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strated that God was possessed of perfect virtue, he supposed that men also ought to strive after the participation of it. And on those who did not so think and so believe, he inflicted the severest punishment. I therefore exhort my readers to examine the whole of this undertaking in that view; for thereby it will appear to them that there is nothing therein disagreeable either to the majesty of God, or to his love to mankind. For all things have here a reference to the nature of the universe, while our legislator speaks some things wisely, but enigmatically; and others under a decent allegory: but still explains such things as require a direct explication plainly and expressly. However, those who have a mind to know the reasons of every thing, may find here a very curious philosophical theory, which I now indeed shall waive the explication of; but if God afford me time for it,* I will set about writing it after I have finished the present work. I shall now betake myself to the history before me, after I have first mentioned what Moses says of the creation of the world, which I find described in the sacred books, after the manner following:
* As to this intended work of Josephus's concerning the reasons of many of the Jewish laws, and what philosophical or allegorical sense they would bear; the loss of which work is by some of the learned not much regretted, I am inclinable, in part, to Fabricius's opinion, ap. Havercamp, page 63, 64, that "We need not doubt but, among some vain and frigid conjectures derived from Jewish imaginations, Josephus would have taught us a great number of excellent and useful things; which, perhaps, nobody, neither among the Jews nor among the Christians, can now inform us of.”
• THE ELEMENTS.
Containing an interval of 3833 Years from the Creation to the Death of Isaac.
of dews. On the third day he appointed the dry
land to appear, with the sea round about it; and on OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE WORLD AND THE DISPOSITION OF
the same day he made the plants and the seeds to
spring out of the earth. On the fourth day he adornIN the beginning God created the heaven and the ed the heaven with the sun, the moon, and the stars
, earth. But when the earth did not come into sight, and appointed them their motions and courses, that but was covered with thick darkness, and a wind the vicissitudes of the seasons might be clearly sig. moved upon its surface, God commanded that there nified. And on the fifth day he produced the living should be light, and when that was made, he con- creatures, both those that swim, and those that fly; sidered the whole mass, and separated the light and the former in the sea, the latter in the air. He also the darkness; and the name he gave to one was sorted them as to society, and that their kinds might night, and the other he called day; and he named increase and multiply. On the sixth day he created the beginning of light, and the time of rest, the even the four-footed beasts, and made them male and feing and the morning. And this was indeed the first male. On the same day he also formed man. Acday. But Moses said it was one day, the cause of cordingly Moses says, that in six days the world, which I am able to give even now; but because I and all that is therein, was made; and that the have promised to give such reasons for all things seventh day was a rest, and a release from the lain a treatise by itself, I shall put off its exposition bour of such operations, whence it is that we celetill that time. After this, on the second day, he brate a rest from our labours on that day, and call placed the heaven over the whole world, and sepa- it the Sabbath, which word denotes rest in the Herated it from the other parts: and he determined it brew tongue. should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline Moreover Moses, after the seventh day was over, firmament round it; and put it together in a man- begins to talk philosophically;S and concerning the ner agreeable to the earth: and fitted it for giving formation of man, says thus: that God took dust moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage from the ground,|| and formed man,T and inserted
* Note, that this and the other titles of chapters are wanting the three first verses of the second, he gives us no hints of any in the best MSS.
mystery at all; but when he comes to ver. 4. &c. he says, that # See Gen. i. 1. et sequel.
Moses, after the seventh day was over, began to talk philosoI One is put for the first, not only here in the Hebrew and phically, it is not improbable that he understood the rest of the Numb. xxix. 1. Dan. ix. 1. but elsewhere in Josephus, VIII. 5. second and the third chapters in some enigmatical, allegorical, XVIII. 4. and in the Greek, Matt. xxviii. 1. John xx. 19. 1. 1 Cor.
or philosophical sense. The change of the name of God just at xvi. 2. as Ainsworth observes on this text. It is also in Philo, and this place from Elohim to Jehovah Elohim, from God to Lord among the Egyptians and Chaldeans, and even in Diodorus Siculus. God, in the Hebrew, Samaritan, and Septuagint, also seems to
$ Since Josephus, in his preface, says, that Moses wrote some favour some such change in the narration or construction. things enigmatically, some allegorically, and the rest in plain ll Gen. iii. 7. words; since in his account of the first chapter of Genesis, and T Josephus supposed man to be compounded of Spirit, soui
in him a spirit and a soul. This man was called called Ganges. Euphrates also, as well as Tigris, Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue signified one goes down into the Red Sea.ş. that is red, because he was formed out of red earth phrates, or Phrath, denotes either a dispersion or a compounded together, for of that kind is virgin and Hower; by Tigris, or Diglath, is signified what is true earth. God also presented the living creatures, swift, with narrowness; and Geon runs through when he had made them, according to their kinds, Egypt, and denotes what arises from the East, which both male and female, to Adam, and gave them those the Greeks call Nile. names by which they are still called. But when he God therefore commanded that Adam and his saw that Adam had no female companion, no so- wife should eat of all the rest of the plants, but to ciety, for there was no such created, and that he abstain from the tree of knowledge, and foretold to wondered at the other animals which were male and them, that if they touched it, it would prove their female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his destruction. But while all the living creatures had ribs, and out of it formed the woman ;* whereupon one languagell at that time, the serpent, which then Adam knew her when she was brought to him, and lived together with Adam and his wife, showed an acknowledged that she was made out of himself
. envious disposition at his supposal of their living Now a woman is called in the Hebrew tongue Issa: happily, and in obedience to the commands of God; but the name of this woman was Eve, which signi- and imagining that when they disobeyed they would fies the mother of all living.
