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sound of the trumpet, as a signal for their retreat, when David had made that league with Abner; (for and thereby put a stop to any farther pursuit. After he was pleased with this message to him, he dewhich Joab pitched his camp there that night. But sired that he would give this as the first mark of Abner marched all night, and passed over the river performance of the present league, that he might Jordan, and came to Ishbosheth, Saul's son, to Ma- have his wife Michal restored to him, as her whom hanaim. On the next day Joab counted the dead he had purchased with great hazards, and with those men, and took care of all their funerals. Now there six hundred heads of the Philistines which he had were slain of Abner's soldiers about three hundred brought to Saul, her father. So Abner took Michal and sixty; but of those of David nineteen besides from Phaltiel, who was then her husband, and sent Asahel, whose body Joab and Abishai carried to her to David ; Ishbosheth himself affording him Bethlehem. And when they had buried him in the assistance: for David had written to him that of sepulchre of their fathers,* they came to David to right he ought to have his wife restored to him. Hebron. From this time, therefore, there began an Abner also called together the elders of the multitude, intestine war, which lasted a great while; in which the commanders, and captains of thousands; and the followers of David grew stronger, in the dangers spake thus to them, that He had formerly dissuaded they underwent, and the servants and subjects of them from their own resolution, when they were Saul's sons did almost every day become weaker. ready to forsake Ishbosheth, and to join themselves
About this time,f David was become the father to David: that, however, he now gave them leave of six sons, born of as many mothers. The eldest so to do, if they had a mind to it; for they knew was by Abinoam, and he was called Amnon; the that God had appointed David to be king of all the second was Daniel, by his wife Abigail; the name Hebrews, by Samuel the prophet; and had foretold of the third was Absalom, by Maachah, the daugh- that he should punish the Philistines, and finally ter of Talmai, king of Geshur; the fourth he named overcome them. * Now when the elders and rulers Adonijah, by his wife Haggith; the fifth was She- heard this, and understood that Abner was come phatiah, by Abitail; and the sixth he called Ithream, over to those sentiments about the public affairs by Eglah. Now while this intestine war went on, which they were of before, they changed their meaand while the subjects of the two kings came fre- sures, and came in to David. When these men had quently to action, it was Abner, general of the host agreed to Abner's proposal, he called together the of Saul's son, who by his prudence and the great tribe of Benjamin ; (for all of that tribe were the interest he had among the multitude, made them all guards of Ishbosheth’s body;) and spake to them continue with Ishbosheth. And indeed it was a con- to the same purpose. And when he saw that they siderable time that they continued of his party. did not in the least oppose what he said, but resigned
But afterwards Abner was blamed, and an accu- themselves up to his opinion, he took about twenty
tion was laid against him, that he had taken inde- of his friends, and came to David, in order to recent liberties with Rispah, the daughter of Aiah, ceive himself security upon oath from him. For we and Saul's concubine ;8 so when he was complained may justly esteem those things to be firmer which of by Ishbosheth he was very uneasy, and angry at every one of us do by ourselves, than those which it; because he had not justice done him by Ishbo- we do by another. He also gave him an account sheth, to whom he had shown the greatest kindness. of what he had said to the rulers, and to the whole He therefore threatened that he would transfer the tribe of Benjamin. And when David had received kingdom to David, and demonstrate that he did not him in a courteous manner, and had treated him rule over the people beyond Jordan by his own with great hospitality for many days, Abner, when abilities and wisdom, but by his warlike conduct and he was dismissed, desired permission to bring the fidelity, in leading his army. So he sent ambassa- multitude with him, that he might deliver up the dors to Hebron, and desired that David would give government to him, when David himself was present, him security upon oath, that he would esteem him and a spectator of what was done. his companion and friend; upon condition that he When David had sent Abner away, Joab, the should persuade the people to leave Saul's son, and general of his army, came immediately to Hebron; to choose him king of the whole country. And and when he had understood that Abner had been
2 Sam. ii. 32. + An. 1090.
An. 1089. was at this time aspiring to the throne, which Solomon perceiv§ What notion the world, at this time, had of marrying any | ing, took occasion, from this request, to fall out with him, and royal relict, is evident from the case of Adonijah, whom Solo- prevent it. But however this be, a general rule it was, not mon put to death for desiring but to ask for Abishag, one of | among the Jews only, but among other nations, that no private David's concubines, though he had employed Bath-sheba the person should presume to marry the king's widow; for this made king's mother, to be his intercessor, and was himself his bro- him appear as a rival and competitor for the crown.
