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as he was himself of an excellent character, so did had formerly evinced for virtue, they now showhe leave* children behind him who imitated his ed by their actions a double degree of wickedvirtues. All these proved to be of good disposi- ness; whereby they made God to be their enemy. tions; they also inhabited the same country with. For many angelst of God accompanied with woout dissensions, and in happy condition, without men, and begat sons that proved unjust, and deany misfortunes falling upon them, till they died. spisers of all that was good, on account of the They also were the inventors of that peculiar sort confidence they had in their own strength ; for the of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly tradition is, that these men did what resembled bodies and their order. And that their inventions the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. might not be lost before they were sufficiently But Noah was very uneasy at what they did; and known, upon Adam's prediction that the world was being displeased at their conduct, persuaded them to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, to change their dispositions and their actions for and at another time by the violence and quantity of the better. But seeing they did not yield to him, water, they made two pillars :t the one of brick, but were slaves to their wicked pleasures, he was the other of stone; they inscribed their discove- | afraid they would kill him, together with his wife ries on them both, that in case the pillar of brick and children, and those they had married: so he should be destroyed

destroyed by the flood, the pillar of departed out of that land. stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries Now God loved this man for his righteousness, to mankind; and also inform them that there was yet he not only condemned those other men for another pillar of brick erected by them. Now their wickedness, but determined to destroy the this remains in the land of Siriad, to this day. whole race of mankind, and to make another race

that should be pure from wickedness, and cutting CHAP. III.

short their lives, and making their years not so OP THE DELUGE: NOAH'S PRESERVATION IN AN ARK, AND HIS SUB many as they formerly enjoyed, but one hundred

and twenty|| only, he turned the dry land into sea. The posterity of Seth continued to esteem And thus were all these men destroyed. But God as the Lord of the universe, and to have an Noah alone was saved, for God suggested to him entire regard to virtue for seven generations ; but the following contrivance and way of escape in process of time they were perverted, and for - That he should make an ark of four stories high, sook the practices of their forefathers, and did three hundred cubits1 long, fifty cubits broad, and neither

pay those honours to God which were ap- thirty cubits high.** Accordingly he entered into pointed them, nor had they any concern to justice that ark, with his wife, and his sons and their towards men. But for what degree of zeal they wives, and put into it, not only provisions to sup

* What is here said of Seth and his posterity, that they were ed till the days of Moses, and then fixed for some time at one very good and virtuous, and at the same time very happy, with hundred and twenty. Nor indeed need we suppose, that either out any considerable misfortunes for seven generations, is ex Enoch or Josephus meant to interpret these one hundred and actly agreeable to the state of the world, and the conduct of twenty years for the life of men before the flood to be different Providence, in all the first ages.

from the one hundred and twenty years of God's patience, (per. † Of Josephus's mistake here, when he took Seth the son of haps while the Ark was preparing) till the deluge ; which I take Adam, for Seth or Sesostris king of Egypt, the erector of these to be the meaning of God when he threatened this wicked pillars, in the land of Siriad, see Essays on the Old Testament, world, that if they so long continued impenitent, their days Appendix, page 159—–160. Although the main of this relation should be no more than one hundred and twenty years. might be true, and Adam might foretell a conflagration and a del. 1 A cubit is about twenty-one English inches. uge, which all antiquity witnesses to be an ancient tradition ; ** The timber of which the Ark was framed, Moses calls and, Seth's posterity might engrave their inventions in astrono- | Gopher wood ; but what tree this Gopher was, is not a little my on two such pillars; yet it is noway credible that they could controverted. Some will have it to be the cedar, others the pine, survive the deluge, which buried all such pillars and édifices others the box, and others (particularly the Mahometans) the far under ground, in the sediment of its waters; especially since Indian plane tree. But our learned Fuller, in his miscellanies, the like pillars of the Egyptian Seth or Sesostris were extant, after has observed, that it was nothing else but that which the Greeks the flood, in the land of Siriad, and perhaps in the days of Jose call Kurapiodos, or the cypress tree ; for, taking away the termiphus also.

nation, cupar and gophar differ very little in the sound. This # This notion that the fallen angels were in some sense observation the great Bochart has confirmed, and shown very the fathers of the old giants, was the constant opinion of an plainly, that no country abounds so much with this wood, as that tiquity.

