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prophecy, and the command of God, and without out of all his countrymen, and out of the whole depending on him as a security for the time to come, land; and withal for the priests and the Levites ; in bade the high-priest foretell to him what was the order to their going to Kirjathjearim, to bring up will of God, and what would be the event of this the ark of God out of that city, and to carry it to battle. And when he foretold that he should gain Jerusalem, and there to keep it; and offer before it the victory, and the dominion, he led out his army those sacrifices, and those other honours, with which against the Philistines; and when the battle was God used to be well pleased. For had they done joined, he came himself behind, and fell upon the thus in the reign of Saul, they had not undergone eneiny suddenly, and slew some of them, and put any great misfortunes at all. So when the whole the rest to flight. And let no one suppose that it body of the people were come together, as they had was a small army of the Philistines that came resolved to do, the king came to the ark, which the against the Hebrews: as guessing so from the sud- priests brought out of the house of Aminadab, and denness of their defeat, and from their having per- laid it upon a new cart, and permitted their brethren formed no action that was worth recording, from and children to draw it, together with the oxen. the slowness of their march, and want of courage: Before it went the king, and the whole multitude of but let him know, that all Syria and Phænicia, with the people with him, singing hymns to God, and many other nations besides them, and those warlike making use of all sorts of songs usual among them; nations also, came to their assistance; and had a accompanied with the sounds of musical instruments, share in this war. Which thing was the only cause and with dancing and singing of psalms; as also why, when they had been so often conquered, and with the sounds of trumpets and of cymbals : and had lost so many ten thousands of their men, they so they brought the ark to Jerusalem. But as they still came upon the Hebrews with greater armies. came to the threshing-floor of *Chidon, a place so Nay, indeed, when they had so often failed of their called, Uzzaht was slain by the anger of God. For purpose in these battles, they came upon David with as the oxen shook the ark, he stretched out his hand an army three times as numerous as before, and and would needs take hold of it. Now because he pitched their camp on the same spot of ground as was not a priest, and yet touched the ark, God struck before. The king of Israel therefore inquired of him dead. Hereupon both the king and the people God again, concerning the event of the battle; and were displeased at the death of Uzzah; and the the high-priest prophesied to him, that he should place where he died is called the Breach of Uzzaht keep his army in the groves, called the Groves of unto this day. So David was afraid, and supposing Weeping, which were not far from the enemies' that if he received the ark to himself into the city, camp: and that he should not move, nor begin to he might suffer in the like manner as Uzzah had fight till the trees of the grove should be in motion suffered, who, upon his barely putting out his hand without the winds blowing; but as soon as these trees to the ark, died in the manner already mentioned: moved, and the time foretold to him by God was he did not receive it to himself into the city; but he come, he should, without delay, go out to gain what took it aside unto a certain place belonging to a was already prepared, an evident victory. For the righteous man, whose name was Obededom, who several ranks of the enemies' army did not sustain was, by his family, a Levite, and deposited the ark him, but retreated at the first onset, whom he closely with him. And it remained there three entire months. followed, and slew them as he went along, and pur- This augmented the house of Obededom, and consued them to the city Gaza, which is the limit of ferred many blessings upon it: and when the king their country. After this, he spoiled their camp, in heard what had befallen Obededom; how he was which he found great riches; and he also destroyed become of a poor man, in a low estate, exceeding
happy, and the object of envy to all those that saw When this had proved the event of the battle, or inquired after his house, he took courage; and, David thought proper, upon a consultation with the hoping that he should meet with no misfortune elders, and rulers, and captains of thousands, to thereby, he transferred the ark to his own house ;ş send for those that were in the flower of their age, the priests carrying it, while seven companies of
regard to the ark; to the Urim there inquired by; or to God's penalty by that law, Numb. iv. 15, 20. See the like before, worship before it; and because she thought it beneath the dig. VI. 1. It is not improbable, that the putting this ark in a cart, nity of a king to be so religious.
when it ought to have been carried by the priests or Levites, as * 1 Chron. xiii. 9.
