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pened in Judea, in which queen Helena bought take their entire armour, and come to the fortress corn in Egypt, at a great expense, and distributed of Antonia. But when the multitude saw the solit to those that were in want: *as I have related diers there, they were affrighted at them, and ran already. And besides this, the sons of Judas of away hastily. But as the passages were but narGalilee were now slain: I mean of that Judas, who row, and as they thought their enemies followed caused the people to revolt, when Cyrenius came them, they were crowded together in their flight, to take an account of the estates of the Jews; as and a great number were pressed to death. Nor we have shownt in a preceding book. The names indeed was the number fewer than twenty thouof those sons were James and Simon ; whom Alex- sand that perished in this tumult. So instead of ander commanded to be crucified. But now, Herod a festival, they had at last a mournful day of it: king of Chalcis removed Joseph the son of Camy- and they all of them forgot their prayers and sacdus, from the high-priesthood ; and made Ananias, rifices; and betook themselves to lamentation and the son of Nebedeus, his successor. And now it weeping. So great an affliction did the obscenewas that Cumanus came as successor to Tiberius ness of a single soldier bring upon them.I Alexander: as also that Herod, brother of Agrippa, Now before this mourning was over, another the great king, departed this life, in the eighth year mischief befell them. For some of them that raised of the reign of Claudius Cæsar. He left behind the first tumult, when they were travelling along him three sons: Aristobulus, whom he had by his the public road, about a hundred furlongs from the first wife, with Bernicianus, and Hyrcanus, both city, robbed Stephanus, a servant of Cæsar's, as he of whom he had by Bernice, his brother's daughter. was journeying, and plundered him of all that he But Claudius Cæsar bestowed his dominions on had with him. Which things when Cumanus heard Agrippa, junior.
of, he sent soldiers immediately, and ordered them Now while the Jewish affairs were under the to plunder the neighbouring villages, and to bring administration of Cumanus, there happened a the most eminent
the most eminent persons among them in bonds to great tumult at the city Jerusalem, and many of him. Now as this devastation was making, one the Jews perished therein. But I shall first ex- of the soldiers seized the laws of Moses, that lay plain the occasion whence it was derived. When in one of those villages, and brought them out bethat feast, which is called the Passover, was at fore the eyes of all present, and tore them to hand, at which time a great multitude was gath- pieces. And this was done with reproachful lanered together from all parts to that feast; Cuma- guage, and much scurrility. Which things when nus was afraid lest some attempt of innovation the Jews heard of, they ran together in great numshould then be made by them. So he ordered bers; and came down to Cæsarea, where Cumathat one regiment of the army should take their nus then was, and besought him that he would arms, and stand in the temple cloisters, to repress avenge, not themselves, but the Deity, whose laws any attempts of innovation, if perchance any such had been affronted. For that they could not bear should begin. And this was no more than what to live any longer, if the laws of their forefathers the former procurators of Judea did at such fes- must be affronted after this manner. Accordingly tivals. But on the fourth day of the feast, a cer- Cumanus, out of fear lest the multitude should go tain soldier exposed his nudities to the multitude. into a sedition ; and by the advice of his friends This put those that saw him into a furious rage; also, took care that the soldier who had offered and made them cry out, that this impious action the affront to the laws should be beheaded : and was not done to reproach them, but God himself. thereby put a stop to the sedition which was ready Nay, some of them reproached Cumanus, and pre- to be kindled a second time. tended that the soldier was set on by him. Which, when Cumanus heard, he was also himself not a
CHAP. VI. little provoked at such reproaches laid
him: A QUARREL BREAKS OUT BETWEEN THE JEWS AND THE SAMARITANS ; yet did he exhort them to leave off such seditious attempts, and not to raise a tumult at the festival. Now|| a quarrel arose between the Samaritans But when he could not induce them to be quiet, and the Jews, on the following occasion. It was for they still went on in their reproaches against the custom of the Galileans, when they came to him, he gave order that the whole army should the holy city at the festivals, to take their journeys *through the country of the Samaritans. And at | setting their villages on fire, and plundering them ; this time there lay in the road a village that was and said witbal, that they were not so much discalled Ginea, situate in the limits of Samaria, and pleased at what they had suffered, as they were the great plain; where certain persons thereto at the contempt thereby shown to the Romans : belonging fought with the Galileans, and killed a while if they had received any injury, they