part of Assyria which lies about Babylon. To this we may add Gen. vi. 4.

the observation of Theophrastus, who, speaking of trees that are them only do I understand him, was now reduced to one hun- which Bitruvius gives this reason, that the sap, which is in dred and twenty years; for as to the rest of mankind, Josephus every part of the wood, has a peculiarly bitter taste, and is so himself confesses their lives were much longer than one hun. very offensive, that no worm or other corroding animal will dred and twenty years, for many generations after the flood, as touch it, so that such things as are made of this wood, will in a we shall see presently: and he says they were gradually shorten manner last for ever. Universal History. B.

port their wants there, but also sent in with the hundred and sixty-two years old. Now he, when rest, all sorts of living creatures, the male and his he lived three hundred and sixty-five years, defemale, for the preservation of their kinds: and parted and went to God. Whence it is that they others of them by sevens. * Now this ark had have not written down his death. Now Matlısefirm walls, and a roof; and was braced with cross lah, the son of Enoch, who was born to him when beams, so that it could not be any way drowned, he was one hundred and sixty-five years old, had or overturned by the violence of the water: thus Lamech for his son, when he was one hundred and was Noah, with his family, preserved. Now he eighty-seven years of age; to whom he delivered was the tenth from Adam, as being the son of the government when he had retained it nine hunLamech, whose father was Methusela : he was the dred and sixty-nine years. Now Lamech, when son of Enoch, the son of Jared; and Jared was the he had governed seven hundred and seventy-seven son of Malaleel; who, with many of his sisters, years, appointed Noah his son to be ruler of the were the children of Cain, the son of Enos: now people; who was born to Lamech when he was Enos was the son of Seth, the son of Adam. one hundred and eighty-two years old, and retain

This calamity happened in the six hundredth ed the government nine hundred and fifty years. year of Noah's government or age, in the second These years, collected together, make up the sum month,t called by the Macedonians, Dius; but by before set down. But let no one inquire into the the Hebrews, Marhesvan; for so did they order deaths of these men, for they extended their lives their year in Egypt. But Moses appointed that all along, together with their children and grandNisan, which is the same with Xanthicus, should children: but let him have regard to their births be the first month ; so that this month began the only. year, as to all the solemnities they observed in When God gave the signal, and it began to honour of God; although he preserved the original rain, the water poured down forty entire days, order of the months as to buying and selling, and till it became fifteen cubitsş higher than the earth; other ordinary affairs. Now he says, that this which was the reason why there were no greater flood began on the seventeenth day of the before- number preserved, since they had no place to fly mentioned month; and this was one thousand five to. When the rain ceased, the water did but just hundred and fifty-six years from Adam the first begin to abate after one hundred and fifty days, man; and the time is written down in our sacred that is, on the seventeenth day of the seventh books, thosef who then lived having noted down, month. After this the Ark rested on the top of a with great accuracy, both the births and deaths certain mountain in Armenia ; which, when Noah of illustrious men.

understood, he opened it, and seeing a small piece For indeed Seth was born when Adam was in of land about it, he continued quiet, and conceivhis two hundred and thirtieth year; who lived nine ed some hopes of deliverance. But a few days hundred and thirty years. Seth begat Enoch in afterward, when the water was decreased to a his two hundred and fifth year; who, when he had greater degree, he sent out a raven, as desirous lived nine hundred and twelve years, delivered the to learn whether any other part of the earth was government to Cain his son ; whom he had at his left dry by the water, and whether he might go hundred and ninetieth year. He lived nine hun out of the Ark with safety; but the raven, finding dred and five years. Cain, when he had lived all the land still overflowed, returned to Noah nine hundred and ten years, had his son Malaleel, again. But after seven days he sent out a dove, who was born in his hundred and seventieth year. to know the state of the ground, which came back This Malaleel having lived eight hundred and to him covered with mud, and bringing an oliveninety-five years, died, leaving his son Jared, branch. Hereby Noah learned that the earth was whom he begat when he was at his hundred and become clear of the flood. So after he had staysixty-fifth year. He lived nine hundred and sixty- ed seven more days, he sent the living creatures two years : and then his son Enoch succeeded out of the Ark, and both he and his family went him; who was born when his father was one out; when he also sacrificed to God,|| and feasted

were first set down by those that then lived, and from them † Josephus here truly determines, that the year at the flood were transmitted down to posterity : which I suppose to be the began about the Autumnal Equinox. As to what day of the true account of that matter; for there is no reason to imagine month the flood began, our Hebrew and Samaritan, and, per- that men were not taught to read and write soon after they were haps, Josephus's own copy, more rightly placed it on the 17th taught to speak; and perhaps all by the Messiah himself, who, day instead of the 27th, as here; for Josephus agrees with them | under the Father, was the creator or governor of mankind, and as to the distance of one hundred and fifty days to the 17th day who frequently, in those early days, appeared to them. of the seventh month, as Gen. vii. ult. with viii. 3.