fall into calamities, he persuaded the woman, out of Moses says farther, that God planted a paradise a malicious intention, to taste of the tree of knowin the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees, and ledge, telling them, that in that tree was the knowthat among them was the tree of life, and another ledge of good and evil, which knowledge when they of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was should obtain they would lead a happy life: nay, a good and evil; and that when he had brought Adam life not inferior to that of a god;T by which means and his wife into this garden, he commanded them he overcame the woman, and persuaded her to despise to take care of the plants. Now the garden was the command of God. Now, when she had tasted of watered by one river,f which ran round about the that tree, and was pleased with its fruit, she persuaded whole earth, and was parted into four parts. Phi- Adam to make use of it also. Upon this they perceived son, which denotes a multitude, running into India, that they were become naked** to one another; and makes its exit into the sea, and is by the Greeks being ashamed thus to appear abroad, they inventei
and body, with St. Paul, 1 Thes. v. 23, and the rest of the an watered Paradise, is hard to say. Only, since Josephus has alcients. He elsewhere says also, that the blood of animals was ready appeared to allegorize this history, and takes notice that forbidden to be eaten, as having in it soul and spirit.
these four names had a particular signification: Phison for * Gen. ii. 22.
Ganges, a multitude; Phrath for Euphrates, either a dispersion † The place wherein the country of Eden, as mentioned by or a flower; Diglath for Tigris, what is swift with narrowness; Moses, seems most like to be situated, is Chaldea, not far from and Geon for Nile, what arises from the east; we perhaps mis. the banks of the Euphrates. To this purpose, when we find take him when we suppose he literally means those four rivers, Rabshekah vaunting his master's actions, have the gods of the especially as to Geon, or Nile, which arises from the east; while nations delivered them which my fathers hare destroyed, as Ga- he very well knew the literal Nile arises from the south ; though zan and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden, which what farther allegorical sense he had in view is now, I fear, imwere in Telassar ? As Telassar, in general, signifies any gar possible to be determined. rison or fortification, so here, more particularly, it denotes that By the Red Sea is not here meant the Arabian Gulf, which strong fort which the children of Eden built in an island of the alone we now call by that name, but all that South Sea which Euphrates, towards the west of Babylon, as a barrier against the included the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, as far as the East incursions of the Assyrians on that side. And therefore, in all Indies; as Reland and Hudson truly note from the old geograprobability the country of Eden lay on the west side, or rather on phers. both sides the Euphrates, after its conjunction with the Tigris, || Hence it appears, that Josephus thought several at least of a little below the place where, in process of time, the famous the brute animals, particularly the serpent, could speak before city of Babylon came to be built. Thus we have found out a the fall: and I think few of the more perfect kinds of those country called Eden, which for its pleasure and fruitfulness, as animals want the organs of speech at this day. Many induceall authors agree, answers the character which Moses gives of ments there are also to a notion, that the present state they are it. Herodotus, who was an eye-witness of it, tells us, that where in is not their original state, and that their capacities have been Euphrates runs out into Tigris, not far from the place where once much greater than we now see them. Ninus is seated, that region is, of all that ever he saw, the most
Gen. iii. 5. excellent; so fruitful in bringing forth corn, that it yields two
** Those who take the word naked in a literal sense, suppose hundred fold; and so plenteous in grass, that the people are that upon the fall, the air, and other elements, immediately be. forced to drive their cattle from pasture, lest they should surfeit came intemperate and disorderly; so that our first parents soon themselves. B.
knew, or felt, that they were naked, because the sun scorched # Whence this strange notion came, which is not peculiar to them, they became wet with the rain, and the cold pierced them. Josephus, but, Dr. Hudson says, is derived from elder authors; Others take the expression in a figurative sense, to denote the as if four of the greatest rivers in the world, running two of them commission of such sins as man in his senses may well be at vast distances from the other two, by some means or other ashamed of. To this purpose they have observed, that when
HIM TO THE DELUGE.
