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he died under the hands of the surgeons. He during the siege, and put to death ; when he had then sent his friends, and those that were most reigned fthree years. intimate with him, to the soldiers; and promised However, Antiochus forgot the kind assistance that he would give them a great deal of money if that Simon had afforded him in bis necessity; by they would make him king. He intimated to
He intimated to reason of his covetous and wicked disposition; them that Demetrius was taken captive by the and committed an army of soldiers to his friend Parthians; and that Demetrius's brother An- Cendebeus; and sent him at once to ravage Judea, tiochus, if he came to be king, would do them a and to seize Simon. When Simon heard of Antigreat deal of mischief, in way of revenge for their ochus's breaking his league with him, although he revolting from his brother. So the soldiers, in were now in years, yet, provoked with the unjust expectation of the wealth they should get by be treatment he had met with from Antiochus, and stowing the kingdom on Trypho, made him their taking a resolution brisker than his age could well ruler. However, when Trypho had gained the bear, he went like a young man to act as general management of affairs he demonstrated his dis- of his army. He also sent his sons before, among position to be wicked. For while he was a pri
For while he was a pri- | the most hardy of his soldiers; and he himself vate person he cultivated a familiarity with the marched on with his army another way; and laid multitude, and pretended to great moderation; many of his men in ambushes, in the narrow valand so drew them on artfully to whatsoever he leys, between the mountains. Nor did he fail of pleased. But when he had once taken the king- success in any one of his attempts ; but was too dom, he laid aside any farther dissimulation, and hard for his enemies in every one of them. So he appeared in his true colours. This behaviour led the rest of his life in peace; and also made a made his enemies superior to him; for the soldiery league with the Romans. hated him, and revolted from him to Cleopatra, Now he was the ruler of the Jews in all feight the wife of Demetrius; who was then shut up in years: but his death was at length caused at a Seleucia, with her children. But as Antiochus, banquet by the treachery of his son-in-law, Ptolethe son of Demetrius, who was called Soter, was my; who caught also his wife and two of his sons, not- admitted by any of the cities on account of and kept them in bonds. He also sent some to kill Trypho; Cleopatra sent to him, and invited him John, the third son ; whose name was Hyrcanus. to marry her, and to take the kingdom. The But the young man, perceiving them coming, reasons why she made this invitation, were, that avoided the danger he was in, and hastened into her friends persuaded her to it; and that she was the city Jerusalem; as relying on the good-will afraid for herself, in case some of the people of of the multitude; because of the benefits they had Seleucia should deliver up the city to Trypho. received from his father, and because of the ha
As Antiochus was now come to Seleucia, and tred the same multitude bore to Ptolemy. So that his forces increased every day, he marched to fight when Ptolemy was endeavouring to enter the city Trypho; and having defeated him, he ejected him by another gate, they drove him away; as having out of the Upper Syria into Phænicia ; and pur- already admitted Hyrcanus. sued him thither, and besieged him in Dora, which was a fortress hard to be taken, whither he had
CHAP. VIII. fled. He also sent ambassadors to Simon, the
HYRCANUS RECEIVES THE HIGH PRIESTHOOD, AND EJECTS PTOLEMY Jewish high-priest, about a league of friendship and mutual assistance. Who readily accepted of the invitation; and sent to Antiochus great sums Ptolemy|| retired to one of the fortresses that of money; and provisions, for those that besieged was above Jericho, which was called Dagon. But Dora ; and thereby supplied them very plentifully. Hyrcanus took the high-priesthood, that had been So that for a little while he was looked upon as his father's before, and propitiated God by sacrione of his most intimate friends. But still Trypho fices; he then made an expedition against Ptolefled from Dora to * Apamia ; where he was taken my; and when he made his attacks upon the place,
OUT OF THE COUNTRY. ANTIOCHUS MAKES WAR AGAINST HYRCA
* Orthosia, 1 Macc. xv. 37.
A Greek version of this chronicle was extant in the days of † An. 142, 141, 140, B. C.