& Gen. vii. 20. Josephus here takes notice, that these ancient genealogies i Gen. viii. 20.

* Gen. vii. 2.

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AN. 2992.]

17 with his companions. However, the Armenians on cheerfully in cultivating the same; to build call this place a obalnslov, * the place of descent: for cities, and live happily in them; and that they the Ark being saved in that place, its remains are might not be deprived of any of those good things showed by the inhabitants of this day.

which they enjoyed before the flood; but might Now all the writers of profane history make attain to the old age which the ancient people had mention of this flood, and of this Ark, among arrived at before. whom is Berosus, the Chaldean; for when he was When Noah had made these supplications, God, describing the circumstances of the flood, he goes who loved the man for his righteousness, granted on thus :

his prayers : and said, “ that it was not he who “It is said there is still some part of the ship, brought the destruction on a polluted world, but in Armenia, at the mountạin of the Cordyæans; that they underwent that vengeance on account and that some people carry off pieces of the bitu- of their own wickedness; and that he had not men, which they take away, and use, chiefly as brought men into the world, if he had himself deamulets, for the averting of mischiefs.” Hierony- termined to destroy them; it being an instance of mus the Egyptian also, who wrote the Phænician greater wisdom not to have granted them life at Antiquities, and Manaseas, and many more, make all, than, after it was granted, to procure their demention of the same. Nay, Nicolaus of Damascus, struction. But the injuries," said he, “they offerin his ninety-sixth Book, hath a particular rela- ed to my holiness and virtue, forced me to bring tion about them, where he speaks thus : “ There this punishment upon them; but I will leave off is a great mountain in Armenia, over Minyas, for the time to come to require such punishments, called Baris ; upon which it is reported that many the effects of so great wrath, for their future who fled at the time of the deluge were saved; wicked actions; and especially on account of thy and that one who was carried in an ark, came on prayers. But if I shall at any time send tempests shore upon the top of it, and that the remains of of rain in an extraordinary manner, be not afthe timber were a great while preserved: this frighted at the copiousness of the showers, for the might be the man about whom Moses, the legis- water shall no more overspread the earth. Howlator of the Jews, wrote.”

ever, I require you to abstain from shedding the But as for Noah, he was afraid, since God had blood of men, and to keep yourselves pure from determined to destroy mankind, lest he should murder, and to punish those who commit any

such drown the earth every year. So he offered burnt thing; I permit you to make use of all the other offerings, and besought God that nature might living creatures, at your pleasure, and as your aphereafter go on in its former orderly course, and petites lead you; for I have made you lords of that he would not bring on so great a judgment them all; both of those that walk on the land, and any more, by which the whole race of creatures those that swim in the waters, and of those that might be in danger of destruction ; but that, hav- fly in the regions of the air on high, excepting the ing now punished the wicked, he would of his blood, for therein is the life. But I will give you goodness spare the remainder, and such as he a sign, that I have laid aside my anger by my had hitherto judged fit to be delivered from so bow;"+ whereby is meant the rainbow: for they severe a calamity; for that otherwise these last determined that the rainbow was the bow of God. must be more miserable than the first, and that And when God had said and promised thus, he they must be condemned to a worse condition than went away. the others, unless they be suffered to escape en

Now when Noah had lived three hundred and tirely; that as, if they be reserved for another fifty years after the flood, and all that time happily, deluge, while they must be afflicted with the ter- he died; being nine hundred and fifty years old ; but ror and the sight of the deluge, and must also be let no one, upon comparing the lives of the ancients destroyed by a second. He also entreated God with our lives, and with the few years which we to accept of his sacrifice, and to grant, that the now live, think that what we have said of them is earth might never again undergo the like effects false; or make the shortness of our lives at present of his wrath; that men might be permitted to go an argument that they did not attain to so long a