somewhat to cover them, for the fruit sharpened their gested to them that they should direct their strokes understanding; and they covered themselves with against his head, that being the place wherein lay his fig-leaves, and tying these before them, out of mod- mischievous designs towards men, and it being easiest esty, they thought they were happier than they were to take vengeance of him that way; and when he before, as they had discovered what they were in want had deprived him of the use of his feet, he made of. But when God came into the garden,* Adam, him to go rolling along, and dragging himself upon who was wont before to come and converse with him, the ground; and when God had appointed these being conscious of his wicked behaviour, went out of penalties for them, he removed Adam and Eve out the way. This behaviour surprised God: and he of the gardent into another place. asked what was the cause of his procedure; and why he, that before delighted in that conversation, did
CHAP. II. now fly from, and avoid it? When he made no reply, as conscious to himself that he had transgressed the OF THE POSTERITY OF ADAM, AND THE TEN GENERATIONS FROM command of God, God said, “I had before determined about you both, how you might lead a happy Adam and Eve had two sons, the elder of them life, without any ,
affliction, care, or vexation of soul; was named Cain, which name, when interpreted, and that all things which might contribute to your signifies a possession. The younger was Abel, enjoyment and pleasure should grow up by my provi- which signifies sorrow. They also had daughters. dence, of their own accord, without your labour and Now the two brethren were pleased with different pains-taking; which state of labour would soon bring courses of life: for Abel the brother was a lover of on old age, and death would not be at any remote righteousness, and believing that God was present at distance. But now thou hast abused my good-will
, all his actions, he excelled in virtue, and his employand hast disobeyed my commands; for thy silence ment was that of a shepherd. But Cain was not is not the sign of thy virtue, but of thy evil con- only very wicked in other respects, but was wholly science.” However, Adam excused his sin, and en intent upon getting, and he first contrived to plough treated God not to be angry with him; and laid the the ground. He slew his brother on the following blame of what was done upon his wife, and said, that occasion they had resolved to sacrifice to God; he was deceived by her, and thence became an of- now Cain brought the fruits of the earth, and of his fender; while she again accused the serpent. But husbandry: but Abel brought milk and the first fruits God allotted him punishment, because he weakly of his flocks. But Gods was more delighted with submitted to the counsel of his wife; and said, the the latter oblation, when he was honoured with what ground should not henceforth yield its fruits of its grew naturally of its own accord, than he was own accord, but that when it should be harassed by with what was the invention of a covetous man, their labor, it would bring forth some of its fruits, and gotten by forcing the ground. Cain, therefore, and refuse to bring forth others. He also made Eve was very angry that Abel was preferred by God beliable to the inconveniency of breeding, and the fore him, and he slew his brother, and hid his dead sharp pains of bringing forth children; and this be- body, thinking to escape discovery. But God, knowcause she persuaded Adam with the same argu- ing what had been done, came to Cain and asked ments wherewith the serpent had persuaded her, him, What was become of his brother? because he and had thereby brought him into a calamitous con- had not seen him many days, whereas he used to dition. He also deprived the serpent of speech, out observe them conversing together at other times. of indignation at his malicious disposition towards But Cain was in doubt with himself
, and knew not Adam. Besides this, he inserted poison under his what answer to give to God. At first he said, that tongue, and made him an enemy to men; and sug- he was himself at a loss about his brother's disap
Moses returned from the Mount, and found that the people had pose, that it was either a soft gentle noise, like a breeze of wind made and consecrated a golden image, the expression in scrip- among the trees of Paradise, or a louder one like the murmuring ture is, the people were naked, they were become vile and repro- of some large river, which gave Adam notice of God's apbate sinners, (for so the word gouvos signifies in the New Tes- proach. B. tament, Rev. xvi. 15,) for Aaron had made them naked unto | Gen. iii. 23. their shame, among their enemies, Exod. xxxii. 25. See Nicholl's I Gen. iv. et sequel. Conference, vol. I. B.