ought great many of them. But when the principal of to have made them the judges of what had been the Galileans were informed of what had been done; and not presently to make such devastations done, they came to Cumanus, and desired him to as if they had not the Romans for their governors. avenge the murder of those that were killed. But On which account they came to him in order to he was induced by the Samaritans, with money, obtain that vengeance they wanted. This was to do nothing in the matter. Upon which the the accusation which the Samaritans brought Galileans were much displeased; and persuaded against the Jews. But the Jews affirmed that the the multitude of the Jews to take up arms, and to Samaritans were the authors of this tumult, and regain their liberty; saying, that slavery was in that, in the first place, Cumanus had been corruptitself a bitter thing; but that when it was joined with ed by their gifts; and passed over the murder of direct injuries, it was perfectly intolerable. And those that were slain in silence. Which allegawhen their principal men attempted to pacify them, tions when Quadratus heard, he put off the hearand promised to endeavour to persuade Cumanus ing of the cause; and promised that he would give to avenge those that were killed; they would not sentence when he should come into Judea, and hearken to them ; but took their weapons, and en- should have a more exact knowledge of the mattreated the assistance of Eleazar, the son of Dine- ter. So these men went away, without success. us, a robber, who had many years resided among Yet was it not long before Quadratus came to the mountains; and with his assistance they plun- Samaria ; when, upon hearing the cause, he supdered many villages of the Samaritans. When posed that the Samaritans were the authors of Cumanus heard of this action, he took the band that disturbance. But when he was informed that of Sebaste, with four regiments of footmen, and certain of the Jews were making innovations, he armed the Samaritans, and marched out against ordered those to be crucified whom Cumanus had the Jews, and caught them, and slew many of taken captives. He then went to a certain village them, and took a greater number alive. Where- called Lydda, which was not less than a city in upon those that were the most eminent persons at largeness: and there heard the Samaritan cause Jerusalem ; both in regard of the respect that was a second time, before his tribunal; and learned paid them, and the families they were of, as soon from a certain Samaritan, that one of the chief of as they saw to what a height things were gone, the Jews, whose name was Dortus, and four other put on sack-cloth, and heaped ashes upon their innovators with him, persuaded the multitude to heads : and by all possible means besought the revolt from the Romans. Quadratus, therefore, seditious, and persuaded them that they would set ordered them to be put to death: but still he sent before their eyes,f the utter subversion of their away Ananias the high-priest, and Ananus the country, the conflagration of their temple, and the commander of the temple, in bonds to Rome, to slavery of themselves, their wives, and children, give an account of what they had done to Claudius which would be the consequences of what they Cæsar. He also ordered the principal men, both were doing ; unless they would cast away their of the Samaritans, and of the Jews; as also Cuweapons, and for the future be quiet. These per-manus, the procurator, and Celer, the tribune, to suasions prevailed upon them. So the people go to Italy, to the emperor; that he might hear dispersed themselves, and the robbers went again their cause, and determine their differences one to their places of strength. And after this time with another. He then returned to the city of all Judea was overrun with robberies.
BUT IS TERMINATED BY CLAUDIUS CÆSAR.
* See chap. 2.
+ Book XVIII. chap. 1. Let us not take Jesus on the feast day; lest there be an uproar # This and many more tumults and seditions, which arose at among the people; as Reland well observes on this place." Jothe Jewish festivals, in Josephus, illustrate that cautious pro- sephus also takes notice of the same thing, Of the War, I. 4. cedure of the Jewish governors, when they said, Matt. xxvi. 5, A. D. 50.
|| A. D. 53.
Jerusalem, out of his fear that the multitude of But the principal of the Samaritans went to the Jews should attempt some innovations. But Ummidius Quadratus, president of Syria, who at he found the city in a peaceable state, and celethat time was at Tyre; and accused the Jews of brating one of the fusual festivals of their coun
* This constant passage of the Galileans through the country Gospel would bring upon them, among other miseries, these of Samaria, as they went to Judea and Jerusalem, illustrates three; which they themselves here show they expected would several passages in the Gospels to the same purpose, as Dr. Hudbe the consequence of their present tumults and seditions. The son rightly observes. See Luke xvii. 11. John iv. 4. See also utter subversion of their country; the conflagration of their Josephus in his own Life, sect. 52, where that journey is de temple ; and the slavery of themselves, their wives, and children, termined to three days.