Calmet's ther, 1 Kings ii. 17. It may be said, perhaps, that Adonijah | Comment. B.
with David, and had parted with him a little be- | great instances of wickedness' men will venture fore under an agreement, that the government upon, for the sake of getting money and authority; should be delivered up to David; he feared lest and that they may not fail of either of them. For David should place Abner, who had assisted him as when they are desirous of obtaining the same, to gain the kingdom, in the first rank of dignity; they acquire them by ten thousand evil practices; especially since he was a shrewd man in other re so when they are afraid of losing them, they get spects; in understanding affairs, and in managing them confirmed by practices much worse than the them artfully, as proper seasons should require; former. As if no other calamity so terrible could and that he should himself be put lower, and be befall them, as the failure of acquiring so exalted deprived of the command of the army; so he took an authority, or as the loss of it, after its acquisia knavish and a wicked course. In the first place he tion and long enjoyment. And since this last would endeavoured to calumniate Abner to the king, ex- be the heaviest of all afflictions, they all of them horting him to have a care of him, and not to give contrive and venture upon the most difficult acattention to what he had engaged to do for him; tions, out of fear of losing the same. But let it because all he did tended to confirm the govern- suffice that I have made these short reflections ment to Saul's son; that he came to him deceit- upon that subject. fully, and with guile, and was gone away in hopes When David heard that Abner was slain, it of gaining his purposes by this management. But grieved his soul, and he called all men to witness, when he could not thus persuade David, nor saw with stretching out his hand to God, and crying him at all exasperated, he betook himself to a pro- out, that he was not a partaker in the murder of ject bolder than the former. He determined to kill Abner, and that his death was not procured by Abner; and in order thereto he sent some mes- his command or approbation. He also wished the sengers after him; to whom he gave in charge, heaviest curses might fall upon him that slew him, that when they should overtake him, they should and upon his whole house, and he devoted those recall him in David's name; and tell him, that he that had assisted him in this murder to the same had somewhat to say to him about his affairs which penalties on its account. For he took care not to he had not remembered to speak of when he was appear to have had any hand in this murder, conwith him.
trary to the assurances he had given, and the Now when Abner heard what the messengers oaths he had taken to Abner. However, he comsaid, (for they overtook him in a certain place manded all the people to weep and lament this called Bisera, which was distant from Hebron man, and to honour his dead body with the usual twenty furlongs ;) he suspected none of the mis- solemnities; that is, by rending their garments, chief which was befalling him, and came back and putting on sackcloth ; and that this should be Hereupon Joab met him in the gate; and received the habit in which they should go before the bier. him in the kindest manner, as if he were Abner's He also followed it himself, with the elders, and most benevolent acquaintance and friend; for such those that were rulers ; lamenting Abner, and as undertake the vilest actions, in order to prevent by his tears demonstrating his good-will to him the suspicion of any private mischief, do frequently while he was alive, and his sorrow for him now he make the greatest pretence to what good men do was dead; and that he was not taken off with his sincerely. So he took him aside from his own fol- consent. So he buried him at Hebron, in a maglowers, as if he would speak to him in private, and nificent manner, and indited funeral elegies for brought him into a void place of the gate; having him: he also stood first over the monument weephimself nobody with him, but his brother Abishai; ing, and caused others to do the same. Nay, so then he drew his sword, and smote him in the deeply did the death of Abner disorder him, that groin ; upon which Abner died* by this treachery his companions could by no means persuade him of Joab's; which, as he said himself
, was in way to take any food: but he affirmed with an oath of punishment for his brother Asahel, whom Abner that he would taste nothing till the sun was set. smote and slew as he was pursuing after him in the This procedure gained him the good-will of the battle of Hebron; but as the truth was, out of fear multitude; for such as had an affection for Abner, of his losing his command of the army, and his were highly gratified with the respect he paid him, dignity with the king; and lest he should be de- when he was dead; and the observance of that prived of those advantages, and Abner should faith he had plighted to him ; which was shown obtain the first rank in David's court. By these in his vouchsafing him all the usual ceremonies, examples any one may learn, how many and how as if he had been his kinsman and friend, and not
suffering him to be neglected and injured with a dishonourable burial, as if he had been his enemy.