Santes Pagnius, and Sixtus Senensis, at Lyons; though it seems $ From An. 143 to An. 135 B. C.
to have been there burnt, and to be now utterly lost. See Sixtus $ Here Josephus begins to follow, and to abridge the next Senensis's account of it, of its many Hebraisms, and its great sacred Hebrew book, styled in the end of the first book of Mac- | agreement with Josephus's abridgment; in the Authentic Reccabees, The Chronicles of John Hyrcanus's High-Priesthood; ords, part I. page 206, 207, 208. but in some of the Greek copies the fourth book of Maccabees. | An. 136.
in other points he was too hard for him ; but was the city; which he encompassed round with seven rendered weaker than he by the commiseration he encampments; but did nothing at the first; behad for his mother and brethren; and by that only. cause of the strength of the walls, and the valour For Ptolemy brought them upon the wall
, and tor- of the besieged; although they were once in want mented them in the sight of all, and threatened of water; which yet they were delivered from by that he would throw them down headlong, unless a copious shower of rain, which fell at the Isetting Hyrcanus would raise the siege. And as he thought of the Pleiades. However, about the north part of that so far as he relaxed as to the siege and taking the wall, where it happened the city was upon a of the place, so much favour did he show to those level with the outward ground, the king raised a that were dearest to him, by preventing their mis- hundred towers of three stories high, and placed ery; his zeal about it was cooled. However, his bodies of soldiers upon them; and as he made his mother spread out her hands, and begged of him, attacks every day, he cut a double ditch, deep and that he would not grow remiss on her account; broad; and confined the inhabitants within it, as but indulge his indignation so much the more; within a wall. But the besieged contrived to make and that he would do his utmost to take the place frequent sallies; and if the enemy were not anyquickly, in order to get their enemy under his where upon their guard, they fell upon them, and power; and then to avenge upon him what he had did them a great deal of mischief; and if they perdone to those that were dearest to himself. For ceived them, they then retired into the city with that death to her would be sweet, though attended ease. But because Hyrcanus discerned the inwith torment; if that enemy of theirs might but convenience of so great a number of men in the be brought to punishment for his wicked dealings city; while the provisions were the sooner spent to them. Now when his mother said so, he resolved by them, and yet, as is natural to suppose, those to take the fortress immediately: but when he saw great numbers did nothing; he separated the useher beaten, and torn to pieces, his courage failed less part, and excluded them out of the city; and him; and he could not but sympathize with what retained that part only which were in the flower his mother suffered, and was thereby overcome of their age, and fit for war. However, Antiochus And as the siege was drawn out into length by would not let those that were excluded go away. these means, that year on which the Jews use to Who therefore wandering about between the walls, rest came on; for the Jews observe this rest every and consuming away by famine, died miserably. seventh year, as they do every seventh day. So But when the feast of the tabernacles was at hand, Ptolemy, being* for this cause released from the those that were within commiserated their condiwar, slew the brethren of Hyrcanus, and his mo- tion, and received them in again. And when Hyrther. And when he had so done, he fled to Zeno, canus sent to Antiochus, and desired there might surnamed Cotylas; who was then tyrant of the be a truce for seven days, because of the festival; city Philadelphia.