it was presently here in Josephus so carried from Obededom's † Josephus seems to be partly in the right, when he observes house to David's, might be also an occasion of the anger of God here, that Uzzah was no priest, (though perhaps he might be a. on that breach of the law. See Numb. iv. 15. i Chron. xv. 13. Levite,) and was therefore struck dead for touching the ark, con # 2 Sam. vi. 8. 1 Chron. xv. 13. trary to the law; and for which profane rashness death was the It is supposed by some, that this bringing back of the ark
singers, who were set in that order by the king, before her father, and before all others; that he went before it; and while he himself played upon would play frequently, and dance, without any rethe harp, and joined in the music ;* insomuch, that gard to what the handmaidens and she herself when his wife Michal, the daughter of Saul, saw thought of it. So this Michal who was David's him so doing, she laughed at him. But when they wife, had no children; however when she was had brought in the ark, they placed it under the afterward married to him to whom Saul her father tabernacle which David had pitched for it; and he had given her, (for at this time David had taken offered costly sacrifices, and peace-offerings; and her away from him, and had her himself) she bare treated the whole multitude, and dealt both to the fivef children. But concerning those matters I. women and the men, and the infants, a loaf of bread shall discourse in a proper place. and a cake, and another cake baked in a pan, with Now when the king saw that his affairs grew a portion of the sacrifice. So when he had thus better almost every day, by the will of God, he feasted the people, he sent them away, and returned thought he should offend him, if, while he himself to his own house.
continued in houses made of cedar, such as were But when Michal his wife, the daughter of Saul, of great height, and had the most curious works came and stood by him, she wished him all other of architecture in them, he should overlook the happiness; and entreated, that whatever he should ark, while it was laid in a tabernacle; and he was farther desire, to the utmost possibility, might be desirous to build a temple to God, as || Moses had given by God, and that he might be favourable to predicted such a temple should be built. And when him. Yet did she blame him,t that so great a he had discoursed with Nathan the prophet about king as he was should dance after an unseemly these things, and had been encouraged by him to manner; and, in his dancing, uncover himself do whatsoever he had a mind to do, as having among the servants and the handmaidens. But God with him, and his helper in all things : he was he replied, that he was not ashamed to do what thereupon the more ready to set about that buildwas acceptable to God, who had preferred him ing. But God appeared to Nathan that night, and was appointed to be one of the great festivals; and the reason himself! 2 Sam. vi. 20. At first reading, they seem to intimate, why David might summon so many of his principal ministers that David, in his dancing, had exposed his naked body, and and officers to accompany him in the expedition might be, to acted some way or other immodestly. But these words, we are possess the young people, who perhaps had heard little or no to consider, were spoken in a fit of passion, and when Michal thing of the ark, by reason of its having been absent so long, was minded to aggravate matters; for it is not to be doubted, with a mighty veneration for it when they saw the king, and so but that David kept himself within the bounds of modesty, how many of the chief nobility, waiting on it, with such a variety of joyous soever he might be. It was a command which God gave music, and such public declarations of joy. Miller's History the Israelites, that they should rejoice in their feasts, Deut. xii. of the Church.
7; but then their joy was not to be lascivious or petulant, but Strabo tells us, that it was customary among the Greeks, as pious and moderate. In the case before us, David was in the well as other nations, to use music and dancing in the proces immediate presence of God, and about a very sacred busisions before their gods, lib. 10. Callimachus mentions the chori, ness; and therefore it is incongruous to think that he would and dancings of the youth at the altar of Apollo; Plato observes, commit any thing immodest. And, that he could not expose his that among the Egyptians, all kinds of music, songs, and dances, nakedness (as - his wife would insinuate,) is evident from his were consecrated to their gods. De Legibus, 1. 3. And even having not only an ephod on, but being clothed with a robe of Lucian (De Saltatione) expressly says, that among the ancients, fine linen, besides his usual under garments, 1 Chron. xv. 27, no ceremonial of religion, no expiation, no atonement, was ac and therefore, though his putting off his regal robes might give counted rightly accomplished without dancing. So that David some occasion to Michal's expression of his uncovering himself, was far from being singular in his behaviour upon this occasion; yet it must be owned, that this opprobrious term proceeded from nor was his behaviour, in this particular, any disparagement to nothing but the overflowing spleen of a proud passionate woman. his regal dignity. His dancing, i. e. his moving in certain Calmei's and Patrick's Commentaries. B. serious and solemn measures, suited to music of the same char. | Hence correct our other copies. 2 Sam. vi. 23, Acter and tendency, was an exercise highly conducive to the $ This is now wanting. purposes of piety, and his mixing with the public festivities of
|| Josephus here informs us that, according to his understandhis people was a condescension, (as Tacitus relates of Augustus ing of the sense of his copy of the Pentateuch, Moses had him. the Roman emperor,) not unbecoming the greatest monarch. self foretold the building of the temple : which yet is nowhere Policy taught Augustus to put himself upon a level with his that I know of in our present copies. And that this is not a mis. subjects in the public rejoicings; piety taught David, that all take, set down by him unwarily, appears by what he observed men are upon'a level in the solemnities of religion. So that before, IV. 8, how Moses foretold, that upon the Jews' future David was not singular in his behaviour upon this occasion. disobedience, their temple should be burnt and rebuilt; and Patrick's Commentary, and The History of the Life of King that not once only, but several times afterwards. See also JoDavid, vol. 2. B.