* 2 Sam. iji. 27.
Insomuch that the entire nation rejoiced at the these men went into the room in which Ishbosheth, king's gentleness and mildness of disposition ; Saul's son, lay asleep, and slew him if they also every one being ready to suppose that the king cut off his head, and took their journey all that would have taken the same care of them, in the night, and the next day, as supposing themselves like circumstances, which they saw he showed in fleeing from those that they had injured, to one that the burial of Abner. And indeed David principally would accept of this action as a favour, and would intended to gain a good reputation; and therefore afford them security. So they came to Hebron, he took care to do what was proper in this case; and showed David the head of Ishbosheth, and whence none had any suspicion that he was the and presented themselves to him, as his wellauthor of Abner's death. He also said to the mul- wishers, and such as had killed one that was his titude, that he was greatly troubled at the death enemy, and antagonist. Yet David did not apof so good a man, and that the affairs of the He- prove of what they had done, as they expected; brews had suffered great detriment by being de- but said to them, “ Vile wretches! you shall imprived of him, who was of so great abilities to mediately receive the punishment you deserve. preserve them by his excellent advice, and by the Did not you know what vengeance I executed on strength of his hands in war. “ But,” added he, him that murdered Saul, and brought me his “ that God, who hath a regard to all men's actions, crown of gold; and this while he who perpetrated will not suffer this man (Joab) to go off unre- that action did it as a favour to him, that he might venged. But know ye, that I am not able to do any not be caught by his enemies? or do you imagine thing to these sons of Zeruiah, Joab and Abishai, that I am altered in my disposition, and suppose who have more power than I have. But God will that I am not the same man I then was? but am requite their insolent attempts upon their own pleased with men that are wicked doers ? and esheads."* And this was the fatal conclusion of the teem your vile actions, when you are become murlife of Abner.
derers of your master, as grateful to me, when
you have slain a righteous man upon his bed, who CHAP. II.
never did evil to any body; and treated you with OF THE MURDER OF ISHBOSHETH, BY THE TREACHERY OF HIS FRIENDS, great good-will and respect; wherefore
suffer the punishment due on his account, and the When Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, had heard vengeance I ought to inflict upon you for killing of the death of Abner, he took it to heart, to be Ishbosheth, and for supposing that I should take deprived of a man that was of his kindred, and his death kindly at your hands; for you could not had indeed given him the kingdom, and Abner's lay a greater blot on my honour than the making death very much troubled him. Nor did he him such a supposal.” When David had said this, he self survive any long time; but was treacherously tormented them with all sorts of torments, and set upon by the sons of Rimmon, Baanah and Re- then put them to death; and he bestowed all acchab; and was slain by them. For these being of customed rites on the burial of the head of Ishboa family of the Benjamites, and of the first rank sheth, and laid it in the grave of Abner.S among them, thought that if they should slay dsh- When these things were brought to this conbosheth, they should obtain large presents from Da- clusion, all the principal men of the Hebrews came vid, and be made commanders by him, or at least to David, to Hebron, with the heads of thousands, should have some other trust committed to them. and other rulers, and delivered themselves up to So when they once found him asleep, at noon, in an him; putting him in mind of the good-will they upper apartment, when none of his guards were had borne to him in Saul's life-time; and the rethere; and when the woman that kept the door spect they then had not ceased to pay him, when was not watching, but was fallen asleep, also; he was captain of a thousand; as also that he was partly on account of the labour she had under- chosen of God by Samuel the prophet,ff he and his gone, and partly on account of the heat of the day; sons; declaring besides how God had given him
AND OF DAVID'S ACOESSION TO THE WHOLE KINGDOM.