Š St. John's account of the reason why God accepted the Our first parents were conscious of the approach of God to sacrifice of Abel, and rejected that of Cain; as also why Cain them in the garden, by the voice which they heard as usual from slew Abel, on account of his acceptance with God, is much betthe divine presence. The word voice, may be rendered noise ; || ter than this of Josephus ; I mean, because “Cain was of the and since God's usual way of notifying his presence afterwards evil one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew he him? was either by a still small voice, or noise, i Kings xix. 12, or Because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous." by a noise like that of great waters, Ezek. i. 24, or like the rust- 1 John iii. 22. Josephus's reason seems to be no better than a ling of wind in the trees, 2 Sam. v. 24, we may reasonably sup. Pharisaical notion or tradition.
pearing; but when he was provoked by God, who || it with walls; and he compelled his family to con pressed him vehemently, as resolving to know together to it, and called that city Enoch, after what the matter was, he replied, “ He was not his the name of his eldestş son. Now Jared was the brother's guardian or keeper, nor was he an ob son of Enoch, whose son was Malaliel, whose son server of what he did.” But in return God con was Mathuselah, whose son was Lamech, who victed Cain, as having been the murderer of his had seventy-seven children by two wives, Silla brother, and said, “ I wonder at thee, that thou and Ada. Of those children by Ada, one was knowest not what is become of a man whom thou Jabal : he erected tents, and loved the life of a thyself hast destroyed.” God however did not shepherd. But Jubal, who was born of the same inflict the punishment of death upon him, on ac- mother with him, exercised himself in music|| and count of his offering sacrifice, and thereby mak- invented the psaltery and the harp. Tubal, one ing supplication to him not to be extreme in his of his children by the other wife, exceeded all wrath to him: but he made him accursed, and men in strength, and was very expert and famous threatened his posterity in the seventh generation. in martial performances; he procured what tended He also cast him, together with his wife, out of to the pleasures of the body by that method, and that land; and when he was afraid, that in wan- first invented the art of making brass ; Lamech dering about he should fall among wild beasts, also was the father of a daughter whose name and by that means perish, God told him not to was Naamah. And because he was so skilful in entertain such a melancholy suspicion,* but to go matters of divine revelation, that he knew he was over all the earth without fear of what mischief to be punished for Cain's murder of his brother, he might suffer from wild beasts; and setting a he made that known to his wives. Nay, even mark upon him that he might be known, he com- while Adam was alive, the posterity of Cain bemanded him to depart.
came exceeding wicked ; every one successively When Cain had travelled over many countries, dying one after another more wicked than the he, with his wife, built a city, named Nod,I which is former. They were intolerable in war, and vea place so called, and there he settled his abode : hement in robberies, and if any one were slow to where he also had children. However, he did not murder people, yet was he bold in his profligate accept of his punishment in order to amendment, behaviour in acting unjustly and doing injuries for but to increase his wickedness; for he only aimed gain. to procure every thing that was for his own bodily Now Adam, who was the first man, and made pleasure, though it obliged him to be injurious out of the earth (for our discourse must now be to his neighbours. Ile augmented his household about him,) aster Abel was slain, and Cain fied substance with much wealth by rapine and vio- away on account of his murder, was solicitous for lence; he excited his acquaintance to procure posterity, and had a vehement desire for children, pleasure and spoils by robbery; and became a he being two hundred and thirty years old, after great leader of men into wicked courses. He which time he lived other seven hundred, and then also introduced a change in that way of simpli- died. He had indeed many other children, but city wherein men lived before, and was the author Seth in particular. As for the rest, it would be teof measures and weights. And whereas they dious to name them: I will therefore only endeavour lived innocently and generously while they knew to give an account of those that proceeded from nothing of such arts, he changed the world into Seth. Now this Seth, when he was brought up, cunning and craftiness. He first of all set bounda- and came to those years in which he could disries about lands; he built a city, and fortified cern what was good, became a virtuous man; and
* The punishment of Cain was doubtless a severe one, but he knew where he was. 7. He neither hoped nor asked for mercy not more so than his aggravated guilt demanded. Referring to it, from God, but despaired, and so fell into the condemnation of Moses represents him as saying, My punishment is greater than the devil. Ainsworth's Annot. B. I can bear. Gen. iv. 13; but as the Hebrew word signifies in + Of this punishment of Cain in the seventh generation, and iquity rather than punishment, and the verb signifies to be for- of the punishment of Lamech in the seventy-seventh generation, given, as well as to bear, it seems to agree better with the con as also of the mark set upon Cain and his posterity, see Literal text, to render the verse positively, my iniquity is too great to Accomplishment of Scripture Prophecies, Supplement at large, be forgiven; or by way of interrogation, is my iniquity too great | page 106-134. to be forgiven? A learned annotator has observed that as there I Gen. iv. 16. are seven abominations in the heart of him that loveth not his Gen. iv. 17. brother, Prov. xxvi. 25. there were the like number of trans From this Jubal not improbably came Jobel, the trumpet gressions in Cain's conduct. 1. He sacrificed without faith. of Jobel, or Jubilee; that large and loud musical instrument 2. He was displeased that God respected him not. 3. He heark used in proclaiming the liberty at the Year of Jubilee. ened not to God's admonition. 4. He spake dissemblingly to q The number of Adam's children, as says the old tradition, his brother. 5. He killed him in the field. 6. He denied that I was thirty-three sons, and twenty-three daughters.