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fought against them, but also terrified the neighbour- | as we have before related, the vision of the bush, and ing nations, and got great and splendid advantages, the other wonderful
the other wonderful appearances, had happened. which they obtained of their enemies by their hard pains in this battle; for when they had taken the
CHAP. III. enemies' camp, they got great booty for the public, and for their own private families, whereas till then OF RAGUEL'S ARRIVAL AND RECEPTION BY MOSES AT MOUNT SINAI. they had not any plenty even of necessary food. WHEN Raguel, Moses's* father-in-law, understood The aforementioned victory was also the occasion in what a prosperous condition his affairs were, he of their prosperity, not only for the present, but for willingly came to meet him; and Moses took Zipfuture ages also; for they not only made slaves of porah his wife, and his children, and pleased himself the bodies of their enemies, but effectually damped with his coming: and when he had offered sacrifice, their minds: and after this battle became terrible to he made a feast for the multitude, near the bush he all that dwelt round about them. They also acquired had formerly seen; every one, according to their a vast quantity of riches; for a great deal of silver families, partaking of the festival. But Aaron and and gold was left in the enemies' camp, as also his family took Raguel, and sung hymns to God, as brazen vessels, which they made common use of in to him who had been the author and procurer of their families ; many utensils also that were embroi- their deliverance, and their freedom. They also dered, that were of both sorts; that is, of what were praised their conductor, as him by whose virtue it woven, and what were the ornaments of their armour was, that all things had succeeded so well with them. and other things that served for use to their family, Raguel
, also, in his eucharistical oration to Moses, and for the furniture of their rooms: they got also made great encomiums upon the whole multitude; the prey of their cattle and of whatsoever uses to and he could not but admire Moses for his fortitude, follow camps, when they remove from one place to and that humanity he had showed in the delivery of another: so the Hebrews now valued themselves bis friends. upon their courage, and claimed great merit for their
CHAP. IV. valour; and they perpetually inured themselves to take pains, by which they deemed every difficulty OF RAGUEL'S FRIENDLY SUGGESTIONS RESPECTING THE GOVERNMENT might be surmounted; and this was the result of the battle.
The next day, Raguel saw Moses in the midst of On the next day Moses stripped the dead bodies a crowd of business,t for he determined the differof their enemies, and gathered together the armour ences of those that referred them to him, every one of those that were fled, and gave rewards to such still going to him, aud supposing they should then as had signalized themselves in the action, and only obtain justice, if he were the arbitrator; and highly commended Joshua, their general, who was those that lost their causes thought it no great harm, attested to by all the army, on account of the great while they thought they lost them justly, and not by actions he had done; nor was any one of the He- partiality. Raguel, however, said nothing at that brews slain, though the slain of the enemies' army time, as not desirous to be any hindrance to such as were too many to be enumerated. So Moses offered had a mind to make use of the virtue of their consacrifice of thanksgiving to God, and built an altar, ductor; but afterward he took Moses to himself; which be named, the Lord the conqueror. He also and when he had him alone, he instructed him in foretold that the Amalekites should be utterly de- what he ought to do, and advised him to leave the stroyed, and that hereafter none of them should trouble of lesser causes to others, but himself to take remain, because they fought against the Hebrews care of the greater, and of the people's safety, for when they were in the wilderness, and in their dis- that others of the Hebrews might be found that were
Moreover he refreshed the army with feast- fit to determine causes, but that nobody but a Moses ing: and thus did they fight this first battle with could take care of the safety of many thousands. those that ventured to oppose them, after they were “Be not, therefore,” said he, “insensible of thine gone out of Egypt. But, when Moses had celebrated own virtue, and what thou hast done by ministering this festival for the victory, he permitted the Hebrews under God to the people's preservation. Leave, to rest for a few days, and then brought them out therefore, the determination of common causes to after the fight in order of battle; for they had now others; but do thou reserve thyself to the attendmany soldiers in light armour, and going gradually ance on God only, and look out for methods of preon, he came to mount Sinai, and three months after serving the multitude from their present distress
. they were removed out of Egypt, at which mountain, Make use of the method I suggest as to human
OF THE HEBREWS. WHICH WERE ADOPTED BY MOSES.
affairs, and take a review of the army, and appoint to converse with God, to receive and to bring chosen rulers over tens of thousands, and then over back with him a certain oracle.
But he enjoined thousands; and then divide them into five hundreds, them to pitch their tents near the mountain"; and and again into hundreds, and into fifties, and set rulers prefer the habitation that was nearest to God, over each of them, who may distinguish them into before one more remote. When he had said this, thirties, and keep them in order, and at last number he ascended up to mount Sinai, which is the them by twenties and by tens. And let there be one highest of all the mountains, that are in that commander over each number, to be nominated from country, and is not only very difficult to be asthe number of those over whom they are rulers; but cended by men on account of its vast altitude, such as the whole multitude have tried and approve* but because of the sharpness of its precipices. of, as being good and righteous men; and let these Nay, indeed, it cannot be looked at without pain rulers decide the controversies they have one with to the eyes; and besides this, it was terrible and another; if any great cause arise, let them bring the inaccessible on account of a general rumour that cognizances of it before the rulers of a higher dig. God dwelt there. But the Hebrews removed the nity; and if any great difficulty arise, that is too tents, as Moses had bidden them, and took poshard for even their determination, let them send it session of the lowest parts of the mountain ; and to thee. By these means two advantages will be were elevated in their minds, in expectation that gained; that the Hebrews will have justice done Moses would return with promises of the good them, and thou wilt be able to attend constantly on things he had proposed to them. So they feasted, God, and procure him to be more favourable to the and waited for their conductor, and kept thempeople.