he gave way to this piety towards God, and made But Antiochus, being very uneasy at the mise- that truce accordingly. And besides that, he sent ries that Simon had brought upon him, invaded in a magnificent sacrifice, bulls with their Shorns Judea, in the fourth year of his reign; and the gilded; with all sorts of sweet spices; and with first year of the principality of Hyrcanus, in the cups of gold and silver. So those that were at the thundred and sixty-second Olympiad. And when gates received the sacrifices from those that brought he had burnt the country, he shut up Hyrcanus in them, and led them to the temple; Antiochus in the
* Hence we learn that, in the days of this excellent high- mistake; when they say, that this first year of John Hyrcanus, priest, John Hyrcanus, the observance of the sabbatic year, as which we have just now seen to have been a sabbatic year, was Josephus supposed, required a rest from war; as did that of the in the 162d Olympiad, whereas it was certainly the second year weekly sabbath from work. I mean this, unless in the case of of the 161st. See the like before, XII. 7. necessity, when the Jews were attacked by their enemies; in # This heliacal setting of the Pleiades, or seven stars, was in which case indeed, and in which alone, they allowed defensive the days of Hyrcanus and Josephus, early in the spring, about fighting to be lawful, even on the sabbath day; as we see in February, the time of the latter rain in Judea. And this, so far several places of Josephus, Antiq. XII. 6. XIII. 1. XIV. 4. as I remember, is the only astronomical character of time, beXVUI. 9. Of the War, 1. 7. IV. 2. But then it must be noted, sides one eclipse of the moon, in the reign of Herod, that we that this rest from war noway appears in the first book of Mac- meet with in all Josephus. The Jews being little accustomed cabees, chap. xvi. but the direct contrary. Though indeed the to astronomical observations, any farther than for the use of Jews, in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, did not venture upon their calendar; and utterly forbidden those astrological uses fighting on the sabbath day, even in the defence of their own which the Heathens commonly made of them. lives; till the Asmoneans or Maccabees decreed so to do. 1 § Dr. Hudson tells us here, that the custom of gilding the Macc. ii. 32–41. Antiq. XII. 6.
horns of those oxen that were to be sacrificed, is a known thing, † Josephus's copies, both Greek and Latin, have here a gross | both in the poets and orators.
mean time feasting his army. This was quite | mission of the garrison, to give him hostages, and a different conduct from that of Antiochus Epi- five hundred talents of silver: of which they paid phanes: who, when he had taken the city, offered down three hundred, and sent the hostages immeswine upon the altar, and sprinkled the temple diately; which king Antiochus accepted. One of with the broth of their flesh; in order to violate those hostages was Hyrcanus's brother. But still the laws of the Jews, and the religion they derived he brake down the fortifications that encompassed from their forefathers : for which reason our na- the city. And upon these conditions Antiochus tion made war with him, and would never be re- raised the siege, and departed. conciled to him. But for this Antiochus, all men Now Hyrcanus topened the sepulchre of David, called him Antiochus the Pious; for the great who excelled all other kings in riches; and took zeal he had about religion.
out of it three thousand talents. He was also Accordingly. Hyrcanus took this moderation the first of the Jews that, relying on this wealth, kindly: and when he understood how religious he maintained foreign troops. He likewise made a was towards the Deity, he sent an ambassage to league of friendship and mutual assistance with him; and desired that he would restore the settle- Antiochus, and admitted him into the city, and ments they received from their forefathers. So he furnished him with whatsoever his army wanted rejected the counsel of those that *would have in great plenty, and marched along with him when him utterly destroy the nation ; by reason of their he made an expedition against the Parthians. Of way of living, which was to others unsociable; which Nicolaus of Damascus is a witness for us; and did not regard what they said. But being who in his history writes thus: “ When Antiochus persuaded that all they did was out of a religious had erected a trophy at the river Lycus, upon his mind, he answered the ambassadors, that if the conquest of Indates, the general of the Parthians, besieged would deliver up their arms, and pay he stayed there two days. It was at the desire tribute for Joppa and the other cities which bor- of Hyrcanus, the Jew : because it was such a dered upon Judea, and admit a garrison of his; festival derived to them from their forefathers, on these terms he would make war against them whereon the law of the Jews did not allow them no longer. But the Jews, although they were to travel.” And he did not speak falsely in saycontent with the other conditions, did not agree ing so: for that festival, which we call Pentecost, to admit the garrison, because they could not did then fall out to be the next day to the sabbath. associate with other people, nor converse with Nor is it Şlawful for us to journey either on a sabthem. Yet were they willing, instead of the ad- bath day, or on a festival. - But when Antiochus
* This account in Josephus, that the present Antiochus was temple of Jerusalem ; so that, for many years, they both lay in persuaded, though in vain, not to make peace with the Jews, but rubbish, this treasure in David's sepulchre lay all the while safe to cut them off utterly, is fully confirmed by Diodorus Siculus, and secure under it; and that when Antiochus Epiphanes, in in Photius's extracts out of his 34th book.