See Luke xxi. 6, 24. † Our Saviour had foretold, that the Jews' rejection of his | The Passover.
try to God. So he believed that they would not thereto Trachonitis, with Abila : which last had attempt any innovations; and left them at the been the tetrarchy of Lysanias. But he took from celebration of the festival, and returned to An- him Chalcis; when he had been governor thereof tioch.
four years. And when Agrippa had received these Now Cumanus, and the principal of the Samar-countries, as the gift of Cæsar, he gave his sister itans, who were sent to Rome, had a day appoint-Drusilla in marriage to Azizus, king of Emesa : ed them by the emperor, whereon they were to upon his consent to be circumcised. For Epihave pleaded their cause about the quarrels they phanes, the son of king Antiochus, had refused to had one with another. But Cæsar's freedmen, and marry her; because after he had formerly promhis friends, were very zealous on the behalf of ised her father to embrace the Jewish religion, he Cumanus and the Samaritans. And they had pre- would not now perform that promise. He also vailed over the Jews, unless Agrippa junior, who gave Mariamne in marriage to Archelaus the son was then at Rome, had seen the principal of the of Helcias ; to whom she had been betrothed Jews hard set, and had earnestly entreated Agrip- formerly by Agrippa her father : and from this pina, the emperor's wife, to persuade her husband marriage was derived a daughter, whose name to hear the cause so, as was agreeable to his was Bernice. justice; and to condemn those to be punished who But the marriage of Drusilla with Azizus was were really the authors of this revolt from the in no long time afterward dissolved, upon the folRoman government. Whereupon Claudius was lowing occasion. While Felix was procurator of so well disposed beforehand, that when he had Judea, he saw this Drusilla, and fell in love with heard the cause, and found that the Samaritans her: for she exceeded all other women in beauty: had been the ringleaders in these mischievous and he sent to her a person whose name was doings, he gave orders that those who came up to #Simon, one of his friends, a Jew he was, and by him should be slain ; and that Cumanus should birth a Cypriot: and one who pretended to be a be banished. He also gave order that Celer, the magician, and endeavoured to persuade her to tribune, should be carried back to Jerusalem ; and forsake her present husband, and marry him: and should be drawn through the city* in the sight of promised that if she would not refuse him, he all the people, and then should be slain.
would make her a happy woman. Accordingly
she acted ill; and because she was desirous to CHAP. VII.
avoid her sister Bernice's envy; for she was very OF THE APPOINTMENT OF FELIX TO BE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA: As ill treated by her on account of her beauty; she
was prevailed upon to transgress the laws of her Claudius nowt sent Felix, the brother of Pal- forefathers, and to marry Felix: and when he had lans, to take care of the affairs of Judea. And had a son by her, he named him Agrippa. But when he had already completed the twelfth year that young man, with his wife, perished at the of his reign, he bestowed upon Agrippa the Sconflagration of the mountain Vesuvius, in the tetrarchy of Philip, and Batanea : and added days of Titus Cæsar.
ALSO CONCERNING AGRIPPA JUNIOR, AND HIS SISTERS.
* Not only with a view to mortify the individual, and give a Jewess, as St. Luke informs us, Acts xxiv. 24, whom this publicity to the action, but to render it monitory to others. This Simon, mentioned by Josephus, persuaded to leave her former is certainly an important part of judicial punishment. B. husband, Azizus, king of Emesa, a proselyte of Justice; and to † A. D. 53.
marry Felix, the Heathen procurator of Judea; Tacitus, Hist. This Simon, a friend of Felix's, à Jew, born in Cyprus; V. 9, supposes her to be a heathen; and the granddaughter of though he pretended to be a magician, and seems to have been Antonius and Cleopatra : contrary both to St. Luke and Jose. wicked enough, could hardly be that famous Simon, the magi- | phus. Now Tacitus lived somewhat too remote, both as to time cian, in the Acts of the Apostles, viii. 9, &c. as some are ready and place, to be compared with either of those Jewish writers, to suppose. This Simon, mentioned in the Acts, was not prop- || in a matter concerning a sister of Agrippa junior's, with which erly a Jew, but a Samaritan; of the town of Gittæ, in the coun. Agrippa, Josephus was himself so well acquainted. It is proba. try of Samaria ; as the Apostolical Constitutions, VI. 7, the ble that Tacitus may say true, when he informs us, that this Recognitions of Clement, II. 6, and Justin Martyr, himself born Felix, (who had in all three wives, or queens, -as Suetonius in in the country of Samaria, Apology I. 34, inform us.
