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men of his virtue, it might be better known what | ples of mandrakes to his mother. When Rachel sort of a man he was. When the stated time was saw them, she desired that she would give her expired, Laban made the wedding feast, but when the apples, for she longed to eat them; but when it was night, without Jacob's perceiving it, he put she refused, and bid her be content that she had his other daughter into bed to him ; who was both deprived her of the benevolence she ought to have elder than Rachel, and of no comely countenance. had from her husband, Rachel, in order to mitiJacob slept with her that night; but when it was gate her sister's anger, said she would yield her day he knew what had been done to him, and husband to her that evening. She accepted of the complained of this unfair proceeding. Laban ask- favour, and Jacob slept with Lea, who bare then ed pardon for that necessity which forced him to these sons; Issachar, denoting one born by hire; do what he did; for he said he did not give him and Zebulon, one born as a pledge of benevolence Lea out of any ill design, but as overcome by an- towards her; and a daughter, Dina. After some other greater necessity; that, notwithstanding time Rachel had a son, named Joseph, which this, nothing should hinder him from marrying signified there should be another added to him. Rachel; but that when he had served another Now Jacob fed the flocks of Laban all this time, seven years, he would give him her whom he loved. being twenty years, after which he desired per

f Jacob submitted to this condition ; for his love to mission to take his wives, and go home; but when the damsel did not permit him to do otherwise ; his father-in-law would not give him leave, he and when seven years more were expired, he took contrived to do it secretly. He made trial, thereRachel to wife.*

fore, of the disposition of his wives, what they Now each of these had handmaids, by their thought of this journey. When they appeared father's donation. Zilpha was handmaid to Lea, glad, and approved of it, Rachel took along with and Bilba to Rachel ; by no means slaves,t but her the images of the gods, which, according to subject to their mistresses. Now Lea was sorely their laws, they used to worship in their own troubled at her husband's love to her sister; and country, and ran away, together with her sister. she expected she should be better esteemed if she Their children also, and their handmaids, and bare him children. She therefore entreated God what possessions they had, went along with them. perpetually, and when she had borne a son, and Jacob also drove away half the cattle, without her husband was on that account better recon- | letting Laban known of it beforehand: but the ciled to her, she named her son Reubel, because reason why Rachel took the images of the gods, God had had mercy upon her in giving her a son, although Jacob had taught her to despise such for that is the signification of this name. After worship, was this, that in case they were pursued some time she bare three more sons; Simeon, and taken by her father, she might have recourse which name signifies that God had hearkened to to these images, in order to obtain his pardon. her prayer; Levi, the confirmer of their friend- Laban, after one day, being acquainted with ship, and Judah, which denotes thanksgiving. Jacob's and his daughters' departure, was much But Rachel, fearing lest the fruitfulness of her troubled, and pursued after them, leading a band - sister should estrange Jacob's affection from her- of men with him; and on the seventh day overself, gave him her handmaid Bilba, by whom took them, and found them resting on a certain Jacob had Dan: one may interpret that name hill; but he did not then meddle with them, for it into the Greek tongue, a divine judgment; and was eventide. God stood by him in a dream, the after him Nephthalim, as it were unconquerable same night, and warned him to receive his son-inin stratagems; since Rachel tried to conquer the law and his daughters in a peaceable manner, and fruitfulness of her sister by this stratagem. Ac- not to venture upon any thing rashly, or in wrath cordingly Lea took the same method, and used a to them, but to make a league with Jacob; ascounter-stratagem to that of her sister's; for she suring him that if he despised their small number, gave Jacob her own handmaid Zilpha, by whom and attacked them in a hostile manner, he would he had a son, whose name was Gad, which may himself assist them. be interpreted fortune ; and after him Asher, which Laban having been thus forėwarned by God, may be called a happy man, because he added called Jacob to him the next day, in order to treat glory to Lea.

with him, and showed him what dream he had ; Now Reubel, the eldest son of Lea, brought ap- in dependence whereon he came confidently to

* Gen. xxix. 28.

sides, and dismiss again after the time contracted for is over, † Here we have the difference between slaves for life, and who are no slaves, but free men and free women. servants, such as we now hire for a time agreed upon on both # From about An. 1801 to 1714 B. C.