* 2 Sam. iii. 39.
† 2 Sam. iv. 7. that David's conduct, in relation to Abner's death, proceeded # It may seem a little strange, that these two ruffians were from art and policy, rather than any serious dislike to the thing not discouraged by David's punishing the Amalekite for kills itself; and in this opinion, they might the rather be confirmed, ing of Saul, and by the detestation he had publicly shown of when they saw Joab, instead of being punished, continuing in Joab’s baseness in murdering Abner : but the former of these the very same post and power that he had before. Pool's Annocases, they might think, was not parallel to theirs ; because tations. B. Saul was anointed king by God's immediate direction, where § 2 Sam. iv. 12. as Ishbosheth, having never had such sacred unction, was no || This may be a true observation of Josephus's; that Samuel, more than an usurper; and as for the latter, they might think, | by command from God, entailed the crown on David and his
power to save the land of the Hebrews, and to spears, and the tribe itself followed after; being, overcome the Philistines. Whereupon he received in a manner,t innumerable. Out of the tribe of kindly their alacrity on his account ; and exhorted Dan there were of chosen men, twenty-seven them to continue in it, for that they should have thousand and six hundred. Out of the tribe of no reason to repent of being thus disposed to him. Asher were forty thousand. Out of the two tribes So when he had feasted them, and treated them that were beyond Jordan, and the rest of the tribe kindly, he sent them out to bring all the people to of Manasseh, such as used shields, and him. Upon which there came to him about six head-pieces, and swords, were a hundred and thousand and eight hundred armed men of the twenty thousand. The rest of the tribe also made tribe of Judah ; who bare shields and spears of use of swords. This multitude came together to their weapons; for these had, till now, continued Hebron, to David; with a great quantity of corn, with Saul's son, when the rest of the tribe of wine, and all other sorts of food : and established Judah had ordained David for their king. There David in his kingdom with one consent. And came also seven thousand and one hundred out of when the people had feasted and rejoiced three the tribe of Simeon ; out of the tribe of Levi came days in Hebron, David and all the people removed, four thousand and seven hundred, having Jehoiada and came to Jerusalem. for their leader. After these came Zadok, the high-priest, with twenty-two captains of his kin
CHAP. III. dred. Out of the tribe of Benjamin the armed OF THE SIEGE AND REDUCTION OF JERUSALEM, BY KING DAVID; WHO men were four thousand; but the rest of the tribe continued still expecting that some one of the Now the Jebusites, who were the inhabitants house of Saul should reign over them. Those of of Jerusalem, and were by extraction Canaanites, the tribe of Ephraim were twenty thousand and shut their gates; and placed their blind, lame, and eight hundred ; and these mighty men of valour, maimed persons upon the wall, in way of derision and eminent for their strength. Out of the half of the king ;f and said, that the very lame themtribe of Manasseh came eighteen thousand of the selves would hinder his entrance into it. This most potent men. Out of the tribe of Issachar they did out of contempt of his power, and as came two hundred," who foreknew what was to depending on the strength of their walls. David come hereafter: but of armed men twenty thou- was hereby enraged, and began the siege of Jerusand. Of the tribe of Zebulun fifty thousand salem, and employed his utmost diligence and chosen men. This was the only tribe which came alacrity therein; as intending by the taking of universally in to David: and all these had the this place to demonstrate his power, and to intimisame weapons with the tribe of Gad. Out of the date all others that might be of the like evil distribe of Naphthali the eminent men and rulers were position towards him. So he took the lower city one thousand, whose weapons were shields and by force, but the citadel held out still. Whence
EXPELLED THE CANAANITES AND BROUGHT IN THE JEWS.