* This place of descent is the proper interpretation of the Antiq. xx. 2, and Moses Chorenensis, page 71–72. Who also
Armenian name of this city. It is called in Ptolemy Naxuana, says, page 19, that another town was related by tradition to
and by Moses Chorenensis, the Armenian historian, Idsheuan; have been called Seron, or the place of dispersion, on account
but at the place itself Nichidsheuan, which signifies the first of the first dispersion of Xisuthrus's or Noah's sons from thenre.
place of descent; and is a lasting monument of the preservation Whether any remains of this Ark be still preserved, as the peo.
of Noah in the Ark upon the top of that mountain, at whose ple of the country suppose, I cannot certainly tell.
foot it was built, as the first city or town after the flood. See † Gen. ix. 13.

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duration of life; for those ancients were beloved of ing that their own power was the proper cause of God, and lately made by God himself; and, because the plentiful condition they were in, did not obey their food was then fitter for the prolongation of him. Nay, they added to this disobedience to the life, might well live so great a number of years. | divine will, the suspicion that they were ordered to And besides, God afforded them a longer time of send out separate colonies, that, being divided asunlife on account of their virtue, and the good use der, they might the more easily be oppressed. they made of it in astronomical and geometrical Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an discoveries, which would not have afforded them affront and contempt of God; he was the grandson time for foretelling the periods of the stars, unless of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great they had lived six hundred years, for the great year strength of hand. He persuaded them not to asis completed in that interval.

cribe it to God, as if it were through his means that Now I have for witnesses to what I have said all they were happy, but to believe that it was their those that have written antiquities, both among the own courage that procured that happiness. He also Greeks and Barbarians; for even Manetho, who gradually changed the government into tyranny, wrote the Egyptian History; and Berosus, who col- seeing no other method of turning men from the lected the Chaldean Monuments; and Mochus, and fear of God, but to bring them into a constant deHestiæus, and besides these, Hieronymus, the Egyp- pendence on his own power. He also said, “He tian, and those that composed the Phænician History, would be revenged on God, if he should have a agree to what I here say. Hesiod* also, and Heca- mind to drown the world again; for that he would tæus, and Hellanicus, and Aculsilaus; and besides build a tower too high for the waters to be able to these, Ephorus and Nicolaus relate, that the ancients reach, and that he would avenge himself on God lived a thousand years. But, as to these matters, for destroying their forefathers.” let every one look upon them as they think fit. Now the multitude were very ready to follow the CHAP. IV.

determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece

of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a The sons of Noah were three, Shem, Japhet, and tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any Ham, born one hundred years before the deluge. degree negligent about the work; and by reason of These first of all descended from the mountains into the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very the plains, and fixed their habitation there, and per- high sooner than any one could expect; but the suaded others, who were greatly afraid of the lower thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly grounds on account of the flood, and so were very built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon loath to come down from the higher places, to ven- view, to be less than it really was. It was built of ture to follow their example. Now the plain in burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made which they first dwelt was called Shinar. God also of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit commanded them to send colonies abroad, for the water. When God saw them acting so madly, he thorough peopling of the earth, that they might not did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they raise seditions among themselves, but might .culti- were not grown wiser by the destruction of the vate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits former sinners, but he caused a tumult among them after a plentiful manner ; but they were so ill-in- by producing in them divers languages, and causing structed, that they did not. obey God, for which that through the multitude of those languages, they reason they fell into calamities, and were made sen- should not be able to understand one another. The sible by experience of what sin they had been guilty place wherein they built the tower is now called of; for when they flourished with a numerous youth, Babylon, because of the confusion of that language God admonished them again to send out colonies; which they readily understood before, for the Hebut they, imagining that the prosperity they enjoyed brew means by the word Babel,t confusion. The was not derived from the favour of God, but suppos- Sibylf also makes mention of the tower, and of the


* Since the Latin copies have here generally Isiodorus, instead of Hesiodus: Vossius, and perhaps Hudson, inclined to think the writer here meant was Isidorus Characenus, who produced instances of kings who reigned a long time. But since the Greek copies have constantly Hesiod, and since Hesiod says, that men's lives were once so long, that at one hundred years of age they might be esteemed great infants, I prefer that reading. But what a catalogue of ancient authors are there that confirm the sacred History in one of its most difficult branches ! To which, had Josephus read the Latin authors, as he did the Greek, he might have added Varro, the most learned of the Ro.

mans, who made this inquiry, what the reason was that the an-
cients were supposed to have lived one thousand years ?
+ Gen. xi. 29.