Claudius, § 28, assures us,) did once marry such a grandchild also the author, not of any ancient Jewish, but of the first Gen- of Antonius and Cleopatra. And finding the name of one of tile heresies : as the aforementioned authors assure us. So I them to have been Drusilla, he mistook her for that other wife, suppose him a different person from the other. I mean this only whose name he did not know. upon the hypothesis, that Josephus was not misinformed, as to This eruption of Vesuvius was one of the greatest we have his being a Cypriot Jew. For otherwise the time, the name, in any history. See Bianchi's curious and important observa. the profession, and the wickedness of them both, would strongly tions on this volcano, and its seven great eruptions, with their incline one to believe them the very same. As to that Drusilla, remains vitrified, and still existing, in so many different strata the sister of Agrippa junior, as Josephus informs us here; and | under ground; till the diggers came to the antediluvian waters,
Bernice lived as a widow a long while after the the death of Claudius. Accordingly she sent death of *Herod : who was both her husband, and Burrhus, the general of the army, and with him her uncle: but when the report went that she had the tribunes; and such also of the freedmen as criminal conversation with her fbrother, she per- were of the greatest authority, to bring Nero into suaded Polemo, king of Cilicia, to be circumcised, the camp; and to salute him emperor. And when and to marry her: as supposing that by this means Nero had thus obtained the government, he caused she should disprove those calumnies. And Polemo Britannicus to be so poisoned, that the multitude was prevailed upon; and that chiefly on account should not perceive it; although he publicly put of her riches. Yet did not this matrimony endure his own mother to death, not long afterward. long. But Bernice left Polemo; and, as was Making her this requital, not only for being born said, with impure intentions. So he forsook at of her, but for bringing it so about by her cononce this matrimony, and the Jewish religion. trivances, that he obtained the Roman empire. And at the same time Mariamne put away Arche- He also slew Octavia, his wife, and many other laus; and was married to Demetrius, the principal illustrious persons, under the pretence, that they man among the Alexandrian Jews, both for his plotted against him. family, and his wealth. And, indeed, he was then But I omit any farther discourse about these their alabarch. So she named her son, which she affairs. For there have been a great many who had by him, Agrippinus.
have composed the history of Nero. Some of
whom have departed from the truth of facts, out CHAP. VIII.
of favour; as having received benefits from him ;
while others out of hatred and the great ill-will OF THE DEATH OF CLAUDIUS CÆSAR; AND THE ACCESSUONANERSRUEL which they bare him, have so impudently raved IMPOSTORS, THAT AROSE, WHILE PELIX AND FESTUS WERE PROCU. against him, that they justly deserve to be con
demned. Nor do I wonder at such as have asNow $Claudius Cæsar died when he had reign- serted falsehoods of Nero; since they have not, in ed Sthirteen years, eight months, and twenty their writings, preserved the truth of history as to days: and a report went about that he was poi- those facts that were earlier than his time, even soned by his wife Agrippina. Her father was when the actors could have noway incurred their Germanicus, the brother of Cæsar; and her hus- hatred : since those writers lived a long time after band was Domitius Ænobarbus, one of the most them. But as to those that have no regard to illustrious persons that was in the city of Rome. truth, they may write as they please: for in that After whose death, and her own long continuance they take delight. But as to ourselves, who have in widowhood, Claudius took her to wife. She made truth our direct aim, we shall briefly touch brought along with her a son, of the same name upon what only belongs remotely to this undertakwith his father Demetrius. He had before this ing: but shall relate what hath happened to us Jews slain his wife Messalina, out of jealousy; by with great accuracy: and shall not grudge our whom he had had his children, Britannicus and pains in giving an account both of the calamities Octavia. Their eldest sister was Antonia, whom we have suffered, and of the crimes we have been he had by Pelina, his first wife. He also married guilty of. I will now, therefore, return to the reOctavia to Nero; for that was the name that lation of our own affairs. Cæsar gave him afterward, upon his adopting him In the first year of the reign of Nero, upon the for his son.
death of Azizus king of Emesa, TSoemus his broNow Agrippina was afraid, lest when Britanni-ther succeeded in his kingdom: and Aristobulus cus should come to man's estate, he should suc- the son of Herod, king of Chalcis, was intrusted ceed his father in the government: and desired to by Nero with the government of the lesser Armeseize upon the principality beforehand for her ||own nia. Cæsar also bestowed upon Agrippa a certain son, upon which it was reported that she caused part of Galilee, **Tiberias, and Taríchæ : and or
RATORS OF JUDEA.
with their proportionable interstices : implying the deluge to dius had adopted him, was Nero Claudius Cæsar Drusus Gerhave been 2500 years before the Christian era ; according to manicus. our exactest chronology.
| Nero. * King of Chalcis.