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him, and began to accuse him, alleging that he | ters, hard as it was, I own to have been tolerable: had entertained him when he was poor, and in but as to those that were put upon me after those want, and had given him plenty of all things which marriages, they were worse, and such, indeed, as he had ; “ For," said he, “I have joined my daugh- any enemy would have avoided.” For certainly ters to thee in marriage, and supposed that thy Laban had used Jacob very ill; for when he saw kindness to me would be greater than before; but that God was assisting to Jacob in all that he dethou hast had no regard to either thy own mo- sired, he promised him, that of the young cattle ther's relation to me, nor to the affinity more re- which should be born, he should have sometimes cently contracted between us, nor to those wives what was of a white colour, and sometimes what whom thou hast married ; nor to those children of should be of a black colour; but when those that whom I am the grandfather : thou hast treated me came to Jacob's share proved numerous, he did not as an enemy, by driving away my cattle, and by keep his faith with him, but said he would give them persuading my daughters to run away from their to him the next year, because of his envying him the father: and by carrying home those sacred pater- multitude of his possessions. He promised him as nal images which were worshipped by my fore- before, because he thought such an increase was not fathers, and which have been honoured with wor- to be expected; but when it appeared to be the fact, ship by myself. In short, thou hast done this he again deceived him. whilst thou wert my kinsman, and my sister's son, But with regard to the sacred images, Jacob bid and the husband of my daughters, and wast hos- them search for them; and when Laban accepted pitably treated by me, and didst eat at my table.” of the offer, Rachel being informed of it, put those

When Laban had said this, Jacob replied in images in that camel's saddle on which she rode, and his defence, that he was not the only person in sat upon it; and by a well-timed excuse* evaded the whom God had implanted the love of his native necessity of rising up; so Laban left off searching country, but that he had made it natural to all any farther, not supposing that his daughter would men; and, therefore, it was but reasonable that, conceal his images. He then made a league with after so long a time, he should go back to it. “ But Jacob, that he would not bear him any malice on as to the prey,” said he, “ of whose driving away account of what had happened; and Jacob made thou accusest me, if any other person were the the like league, and promised to love Laban's daugharbitrator, thou wouldst be found in the wrong, ters; and these leagues they confirmed with oaths for instead of those thanks I ought to have had upon certain mountains, whereon they erected a pilfrom thee, for both keeping thy cattle, and in- lar, in the form of an altar; whence that hill is called creasing them, how is it that thou art unjustly Gilead, and from thence they call that land the land angry because I have taken a small portion of of Gilead at this day. Now when they had feasted,t them; but then, as to thy daughters, it is not after making the league, Laban returned home.I through any evil practices of mine that they follow me in my return home, but from that just

CHAP. XX. affection which wives naturally have for their husbands; they follow, therefore, not so properly myself, as their own children.” Thus far his apology Now as Jacob was proceeding on his journey to was made in order to clear himself from the the land of Canaan, angels appeared to him, and charge of injustice; to which he added his own suggested to him good hope of his future condition ; complaint and accusation of Laban, saying, and that place he named the Camp of God; and “While I was thy sister's son, and thou hadst being desirous of knowing his brother's intentions, given me thy daughters in marriage, thou hast he sent messengers to give him an exact account of worn me out with thy harsh commands, and detain- every thing, being afraid, on account of the enmity ed me twenty years under them; that, indeed, which between them. He charged those that were sent, to was required in order to my marrying thy daugh- say to Esau, that “ Jacob had thought it wrong to


* Gen. xxxi. 35.

+ Gen. xxxi. 55. side of the wall. Among them was the Nakit, (the general, or # This league appears to have been made with peculiar cir- rather, master of the horse) Cheir Allah, with whom I had some cumstances: especially with the singular rite of making a heap acquaintance before. He immediately resigned his place to me, of stones, and eating upon it, and setting up one stone for a pil and applied himself to draw together stones into a heap, to lar. Gen. xxxi. 45, 46. Niebuhr, relating his audience with the build himself a new seat.” This management might be owing rinam of Yemen, says, “I had gone from my lodgings indis- to various causes. The extreme heat of the ground might renposed, and by standing so long found myself so faint, that I was der sitting there disagreeable. The same inconvenience might obliged to ask permission to quit the room. I found near the arise also from its wetness. It was certainly a very common door some of the principal officers of the court, who were sit- practice; and, as it appears from the instance of Jacob, a very ting in a scattered manner, in the shade, upon stones, by the ancient one. Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. p. 215. B.

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live together with him, while he was incensed against || should come to him, and that his offspring should him, and so had gone out of the country; but now, never fail, and that no man should be too hard for thinking the time of his absence must have made up his power. He also commanded him to be called their differences, was returning; that he brought with Israel, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one him his wives and his children, with what possessions that struggled with the divine angel. These promhe had gotten, and delivered himself, with what was ises were made at the prayer of Jacob; for when he most dear to him, into his hands; and should think perceived him to be the angel of God, he desired he it his greatest happiness to partake, together with would signify to him what should befall him herehis brother, of what God had bestowed on him. after, and when the angel had said what is before