posterity ; for no farther did that entail ever reach: Solomon imagined their fortress to be so impregnable, that by way of himself having never had any promise made him that his pos- contempt, they told David, that their very blind and lame would terity should always have the right to it.
be able to defend it against him and all his forces; and this is a * These words of Josephus concerning the tribe of Issachar, sense so extremely plain and obvious, that the renowned Bochart who foreknew what was to come hereafter, are best paraphrased wonders, why any man of learning should seek for any other. by the parallel text, 1 Chron. xii. 32. Who had understanding The only exception to it is, that these blind and lame, (which of the times, to know what Israel ought to do, i.e. Who had so were rather objects of compassion,) are said to have been ex. much knowledge of astronomy as to make calendars for the tremely hated by David. But we may observe, that David here Israelites; that they might keep their festivals, and plough, and retorts the sarcasm upon them; the lame and blind, i. e. those sow, and gather in their harvests and vintage in due season. who are said to defend the place, and who, as they pretended, | Thirty-seven thousand, 1 Chron. xii. 34.
were to be only the lame and the blind. And these were hate$ The blind and the lame, says Luther, upon this place, were ful to David, because they had wickedly and insolently defied the idols of the Jebusites, which, to irritate David, they set upon the armies of the living God. Pool's Annotations, Patrick's their walls, as their patrons and protectors; and these they call and Le Clerc's Comment. B. blind and lame sarcastically, and with respect to David's opin What our other copies say of Mount Sion as alone properly ion; as if they had said, “ These gods of ours, whom ye Israel. called the city of David, 2 Sam. v. 6—9, and of this its siege and ites reproach, as blind and lame, and so unable to direct or de conquest now by David, Josephus applies to the whole city fend us, will secure us against you, and to your cost, make you Jerusalem : though including the citadel also. By what aufind that they are neither blind nor lame, but have eyes to watch thority we do not now know; perhaps after David had united for us, and hands to fight against you, so that you must conquer them together, or joined the citadel to the lower city, Josephus and subdue them, before you take this place.” But this inter esteemned them as one city. However this notion seems to he pretation seems to be a little too metaphorical and forced, for confirmed by what the same Josephus says concerning David's which reason we have rather chosen the construction which and many other kings of Judah’s sepulchres, which, as the Josephus (lib. vii. cap. 2.) puts upon this passage, viz. that they | authors of the Books of Kings and Chronicles say, were in the
it was that the king knowing that the proposals | the temple Solyma, according to the Hebrew lanof dignities and rewards would encourage the guage; which denotes security. Now the whole soldiers to greater actions, promised that he who time from the warfare under Joshua our general, should first go over the ditches that were beneath against the Canaanites; and from that war in which the citadel, and should ascend to the citadel itself he overcame them, and distributed the land among and take it, should have the command of the en- the Hebrews: (nor could the Israelites ever cast the tire people conferred upon him. So they all were Canaanites out of Jerusalem until this time, when ambitious to ascend; and thought no pains too David took it by siege ;) this whole time was five great, in order to ascend thither, out of their de- hundred and fifteen years. sire of the chief command. However Joab, the I shall now make mention of Araunah, who was son of Zeruiah, prevented the rest; and as soon a wealthy man among the Jebusites, but was not as he was got up to the citadel, cried out to the slain by David in the siege of Jerusalem ; because king, and claimed the chief command.