sephus's mention of God's former commands to build such a + The words of Michal, wherein she upbraids David, are temple presently; chap. xiv. contrary to our other copies ; or at these :-How glorious was the king of Israel to-day, who un least to our translation of the Hebrew, 2 Sam. vii. 6, 7. i Chron. covered himself to-day, in the eyes of the handmaids of his | xvii. 5, 6. servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth
OF DAVID'S SUCCESSES AGAINST THE PHILISTINES AND THE MOAL-
coinmanded him to *say to David, that he took his
CHAP. V. purposes and his desires kindly, since nobody had before now thought of building him a temple; although upon his having such a notion, he would not permit him to build him that temple, because he had made many wars, and was defiled with the A little while aftert this David considered, slaughter of his enemies; that, however, after his that he ought to make war against the Philistines, death, in his old age, and when he had lived a long and not see any indolence permitted in his manlife, there should be a temple built by a son of his, agement; that so it might prove as God had forewho should take the kingdom after him, and should told to him, that when he had overthrown his be called Solomon, whom he promised to provide enemies, he should leave his posterity to reign in for, as a father provides for his son, by preserving peace. So he called together his army, and the kingdom for his son's posterity, and delivering charged them to be ready and prepared for war; it to them ; but that, if he sinned, he would still and when he thought that all things were in a punish him, with diseases and barrenness of land. good state, he removed from Jerusalem, and came When David understood this from the prophet, against the Philistines; and when he had overand was overjoyed at this knowledge of the sure come them in battle, and had cut off a great part continuance of the dominion to his posterity, and of their country, and united it to the country of that his house should be splendid, and very famous, the Ilebrews, he transferred the war to the Moabhe came to the ark, and fell down on his face, and ites. And when he had overcome two parts of began to adore God, and to return thanks to him their army in battle, he took the remaining part for all his benefits; as well for those that he had captive ;ť and imposed tribute upon them to be already bestowed upon him, in raising him from a paid annually. He then made war against Halow state, and from the employment of a shepherd, dadezer, the son of Rehob|| king of Sophene; and to so great dignity of dominion and glory; as for when he had joined battle with him, at the river those also which he had promised to his posterity, Euphrates, he destroyed twenty thousand of his and besides for that providence which he had ex- footmen, and about seven thousand of his horseercised over the Hebrews, in procuring them the men. He also took a thousand of his chariots, and liberty they enjoyed. And when he had said thus, destroyed the greatest part of them; and ordered and had sung a hymn of praise to God, he went that no more than one hundred should be kept.
Now when** Hadad, king of Damascus, and of
Josephus seems in this place, with our modern interpreters, cruelty, we should rather conceive it of the third, or half part to confound the two distinct predictions which God made to at most, of the army. Le Clerc's and Calmet's Comment. David, and to Nathan, concerning the building him a temple, aries. B. by one of David's posterity; the one belonging to Solomon, the 2 Sam. viii. 2. other to the Messiah: the distinction between which is of the Whether Syria Zobah, 2 Sam. iii. 8. 1 Chron. xviii. 3—8, greatest consequence to the Christian religion: and of which I be Sophene, as Josephus here supposes; which yet Ptolomy have largely treated in my Boyle's Lectures, from p. 247-272. places beyond Euphrates, as Dr. Hudson observes here ; where. To which discourse I must here refer the inquisitive reader. as Zobah was on this side; or whether Josephus was not here See also Antiq. VII. 13. and chap. xiv.