When this message was delivered, Esau was very related, he disappeared. Jacob was pleased with glad, and met his brother with four hundred men: these things, and named the place Phanuel, which but when Jacob heard that he was coming to meet signifies, the face of God. But when he felt pain him with such a number, he was greatly afraid. by this struggling upon his broad sinews, he abstainHowever, he committed his hope of deliverance to ed from eating that sinew himself afterward, and for God: and considered how in his present circum- his sake it is still not eaten by us.f. stances he might preserve himself, and those that When Jacob understood that his brother was were with him, and overcome his enemies, if they approaching, he ordered his wives to go before, each attacked him injuriously. He therefore distributed by herself, with the handmaids, that they might see his company into parts; some he sent before the the actions of the men as they were fighting, if Esau rest,* and the others he ordered to come close behind: were so disposed. He then went and bowed down that if the first were overpowered, when his brother to his brother Esau, who had no evil design upon attacked them, they might have those that followed him, but saluted him,g and asked him about the comas the refuge to flee unto; and when he had put his pany of the children, and of the women ; and decompany in this order, he sent some of them to his sired, when he had understood all he wanted to know brother, with presents of cattle, and a great number about them, that he would go along with him to of four-footed beasts of many kinds, such as would their father ; but Jacob pretending that the cattle be very acceptable to those that received them, on were weary, Esau returned to Seir, for there was his account of their rarity. Those who were sent pro- place of habitation, which he had named roughness, ceeded at certain intervals of space asunder, that by from his own hairy roughness. following thick one after another, they might appear to be the more numerous, that Esau might remit of

CHAP. XXI. his anger on account of these presents, if he were still unappeased. Instructions were also given to those that were sent, to speak submissively to him. After this interview, Jacob came to the place, till

When Jacob had made these appointments, and this day called Succoth, or Tents, whence he went night came on, he began to move with his company: to Shechem, a city of the Canaanites. Now as the and as they were gone over a certain river, called Shechemites were keeping a festival, Dina, who was Jabboc, Jacob was left behind; and meeting with an the only daughter of Jacob, went into the city, to angel, he wrestled with him, the angel beginning, the see the women of that country; but when Shechem, struggle; but he prevailed over the angel, who used the son of Hamor the king, saw her, he defiled her a voice, and spake to him in words, exhorting him by violence; and being greatly in love with her, he to be pleased with what had happened to him, and desired his father to procure the damsel for him in not to suppose that his victory was a trifling one, marriage. To this request Hamor acceded, and but that he had overcome a divine angel, and to came to Jacob, desiring permission that his son Sheesteem the victory as a sign of great blessings that chem might, according to law, marry Dina ; but

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* Jacob appears to have been very cautious in conducting † Perhaps this may be the proper meaning of the word Israel
both his family and his flocks in their journey. He was particu- by the present and the old Jerusalem analogy of the Hebrew
larly desirous of preserving them. They would have been ex- tongue. But it is certain that the Hellenists of the first century,
posed to great danger by haste. Prepared as the Arabs are for | in Egypt and elsewhere, interpreted Is-ra-el, to be a man seeing
speedy flight, a quick motion is very destructive to the young God.
of their flocks. Chardin says, “ Their flocks feed down the #
places of their encampment so quick, by the great numbers
which they have, that they are obliged to remove them too often, ran to meet Jacob, embraced him, fell on his neck, and kissed
which is very destructive to their flocks, on account of the young him, Gen. xxxiii. 4. Such persons as are intimately acquainted,
ones, which have not strength enough to follow.” This circum- or of equal age and dignity, mutually kiss the hand, the head,
stance shows the energy of Jacob's apology to Esau for not or the shoulder of each other. Shaw's Trav. p. 237. B.
attending him. Harmer's Observations, i. 126. B.

When Jacob and Esau met, they saluted each other. Esau

Jacob, not knowing how to deny the desire of one When he was gone thence, and was come over
of such great dignity, and yet not thinking it lawful against Ephrata, he there buried Rachel, who
to marry his daughter to a stranger, entreated leave died in childbed; she was the only one of Jacob's
to have a previous consultation. So the king went kindred that had not the honour of burial at
away, in hopes that Jacob would approve of this Hebron; and when he had mourned for her a
marriage: but Jacob informed his sons of the defile- great while, he called the son that was born of
ment of their sister, and of the address of Hamor, her Benjamin,|| because of the sorrow the mother
and desired them to give him their advice, what they had with him. "These are all the children of Jacob,
should do. Upon this, the greatest part said nothing, twelve males, and one female ; of whom eight
not knowing what advice to give; but Simeon and were legitimate, viz. six of Leah, and two of Ra-
Levi, the brethren of the damsel, by the same mother, chel; and four were of the handmaids, two of each,
agreed between themselves upon the action follow all whose names have been set down already.
ing: it being now the time of a festival, when the
Shechemites were employed in ease and feasting,
they fell upon the watch when they were asleep, and

entering into the city,* slew all the males, as also the
king and his son with them, but spared the women:
and when they had done this, without their father's
consent, they brought away their sister.