See this testimony in the original, and in English in my edition of the Sibylline Oracles, page 11.93, 94; but there it is in verse, as here in prose, the reason of which difference I by no means understand. But what is here remarkable is, that Moses Chorenensis, the Armenian historian, confirms this his. tory, that God overthrew this tower by a terrible and divine storm, and confounded the language of the builders; and this from the earliest records belonging to that nation.



confusion of the language, when she says thus :- and Jonia all the Grecians are derived. Thobel “ When all men were of one language, some of founded the Thobelites, now called Iberes: and the them built an high tower, as if they would thereby Mosocheni, now called Cappadocians, were founded ascend up to heaven, but the gods sent storms of by Mosoph. There is also a mark of their ancient wind, and overthrew the tower, and gave every one denomination still to be shown, for there is even his peculiar language; and for this reason it was now among them a city called Mazaca, which may that the city was called Babylon.” But as to the inform those who are able to understand, that so plain of Shinah, in the country of Babylonia, Hes- was the nation once called. Thiras also called those tiæus mentions it when he says, “ Such of the priests whom he ruled over Thirasians, but the Greeks as were saved took the sacred vessels of Jupiter changed the name into Thracians; and so many Enyalius, and came to Shinar or Babylonia.” were the countries that had the children of Japhet

for their inhabitants. CHAP. V.

Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians ; Riphath founded the Ripheans, now

called Paphlagonians; and Thrugramma the ThruAFTER this they were dispersed abroad on account grammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were of the difference of their languages, and went out named Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan also, by colonies everywhere ; and each colony took the son of Japhet. Elisa gave name to the Eliseans, possession of that land unto which God led them, who were his subjects ; they are now the Æolians. so that the whole continent was filled with them, Tharsus to the Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old both the inland and maritime countries. There called; the sign of which is, that the noblest city were some also who passed over the sea in ships, they have, and a metropolis also, is Tausus, the and inhabited the islands; and some of those nations letter Tau being by change put for Theta. Cethimus still retain the denominations which were given possessed the island Cethima.. It is now called Cythem by their first founders, but some have lost prus, and from that all islands, and the greatest them, and some have only admitted certain changes part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim by the in them, that they might be more intelligible to the Hebrews; and one city there is in Cyprus that has inhabitants; and they were the Greeks who became been able to preserve its denomination; it is called the authors of such mutations; for when, in after Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, ages, 'they grew potent, they claimed to themselves and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the the glory of antiquity, giving names to the nations name of Cethim; and so many nations have the that sounded well in Greek, that they might be children and grandchildren of Japhet possessed. better understood among themselves, and setting Now when I have premised somewhat which, peragreeable forms of government over them, as if haps, the Greeks do not know, I will return and they were a people derived from themselves. explain what I have omitted; for such names are

pronounced here after the manner of the Greeks, to CHAP. VI

please my readers, for our own language does not HOW EVERY NATION WAS DENOMINATED FROM THEIR FIRST so pronounce them; but the names in all cases are

of one and the same ending; for the name we here Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in pronounce Noeus, is there Noah, and in every case honour of whom names were imposed on the nations retains the same termination. by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the The children of Ham possessed the land from son of Noah, had seven sons; they inhabited so, Syria and Amanus, and the mountains of Libanus, that beginning at the mountains Taurus and Ama- seizing upon all the maritime parts, and keeping nus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river them as their own. Some, indeed, of its names are Tanais, and along Europe to Cadiz, and settling utterly vanished : others of them being changed, themselves on the lands they chose, which none had and another sound given them, are hardly to be disinhabited before, they called the nations by their covered ; yet there are a few which have kept their own names; for Gomer founded those whom the denominations entire; for of the four sons of Ham, Greeks called Galatians, but were then called Go- time has not at all hurt the name of Chus; for the merites. Magog founded those that from him were Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, Scythians. Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons called Chusites. The memory also of the Mesraités of Japhet: from Madai came the Madeans, which is preserved in their name, for all we who inhabit are called Medes by the Greeks, but from Javan the country of Judea call Egypt Mestre, and the


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