guilty of a mistake in his geography, I cannot certainly deter† About An. 1081.
mine. # There is no small obscurity in the words of the text, which | David's reserving only 100 chariots for himself, out of 1000 are these :-He smote Moab, and measured them with a line, he had taken from Hadadezer, was most probably done in com. casting them down to the ground; even in two lines measured pliance with the law of Moses, which forbade the king of Israel be to put to death, and with one line to keep alive. Which to multiply horses to himself, Deut. xvii. 16. One of the prin. words seem to allude to a custom among the kings of the east, cipal uses of horses in Judea at that time being for drawing when they were thoroughly incensed against any nation, viz. to their chariots : see Joseph. Antiq. V. 1. and Bp. Sherlock's dismake the captives all come together in one place, and prostrate course on that subject. themselves upon the ground; that, being divided into two parts, ** It deserves here to be remarked, that this Hadad, being a as it were with a line, their conqueror might appoint which very great king, was conquered by David; whose posterity yet part he pleased either for death or life, which was sometimes for several generations were called Benhadad, or the son of determined by casting of lots. Some are of opinion, that David Hadad, till the days of Hazael ; whose son Adar or Ader is also made three lots or parts of these Moabites, two of which he in our Hebrew copy, 2 Kings xiii. 24, written Benhadad; but ordered to be slain, and one part only to be kept alive. The in Josephus Adad or Adar. And strange it is, that the son reason of this severity against this miserable people, the Rab- of Hazael, said to be such in the same text, and in Josephus, bus assure us, was, because they had slain his parents and IX. 8, should still be called the son of Hadad. I would brethren, whom he had committed to the custody of the king of therefore here correct our Hebrew copy from Josephus's ; Moab during his exile. But of the reality of this motive there which seems to have the true reading. Nor does the testimony is no manner of appearance; and since this execution which of Nicolaus of Damascus produced in this place by Josephus, David inflicted may relate either to the whole nation, or the seem to be faultless; when it says, that he was the third of the army only, to clear David from the imputation of too much! Hadads, or second of the Benhadads, who besieged Samaria, in
Syria, heard that David fought against Hadade- || their proper places hereafter. Now as for the king zer, who was his friend, he came to his assistance, of the Hebrews, he was assisted by God, who with a powerful army, in hopes to rescue him; but gave him great success in his wars; and he made when he had joined battle with David, at the river an expedition against the best cities of HadadeEuphrates, he failed of his purpose, and lost a zer, Betah, and Machon. So he took them by great number of his soldiers; for there were slain force, and laid them waste. Therein was found a of the army of Hadad twenty thousand, and all very great quantity of gold and silver, besides that the rest fled. Nicolaus also, of Damascus, makes 'sort of brass which is said to be more valuable mention of the king, in the fourth book of his his- than gold. Of which brass Solomon made that tories, where he speaks thus: “A great while large vessel which was called the brazen sea ; and after these things had happened, there was one of those most curious lavers, when he built the temthat country whose name was Hadad, who was ple of God. become very potent. He reigned over Damas But when the king of Hamath was informed of cus, and the other parts of Syria, excepting Phoe- the ill success of Hadadezer, and had heard of the nicia. He made war against David, king of ruin of his army, he was afraid on his own acJudea ; and tried his fortune in many battles, and count, and resolved to make a league of friendship particularly in the last battle at Euphrates, where with David, before he should come against him. in he was beaten. He seems to have been the So he sent to him his son Joram, and professed most excellent of all their kings, in strength and that he owed him thanks for fighting against Hamanhood.". Besides this, he says of his posterity, dadezer, who was his enemy; and made a league that after his death they succeeded one another with him of mutual assistance and friendship. in his kingdom, and in his name: where he thus He also sent him presents, vessels of ancient speaks. “When Hadad was dead, his posterity workmanship, both of gold, silver, and brass.* reigned for ten generations, each of his successors So when David had made this league of mutual receiving from his father his dominion and his assistance with Toi, (for that was the name of name; as did the Ptolemies in Egypt. But the the king of Hamath,) and had received the presthird was the most powerful of them all; and was ents he sent him, he dismissed his son with that willing to avenge the defeat his forefather had re- respect which was due on both sides. But then ceived; so he made an expedition against the David brought those presents that were sent by Jews, and laid waste the city which is now called him; as also the rest of the gold and silver which Samaria.” Nor did he err from the truth. For he had taken of the cities of the nations, whom this is that Hadad who made the expedition he had conquered, and dedicated them to God. against Samaria, in the reign of Ahab, king of Nor did God give victory and success to him only, Israel ; concerning whom we shall speak in due when he went to the battle himself, and led his place hereafter.
