that our friend Furnius is valued by you as highly as his own kindness and worth deserve. I rejoice that it is so, and I would have you believe that whatever mark of confidence and favour you bestow on him, I regard as having been bestowed by you upon myself.

? Two proposals of Antony's were looked upon by Cicero as fatal to the working of the law courts ::(1) the addition of a decuria to the juries to be drawn from all who had served as centurions, or who had served in any rank in the legion alauda ; (2) granting an appeal to the comitia to those condemned for vis or maiestas (1 Phil. SS 20-21).

2 See Appendix to vol. ii.
3 Gaius Furnius, tribune B.C. 51, was now a legatus to Plancus.

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