like manner, destroyed the city, and robbed the temple of all † See the note on Book VII. chap. 15.
that he could find, this treasure still escaped his rapacious hands, † Josephus tells us, that Hyrcanus, to find some money for nor was ever molested, till Hyrcanus, at this time, was forced to this, and other occasions of the government, broke up the sep- make bold with it: all which suppositions seem highly improba. ulchre of David, and took from thence three thousand talents, ble, and beyond belief. There is this, however, to be said in and that Herod the Great did afterwards the like, (Antiq. lib. the matter, that as there certainly was a bank or treasury in the XVII. c. 16, and lib. XVI. c. 11.) But both these stories are temple, where money was laid up for the support of the poor, highly improbable. David had now been dead near nine hun for the relief of widows and fatherless children, and for the dred years, and what is told of this treasure, supposes it to have maintenance of divine service: and where the great men, and been buried with him all this time. It supposes, that as oft as | rich men of the nation were used to deposit their wealth, for its the city of Jerusalem, the palace, and the temple, during the better security; it is not improbable, that upon the account of reigns of the kings of Judah, had been plundered of all their the frequent invasions and depredations they were liable to this wealth and treasure by prevailing enemies, this dead stock still treasure might be kept in some secret and subterraneous place, remained safe from all rifle or violation. It supposes, that as oft unknown to all, but such as were at the head of affairs; that as these kings were forced to take all the treasure that was found Hyrcanus, being now under great difficulty to raise money, might in the house of the Lord, as well as in their own, to relieve the borrow it out of this bank, till better times enabled him to repay exigencies of the state, they never meddled with this, that was it; and that Herod, when he plundered it quite, might trump up uselessly buried with David in his grave. It supposes, that when this plausible story, that it neither belonged to church, nor poor, one of the worst of their kings (2 Kings xv. 8, &c. and 2 Chron. nor any private person, but had been deposited there by David, xxviii. 28, &c.) plundered the temple of its sacred vessels, and and his successors, as a proper supply for the state in times of cut them in pieces, to melt them down into money for his com- need. Prideaux's Connection, Anno 135, and Universal His. mon occasions; and that when one of the best of them, (2 Kings tory, lib. 2. c. 11. B. xviii. 15, 16,) was forced to cut off the gold wherewith the gates Š The Jews were not to march or journey on the sabbath, or and pillars of the temple were overlaid, to bribe a destroying on such a great festival as was equivalent to the sabbath, any enemy, this useless treasure still continued untouched. Nay, it farther than a sabbath day's journey, or 2000 cubits. See the supposes that when Nebuchadnezzar destroyed both the city and | note on XX. 8.
OF THE EXPEDITION OF HYRCANUS AGAINST SYRIA, AND HIS CON.
joined battle with Arsaces, king of Parthia, he | renew that league of friendship they had with the lost a great part of his army; and was himself Romans. Accordingly he sentT an ambassage to slain. And his brother Demetrius succeeded in them. And when the senate had received their the kingdom of Syria, by the permission of Arsa- epistle, they made a league of friendship with ces; who freed him from his captivity, at the same them, after the manner following: time that Antiochus attacked Parthia.
“ Fanius, the son of Marcus, the prætor, gather
ed the senate together, on the eighth day before CHAP. IX.