of the good-will he bore to the Hebrews; and a When David had cast the Jebusites out of the particular benignity and affection which he had to citadel, he rebuilt Jerusalem, and named it the city the king himself; which I shall take a more seasonof David ; and abode there all the time of his reign. able opportunity to speak of Şa little afterwards. But for the time that he reigned over the tribe of Now David married other wives over and above Judah only, in Hebron, it was *seven years and six those which he had before: he had also concubines. months. Now when he had chosen Jerusalem to be The sons which he had were in number eleven, his royal city, his affairs did more and more pros- whose names were|| Amnon, Emnos, Eban, Nathan, per, by the providence of God; who took care that Solomon, Jeban, Elien, Phalna, Ennaphen, Jenae, they should improve and be augmentedot Hiram, Eliphale, and a daughter, Tamar. Nine of these also, the king of the Tyrians, sent ambassadors, and were born of legitimate wives: but the two last of made a league of mutual friendship and assistance concubines. And Tamar had the same mother with with him. He also sent him presents, cedar-trees, Absalom. and mechanics, and men skilful in building and architecture; that they might build him a royal
CHAP. IV. palace at Jerusalem. Now David made buildings of DAVID'S FURTHER SUCCESS AGAINST THE PHILISTINES ; HIS REround about the lower city; he also joined the citadel to it, and made it one body; and when he had encompassed all with walls, he appointed Joab to WHEN the Philistines understood that David was take care of them. It was David, therefore, who made king of the Hebrews, they made war against first cast the Jebusites out of Jerusalem, and called him at Jerusalem. And when they had seized upon it by his own name, the city of David. For under that valley which is called The valley of the Giants; our forefather Abraham it was called Salem or and is a place not far from the city; they pitched
Solyma. But after that time some say that Homer their camp there. But the king of the Jews, T who mentions it, by that name of Solyma. For he named never permitted himself to do any thing without
MOVAL OF THE ARK TO JERUSALEM, AND HIS DESIRE TO BUILD A
city of David, so does Josephus still say they were in Jerusalem. it to have been so called after Abraham had received that oracle The sepulchre of David seems to have been a known place in Jehovah Jireh, the Lord will see or provide, Gen. xxii. 14. The the several days of Hyrcanus, of Herod, and of St. Peter. Antiq. latter word, Jireh, with a little alteration prefixed to the old XIII. 8. XIV. 7. Acts ii. 29. Now no such royal sepulchres name, Salem, Peace, will be Jerusalem. And since the exhave been found about Mount Sion : but are found close by the pression, God will see, or rather, God will provide himself a north wall of Jerusalem. Which I suspect to be therefore these lamb for a burnt-offering, verse 8, is there said to have been very sepulchres. See the note on chap. 15. In the mean time proverbial till the days of Moses; this seems to me the most Josephus's explication of the lame and the blind, and the probable derivation of that name: which will then denote that maimed, as set to keep this city or citadel, seems to be the God would provide peace by that Lamb of God which was to truth; and gives the best light to that history in our Bible. Mr. | take away the sins of the world. However, that which is put Ottius truly observes, ap. Havercamp, p. 305, that Josephus into double brackets can hardly be supposed the genuine words never mentions Mount Sion by that name; as taking it for an ap- of Josephus; as Dr. Hudson well judges. pellative, as I suppose, and not for a proper name. He still either § Chap. xiii. styles it the citadel, or the upper city. Nor do I see any reason li This number (eleven) and most of these names differ greatly for Mr. Ottius's evil suspicions about this procedure of Jo- from those in 1 Chroni. iii. 149. sephus's.
1 It deserves here to be remarked, that Saul very rarely, and * From An. 1095 to 1088 B. C. † 2 Sam. v. 10. David very frequently, consulted God by Urim: and that David
# Some copies of Josephus have here Solyma or Salem; and aimed always to depend, not on his own prudence or abilities, others Hierosolyma or Jerusalem. The latter best agrees with but on the divine direction; contrary to Saul's practice. See what Josephus says elsewhere, Of the War, VI. 10, that this city the note on III. 8. And when Saul's daughter, Michal, laughed was called Solyma or Salem before the days of Melchisedec, but at David's dancing before the ark, 2 Sam. vi. 16, &c., it is probwas by him called Hierosolyma or Jerusalem. I rather suppose | able she did so, because her father Saul did not use to pay such