* This Soemus is elsewhere mentioned, by Josephus, in his + Agrippa junior.
own life, as also by Dio Cassius, and Tacitus. | A. D. 54.
** This agrees with Josephus's frequent account elsewhere This duration of the reign of Claudius, agrees with Dio; as in his own life, that Tiberias, Tarichæ, and Gamala, were unDr. Hudson here remarks. As he also remarks that Nero's der this Agrippa junior, till Justus, the son of Pistus, seized name, which was at first L. Domitius Ænobarbus, after Clau- upon them for the Jews, upon the breaking out of the war.
dered them to submit to his jurisdiction. He gave | sal; and contrived matters so, that the robbers him also Julias, a city of Perea, with fourteen might murder him after the following manner. villages that lay about it.
Certain of those robbers went up to the city, as if Now the affairs of the Jews grew worse con- they were going to worship God; while they had tinually, for the country was again filled with rob- daggers under their garments: and by thus minbers, and impostors who deluded the multitude. gling among the multitude, they fslew Jonathan. Yet did Felix catch and put to death many of And as this murder was never avenged, the robthose impostors every day; together with the bers went up with the greatest security at the robbers. He also caught Eleazar, the son of festivals after this time: and having weapons conDineus, who had gotten together a company of cealed in like manner as before, and mingling robbers; and this he did by treachery. For he themselves among the multitude, they slew certain gave him assurance that he should suffer no harm, of their own enemies, and were subservient to and thereby persuaded him to come to him. But other men for money; and slew others not only when he came he bound him, and sent him to in remote parts of the city, but even in the temple Rome. Felix also bore an ill-will to Jonathan itself. For they had the boldness to murder men the high-priest; because he *frequently gave him there, without thinking of the impiet of which admonitions about governing the Jewish affairs they were guilty. And this seems to have been better than he did ; lest he should himself have the reason why God, out of his hatred of these complaints made of him by the multitude; since men's wickedness, rejected our city; and as for the he it was who had desired Cæsar to send him as temple, he no longer esteemed it sufficiently pure procurator of Judea. So Felix contrived a method for him to inhabit : but brought the Romans upon whereby he might get rid of him, now he was be- us, and threw a fire upon the city to purge it; come so continually troublesome: for such con- and brought upon us our wives and children's tinual admonitions are grievous to those who are slavery: as desirous to make us wiser by our cadisposed to act unjustly. Felix, therefore, per- lamities. suaded one of Jonathan's most faithful friends, a These works that were done by the robbers, citizen of Jerusalem, whose name was Doras, to filled the city with all sorts of impiety. And nowi bring the robbers upon Jonathan, in order to kill these Simpostors and deceivers persuaded the mulhim. And this he did by promising him a great titude to follow them into the wilderness, pretenddeal of money. Doras complied with the propo- ing that they would exhibit manifest wonders and
* See Acts xxiv. 25.
† This treacherous and barbarous murder of the good highpriest, Jonathan, by the contrivances of this procurator, Felix, was the immediate occasion of the ensuing murders by the Sicarii or ruffians: and one great cause of the subsequent miseries of the Jewish nation : as Josephus here supposes. Whose excellent reflection on the gross wickedness of that nation, as the direct cause of their terrible destruction, is worthy the attention of every Jewish and every Christian reader. And since we are soon coming to the catalogue of the Jewish high-priests, it may not be amiss, with Reland, to insert this Jonathan among them, and to transcribe his particular catalogue of the last 28 high-priests, taken out of Josephus, and begin with Ananelus, who was made by Herod the Great See XV. 2.
17. Matthias, the brother of Jonat and son of Ananus.
But here and elsewhere the reader must observe, that where Josephus does not set down the duration of any high-priest's office, or government, neither have I presumed to set it down : as not pretending to know more than he did in such matters. And when Dean Prideaux ventures to set those years down, as he does all along, from such a comparatively late and weak authority as that of the Chronicon Alexandrinum, I rather wonder at his boldness, than venture to follow his example. As for Ananus, and Joseph Caiaphas, here mentioned about the middle of this catalogue, they are no other than those Annas and Caiaphas, so often mentioned in the four Gospels: and Ananias, the son of Nebedeus, was that high-priest before whom St. Paul pleaded his own cause, Acts xxiv.
Of these Jewish impostors and false prophets, with many other circumstances and miseries of the Jews, till their utter destruction, foretold by our Saviour, see Lit. Accompl. of Proph. page 58–75.