the ides of February, in the senate-house: when Lucius Manlius, the son of Lucius, of the Mentine tribe, and Caius Sempronius, the son of Caiús, of
the Falernian tribe, were present. The occasion WHEN Hyrcanus *heard of the death of Anti- was that the ambassadors sent by the **people of ochus, he presently made an expedition against the Jews, Simon the son of Dositheus, Apollonius fthe cities of Syria; hoping to find them destitute the son of Alexander, and Diodorus the son of of fighting men, and of such as were able to de- Jason, who were good and virtuous men, had fend them. However, it was not till the sixth somewhat to propose about that league of friendmonth that he took Medaba, and that not without ship and mutual assistance which subsisted bethe great distress of his army. After this he took tween them and the Romans; and about other Samega, and the neighbouring places. And besides public affairs: who desired that Joppa, and the these, Shechem, and Gerizzim, and the nation of havens, and Gazara, and the springs of Jordan, the Cutheans, who dwelt at the temple which re- and the several other cities and countries of theirs, sembled that temple which was at Jerusalem ; and which Antiochus had taken from them in the war, which Alexander permitted Sanballat, the general contrary to the decree of the senate, might be reof his army, to build, for the sake of Manasseh, stored to them: and that it might be lawful for who was son-in-law to Jaddua, the high-priest; the king's troops to pass through their country, as we have formerly related. Which temple was and the countries of those that are subject to now deserted, Stwo hundred years after it was them. And that what attempts Antiochus had built. Hyrcanus also took Dora, and Marissa, made during that war, without the decree of the cities of Idumea; and subdued all the Idumeans; senate, might be made void; and that they would and permitted them to stay in that country, if they send ambassadors, who should take care that reswould adopt the rite of circumcision, and make titution be made them of what Antiochus had use of the laws of the Jews. And they were so taken from them; and that they should make an desirous of living in the country of their fore- estimate of the country that had been laid waste fathers, that they|| submitted. At which time, in the war; and that they would grant them lettherefore, this befell them, that they were here ters of protection to the kings, and free people; after no other than Jews.
in order to their quiet return home. It was thereBut Hyrcanus, the high-priest, was desirous to fore decreed, as to these points, to renew their
* An. 130.
him, from Book XXXVI. page 37, " That country is called Ju. | Those within the limits of Judea.
dea, and the people Jews. And this name is given also to as See Book XI. chap. 8.
many others as embrace their religion, though of other nations.” It was exactly 202 years, viz. from An. 332 to An. 130 B.C. But then upon what foundation so good a governor as Hyrcanus
This account of the Idumeans admitting circumcision, and took upon him to compel these Idumeans either to become Jews the entire Jewish law, from this time, or from the days of Hyr- or to leave their country, deserves great consideration. I supcanus, is confirmed by their subsequent history. See XIV. 8. pose it was because they had long ago been driven out of the XV. 7. XVII.-12. Of the War, II. 3. IV. 4. This, in the opinion land of Edom, and had seized on and possessed the tribe of of Josephus, made them proselytes of justice, or entire Jews; Simeon, and all the southern parts of the tribe of Judah; which as here and elsewhere, XIV. 8. So Dio, XXXVII. page 41. was the peculiar inheritance of the worshippers of the true God, However, Antigonus, the enemy of Herod, though Herod were without idolatry: as the reader may learn from Reland, Palestin. derived from such a proselyte of justice for several generations, part I. page 154, 305, and from Prideaux at the years 740 and will allow him to be no more than a half Jew, XIV. 15. But 165. Nor do I remember that ever the like violence was used still take out of Dean Prideaux, at the year 129, the words of by him or his predecessors, with any country, which was not a Ammonius, which fully confirm this account of the Idumeans in part of that promised land: though the other kings after him Josephus. " The Jews," says he, “are such by nature, and from intended it to all their conquests in or out of that promised land. the beginning; while the Idumeans were not Jews from the See Prideaux at the year 106, and Antiq. XIII. 15. beginning, but Phænicians and Syrians; but being afterward | An. 128. subdued by the Jews, and compelled to be circumcised, and to
** In this decree of the Roman senate, it seems, that these amunite into one nation, and to be subject to the same laws, they bassadors were sent from the people of the Jews, as well as were called Jews.” Dio also says, as the Dean there quotes from their prince or high-priest, John Hyrcanus.
league of friendship and mutual assistance with for the attack he expected from his brother, who these good men, who were sent by a good and a was called Cyzicenus; because he had been friendly people.”
