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made certain men to be so that were of no eminent | moved by pity, and never was satisfied with any families, but barely of those that were priests : degree of gain that came in his way. Nor had excepting that he once gave that dignity to Aris- he any more regard to great than to small acquitobulus. For when he made this Aristobulus, the sitions ; but became a partner with the robbers grandson of that Hyrcanus who was taken by the themselves. For a great many fell then into that Partliians, and had taken his sister Mariamne to practice without fear, as having him for their

pawife, he thereby aimed to win the good-will of the tron, and depending on him, that he would save people, who had a kind remembrance of Hyrcanus them harmless in their particular robberies. So his grandfather. Yet did he afterward, out of his that there were no bounds set to the miseries of fear lest they should all bend their inclinations to the nation; but the unhappy Jews, when they Aristobulus, put him to death: and that by con- were not able to bear the devastations which the triving to have him suffocated, as he was swim- robbers made among them, were all under a neming at Jericho, as we have *already related. But cessity of leaving their own habitations, and of after this man he never intrusted the high-priest- fleeing away; as hoping to dwell more easily anyhood to the sons of Asmoneus. Archelaus also, where among foreigners than in their own counHerod's son, did like his father in the appointment try. And what need I say any more upon this of the high-priests: as did the Romans also, who head, since it was this Florus who necessitated took the government over the Jews into their us to take up arms against the Romans; while hands afterward. Accordingly the number of the we thought it better to be destroyed at once, than high-priests, from the days of Herod, until the day by little and little.f Now this war began in the when Titus took the temple and the city, and second year of the government of Florus, and the burnt them, were in all twenty-eight. The time twelfth year of the reign of Nero. But then what also that belonged to them was a hundred and actions we were forced to do, or what miseries we seven years. Some of these were the political were enabled to suffer, may be accurately known governors of the people under the reign of Herod, by such as will peruse those books which I have and under the reign of Archelaus his son: although written about the Jewish war. after their death the government became an aris- I shall now, therefore, make an end here of my tocracy; and the high-priests were intrusted with Antiquities : after the conclusion of which events a dominion over the nation. And thus much may I began to write that account of the war. And suffice concerning our high-priests.

these Antiquities contain what hath been deliver

ed down to us from the original creation of man, CHAP. XI.

until the twelfth year of the reign of Nero: as to what hath befallen us Jews, as well in Egypt as in

Syria and in Palestine; and what we have sufferNow Gessius Florus, who was sent as succes- ed from the Assyrians and Babylonians; and what sor to Albinus by Nero, filled Judea with abun- afflictions the Persians and Macedonians, and dance of miseries. He was by birth of the city after them the Romans, have brought upon us : Clazomenæ, and brought along with him his wife for I think I may say that I have composed this Cleopatra, by whose friendship with Poppea, history with sufficient accuracy in all things. I Nero's wife, he obtained this government, and who have attempted to enumerate those high-priests was noway different from himself in wickedness. that we have had, during the interval of two thouThis Florus was so violent in the use of his au- sand years. I have also carried down the succesthority, that the Jews considered Albinus to have sion of our kings, and related their actions and been comparatively their benefactor; so excessive political administration, without any considerable were the mischiefs that he brought upon them. errors; as also the power of our monarchs; and For Albinus concealed his wickedness, and was all according to what is written in our sacred careful that it might not be discovered to all men. books: for this it was that I promised to do in the But Gessius Florus, as though he had been sent beginning of this history. And I am so bold as to on purpose to show his crimes to every body, say, now I have so completely perfected the work made a pompous ostentation of them to our na- I proposed to myself to do, that no other person, tion; as never committing any sort of violence, whether he were a Jew or a foreigner, had he nor any unjust punishment, for he was not to be never so great an inclination to it, could so accu



* Book XV, chap. 3.

ever, is concerned, urgent indeed must be the danger that can † It is certainly better, in many cases, to know the extent of justify the wilful anticipation of the worst result. B. calamity, than for it to creep on gradually. When life, how

rately deliver these accounts to the Greeks as is this account, as there have been many who have done in these books: for those of my own nation done their endeavours, with great patience, to obfreely acknowledge that I far exceed them in the tain this learning, there have yet hardly been two learning belonging to the Jews. I have also taken or three that have succeeded therein, who were a great deal of pains to obtain the learning of the immediately rewarded for their pains. Greeks, and understand the elements of the Greek I shall now put an end to these Antiquities, language ; although I have so long accustomed which are contained in twenty books, and sixty myself to speak our own tongue, that I cannot thousand verses. And if *God permit me, I shall pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness. For briefly run over this war again, with what befell our nation does not encourage those that learn us therein, to this very day; which is the thirthe languages of many nations, and so adorn their teenth year of the reign of Cæsar Domitian, and discourses with the smoothness of their periods; the fifty-sixth year of my own life. I have also an because they look upon this sort of accomplish- intention to write three books concerning our ment as common, not only to all sorts of freemen, Jewish opinions about God, and his essence; and but to as many of the servants as please to learn about our laws; why, according to them, some them. But they give him the testimony of being things are permitted us to do, and others are proa wise man, who is fully acquainted with our hibited. laws, and is able to interpret their meaning. On

* What Josephus here declares his intention to do, if God am forced rather to suppose that he never did publish any such permitted, is not, that I have observed, taken distinct notice of work at all; I mean as distinct from his own life, written by by any. Nor do we ever hear of it elsewhere, whether he per- || himself; and this at least above seven years after these Antiformed what he now intended or not. Some of the reasons of quities were finished. Nor does it appear to me, that Josephus this design might possibly be his observation of the many errors | ever published that other work here mentioned, as intended by he had been guilty of in the two first of those seven books Of him for the public also; I mean the books concerning God and the War, which were written when he was comparatively young, his essence, and concerning the Jewish laws; why, according and less acquainted with the Jewish Antiquities than he now to them, some things were permitted the Jews, and others prowas; and in which abridgment we might have hoped to find hibited: which last seems to be the same work Josephus had those many passages which himself, as well as those passages also promised, if God permitted, at the conclusion of his preface which others refer to, as written by him, but which are not ex. to these Antiquities. The death of all his friends at court, tant in his present works. However, since many of his own Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian ; and the coming of those he references to what he had written elsewhere, as well as most had no acquaintance with to the crown, I mean Nerva and Traof his own errors, belong to such early times, as could not well jan ; together with his removal from Rome to Judea, with what come into this abridgment of the Jewish War; and since none followed it; might easily interrupt such intentions, and prevent of those that quote things not now extant in his works, includ. his publication of those works. ing himself as well as others, ever cite any such abridgment; I


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