own army; but he gave victory to Abishai, the Now when David had made an expedition brother of Joab, general of his forces,t over the against Damascus, and the other parts of Syria, Idumeans; and by him to David, when he sent and had brought it all into subjection, and had him with an army into Idumea. For Abishai deplaced garrisons in the country, and appointed stroyed eighteen thousand of them in the battle. that they should pay tribute, he returned home. Whereupon the king of Israel placed garrisons He also dedicated to God at Jerusalem the golden through all Idumea, and received the tribute of quivers, and the entire armour which the guards the country, and of every head among them. of Hadad used to wear; which Shishak the king Now David was in his nature just, and made his of Egypt took away when he fought with David's determination with regard to truth. He had for grandson Rehoboam ; with a great deal of other the general of his whole army Joab; and he made wealth which he carried out of Jerusalem. How- Jehoshaphat, the son of Ahilud, recorder. He ever, these things will come to be explained in also appointed Zadok, of the family of Phineas,
the days of Abab. He must rather have been the seventh or † By this great victory over the Idumeans or Edomites, the eighth, if there were ten in all of that name, as we are assured | posterity of Esau, and by the consequent tribute paid by that there were. For testimony makes all the Hadads or Benhadad's nation to the Jews, were the prophecies delivered to Rebecca of the same line; and to have immediately succeeded one an before Jacob and Esau were born ; and by old Isaac before his other. Whereas Hazael was not of that line, nor is he called death, that the elder, Esau, or the Edomites, should serve the Hadad or Benhadad, in any copy. And note that from this Ha. younger, Jacob, or the Israelites; and Jacob, or the Israelites, dad, in the days of David, to the beginning of Hazael, were should be Esau's, or the Edomites', lord, remarkably fulfilled. near 200 years, according to the most exact chronology of Jose- See VIII. 7, Gen. xxv. 23, and xxvii. 29, 37, and the Notes on phus.
I. 18, * 1 Chron. xviii. 9, 10.
to be high-priest, together with Abiathar; for he called for Ziba, and told him, that he had given was his friend. He also made Seisan the scribe, the youth his father's house, and all Saul's estate. and committed the command over the guards of He also ordered that Ziba should cultivate his his body to Benaiah,* the son of Jehoiada. His land, and take care of it, and bring him the profits elder sons were near bis body, and had the care of all to Jerusalem. Accordingly David brought of it also.
him to his table every day; and bestowed upon
OF THE WAR WAGED AGAINST THE AMMONITES, AND ITS HAPPY
* The word in our translation, is recorder, which, in the of the Jews say, that he fled to him, when he durst stay no marginal note, is remembrancer, or writer of chronicles; an longer with Achish king of the Philistines, and that he received Employment of no mean estimation in the eastern world, him very kindly; others, that he entertained his relations, when where it was customary with the kings to keep daily registers the king of Moab, to whom he had committed them, slew some of all the transactions of their reign; and a trust, which however of them: but the most likely opinion is, that as he was a bitter discharged to purpose, must be let into the true springs and enemy to Saul, who had given him a great overthrow, he, for secrets of action, and consequently must be received into the that very reason, became a friend to David, when he perceived cellor was consistent with the constitution of the Jewish state, |. and assistance, and perhaps offer him protection in his kingdom. a modern author seems to doubt. History of the Life of King Patrick's Commentary. B. David, vol. 2 B.
|| This was one of the greatest indignities that the malice of † 1 Chron. viii. 34.
† About An. 1078 B. C. man could invent, in those countries where all people thought What the particular benefits which David had received their hair so great an ornament, that some would rather have from Nahash were, we are nowhere told in Scripture; but some submitted to die than part with it. What a foul disgrace and