brought up in that city. He was the son of AnBut as to the letters desired, their answer was, tiochus, called Soter, who died in Parthia. He that the senate would consult about that matter, was the brother of Demetrius, the father of Grywhen their own affairs would give them leave : pus. For it had so happened, that one and the and that they would endeavour, for the time to same Cleopatra was married to two, who were come, that no like injury should be done them: brethren: as we have frelated elsewhere. But and that their prætor Fanius should give them Antiochus Cyzicenus coming into Syria, continued money out of the public treasury, to bear their many years at war with his brother. Now Hyrexpenses home. And thus did Fanius dismiss the canus lived all this while in peace. For after the Jewish ambassadors, and gave them money out death of Antiochus, he frevolted from the Maceof the public treasury; and gave the decree of donians; nor did he any longer pay them the the senate to those that were to conduct them, least regard; either as their subject, or their and to take care that they should return home in friend: but his affairs were in a very improving safety.
and flourishing condition in the time of Alexander And thus stood the affairs of Hyrcanus, the Zebina, and especially under these brethren. For high-priest. But as for king Demetrius, who was the war which they had with one another gave inclined to make war against Hyrcanus, there was Hyrcanus an opportunity of enjoying himself in no opportunity for it; while both the Syrians, and Judea quietly; insomuch that he got an immense the soldiers bare ill-will to him, because he was quantity of money. However, when Antiochus an ill man. But when they had sent ambassadors Cyzicenus distressed his land, he then openly to Ptolemy Physcon, that he would send them one showed what he meant. And when he saw that of the family of Seleucus, in order to take the | Antiochus was destitute of Egyptian auxiliaries, kingdom; and he had sent them Alexander, who and that both he and his brother were in an ill was called Zebina, with an army, and there had condition in the struggles they had one with anbeen a battle between them, Demetrius was de- other; he despised them both. feated, and fled to Cleopatra, his wife, to Ptole So he made an expedition against Samaria ; mais; but his wife would not receive him. He which was a very strong city; of whose present went thence to Tyre, and was there caught; and name Sebaste, and its rebuilding by Herod, we *when he had suffered much from his enemies, he shall speak at a proper time. But he made his was slain by them. So Alexander took the king- attack against it, and besieged it with a great deal dom, and made a league with Hyrcanus. Yet of pains. For he was displeased with the Samarwhen Alexander afterward fought with Antiochus, itans, for the injuries they had done to the people the son of Demetrius, who was called Grypus, he of Marissa, a colony of the Jews, and confederate was also defeated and slain.t
with them; and this in compliance with the kings
of Syria. When he had therefore drawn a ditch, CHAP. X.
and built a double wall round the city, which was
eighty furlongs long, he set his sons Antigonus CPON THE QUARREL BETWEEN ANTIOCIIUS GRYPUS AND ANTIOCHUS
CYZICENUS RESPECTING THE KINGDOM. HYRCANUS TAKES AND DE and Aristobulus over the siege. This brought the MOLISHES SAMARIA; AND AFTERWARD JOINS HIMSELF TO THE Samaritans to such great distress by famine, that
they were forced to eat what used not to be eaten; When Antiochus had taken the kingdom, he and to call for Antiochus Cyzicenus to help them. was afraid to make war against Judea; because Accordingly he came to their assistance; but was hc heard that his brother by the same mother, beaten by Aristobulus: and when he was pursued who was also called Antiochus, was raising an as far as Scythopolis by the two brethren, he got army against him out of Cyzicum. So he stayed away. So they returned to Samaria, and shut in his own land; and resolved to prepare himself them again within the wall, till they were forced
SECT OF THE SADDUCEES.
This clause, that Demetrius suffered much from his ene + An. 122. mies before his death, is noted here by Dr. Hudson to disagree # See Chap. 7. with the accounts of Trogus Pompeius in Justin; and with $ Dean Prideaux takes notice at the year 133, that. Justin, in Porphyry. Whether Josephus or those anthors were here im- agreement with Josephus, says, “ 'The power of the Jews was posed upon, cannot now be determined. But if this were a part now grown so great, that after this Antiochus, they would not of the Chronicles of John Hyrcanus, a most authentic and con- have any Macedonian king over them; and that they set up a temporary record, as it seems to be, there is no doubt but Jose- \l government of their own, and infested Syria with great wars.” phus's account ought to be preferred.