From thence Jacob went to Hebron, a city sitNow, while Jacob was astonished at this daring uate among the Canaanites, and the residence of act, and was severely blaming his sons for it, God Isaac; and there they lived together for a little stood by him,f and bid him be of good courage, but while: for as to Rebeka, Jacob did not find her to purify his tents, and to offer those sacrifices which alive. Isaac also died not long after the coming he had vowed to offer when he went first into Meso- of his son, and was buried, with his wife, in Hepotamia, and saw his vision. As he was therefore bron, where the family had a monument belonging purifying his followers, he found the gods of Laban, to them from their forefathers. Now Isaac was (for he did not before know they were stolen by a man who was beloved of God, and was vouchRachel,) and he hid them in the earth, under an safed great instances of providence by God, after oak, in Shechem; and departing thence, he offered Abraham his father, and lived to be exceeding sacrifice at Bethel, the place where he saw his vision old; for when he had lived virtuously one hunwhen he went first into Mesopotamia.

dred and eighty-five years, he then died.


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Why Josephus has omitted the circumcision of these She- and suppose that, in correspondence to other copies, he wrote chemites, as the occasion of their death, and of Jacob's great that Rachel called her son's name Benoni, but his father called grief, as in the testament of Levi, I cannot tell.

him Benjamin; Gen. xxxv. 18. As for Benjamin, as commonly + Gen. xxxv. 1.

explained, the son of the right-hand, it makes no sense at all, * Gen. xxxv. 19.

and seems to be a gross modern error only. The Samaritan Since Benoni signifies the son of my sorrow, and Benjamin always writes this name truly, Benjamin, which probably is here the son of days, or one born in the father's old age, Gen. xliv. of the same signification, only with the Chaldee termination in 20, I suspect Josephus's present copies to be here imperfect, instead of im, in the Hebrew.

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while in its se

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AFTER the death of Isaac, his sons divided It happened that Jacob attained so great haptheir habitations respectively. Nor did they re- piness as rarely any

piness as rarely any other person has arrived at; tain what they had before : but Esau departed he was richer than the rest of the inhabitants of from the city of Hebron, and left it to his brother, that country, and was at once envied and admired and dwelt in Seir, and ruled over Idumea. He for such virtuous sons; for they were deficient in called the country by that name from himself; for nothing, but were of great strength, both for lahe was named Adom, on the following occasion : bouring with their hands, and enduring of toil, He once returned from the toil of hunting, very and shrewd also in understanding. And God exhungry, when he was a child in age, and met with ercised such a providence over him, and such a his brother, when he was getting ready lentile care of his happiness, as to bring him the greatest pottage for his dinner; it was of a very red co- blessings, even out of what appeared to be the lour, on which account be the more earnestly most sorrowful condition: and to make him the longed for it, and desired some of it to eat. But cause of our forefathers' departure out of Egypt; Jacob took advantage of his brother's hunger, him, I say, and his posterity. The occasion was and forced him to give up his birth-right: and he this: when Jacob had this son Joseph born to being pinched with famine, resigned it up to him, him by Rachel, his father loved him above the under an oath. Whence it came, that on account rest of his sons, both because of the beauty of his of the redness of the pottage, he was, in way of body, and the virtues of his mind; for he excelled jest, by his contemporaries called Adom; for the the rest in prudence. This affection of his father Hebrews call what is red, Adom; and this was excited the envy and the hatred of his brethren, as the name given to this country. But the Greeks did also his dreams which he related to his father gave it a more agreeable pronunciation, and and to them ; which foretold his future happiness;

2 named it Idumea.

it being usual with mankind to envy their very He became the father of five sons, of whom nearest relation such prosperity. Now the visions Jaus, Jolomus, and Coreus, were by one wife, which Joseph saw in his sleep were these : whose name was Alibama ; but of the rest Aliphaz When they were in the middle of harvest, and was born to him by Ada, and Raguel by Basemath: Joseph was sent with his brethren to gather the and these were the sons of Esau. Aliphaz had fruits of the earth, he saw a vision in a dream, five legitimate sons; Theman, Homer, Sapphus, greatly exceeding the customary appearances that Gotham, and Kanaz: for Amalek was not legiti- come when we are asleep; which, when he got up, mate, but by a concubine, whose name was Tham- he told his brethren, that they might judge what it na. These dwelt in that part of Idumea which portended. He said, he saw the last night, that his was called Gebelatis, and that denominated from wheat-sheaf stood still, in the place where he set it; Amalek, Amalekites; for Idumea was a large but that their sheafs ran to bow down to it, as sercountry, and preserved the name of the whole: vants bow down to their masters.* But as soon as while in its several parts it kept the names of its peculiar inhabitants.

* Gen. xxxvii. 7.

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