selves pure for three days, as he had before orThis was the admonition of Raguel, which dered them to do.
dered them to do. And they prayed to God, that Moses received very kindly, and acted according he would favourably receive Moses in his conversto his suggestion : nor did he conceal the inven- ing with him, and bestow some such gifts upon tion of this method, nor pretend to it himself, but them by which they might live well. They also informed the multitude who it was that invented lived more plentifully as to their diet ; and put on it; nay, he has named Raguel in the books he their wives and children more ornamental clothing wrote, as the person who invented the ordering than they usually wore. of the people, as thinking it right to give a true Two days passed in this way of feasting; but testimony to worthy persons, although he might on the third day, before sun-rise, a cloud spread have obtained reputation by ascribing to himself itself over the whole camp of the Hebrews; such the invention of other men; whence we may learn an one as none had before seen, and encompassed the virtuous disposition of Moses ; but of that dis- the place where they had pitched their tents. And position we shall have occasion to speak in other
speak in other while all the rest of the air was clear, there came places.
strong winds that raised up large showers of rain,
which became a mighty tempest. There was also CHAP. V.
such lightnings as was terrible to those that saw
and thunder, with its thunderbolts, were sent down, and declared God to be there present in a
gracious way to such as Moses desired he should Now Moses called the multitude together, and be gracious. Now as to these matters, every one told them that he was going unto mount Sinai, of my readers may think as he pleases; but I am
OF MOSES'S ASCENT TO MOUNT SINAI: AND OF THE DIVINE LAWS
* This manner of electing the judges and officers of the Israel. ites, and other nations. Accordingly, when 1 Kings, ix. 8, the ites by the testimonies and suffrages of the people, before they Scripture says that Elijah came to Horeb, the mount of God, were ordained by God or Moses, deserves to be carefully noted, Josephus justly says, Antiq. VIII. 13, that he came to the mounbecause it was the pattern of the like manner of the choice and tain called Sinai : and Jerome, here cited by Dr. Hudson, says, ordination of bishops, presbyters, and deacons, in the Christian that he took this mountain to have two names, Sinai and Choreb. church. See Constitut. Apost. VIII. 4, 16, 18.
De Nomin. Heb. page 427, (Edit. Benedict.) † Since this mountain Sinai is here said to be the highest of Exod. xix. 16. all the mountains in that country, it must be that now called St. $ That fire and lightning should attend the presence of God Catharine's, which is one third higher than that within a mile is a notion so frequent in the most ancient and Oriental theof it now called Sinai, as Monsieur Thevenot informs us, ology, that it might possibly give occasion to the worship of Travels, Part I. chap. xxviii. page 168, 169. The other name. fire among the Chaldeans and Persians; to the magi, among of it, Horeb, is never used by Josephus, and perhaps was its the Cappadocians, called Purrethi, which Strabo mentions, and name among the Egyptians only, whence the Israelites were to the vestal fires among the Greeks and Romans, as well as the lately come, as Sinai was its name among the Arabians, Canaan- | ancient Britons.
under the necessity of relating this history as it is water to issue out of a rock, when we had very described in the sacred books. This sight, and little of it before ; he, by whose means Adam was the amazing sound that came to their ears, dis- made to partake of the fruits of the land, and of turbed the Hebrews to a prodigious degree; for the sea; he, by whose means Noah escaped the they were not such as they were accustomed to. deluge ; he, by whose means our forefather AbraAnd then the rumour that was spread abroad how ham, of a wandering pilgrim was made the heir God frequented that mountain, greatly astonished of the land of Canaan; he, by whose means Jacob their minds; so they sorrowfully remained within was adorned with twelve virtuous sons; he, by their tents, as both supposing Moses to be destroy- whose means Joseph became a potent lord over ed by the divine wrath, and expecting the like de- the Egyptians; he it is who conveys these instruction for themselves.
structions to you by me as his interpreter. And While they were under these apprehensions, let them be to you venerable, and contended for Moses appeared joyful and greatly exalted. When more earnestly by you than your own wives and they saw him, they were freed from their fear, and children; for if you will follow them, you will lead admitted more comfortable hopes as to what was a happy life, you will enjoy the land fruitful, the to come. The air also was become clear and pure sea calm, and the fruit of the womb complete, as of its former disorders, upon the appearance of nature requires; you will also be terrible to your Moses; whereupon he called the people together, enemies;
for I have been admitted into the presin order to their hearing what God would say to ence of God, and been made a hearer of his inthem. And when they were assembled, he stood corruptible voice; so great is his concern for the on an eminence, whence they might all hear him, welfare of your nation.” and said, “God has received me graciously, O
When he had said this, he brought the people, Hebrews, as he has formerly done; and has sug- with their wives and children, so near the moungested a happy method of living for you, and an tain, that they might hear God himself speaking order of political government, and is now present to them about the precepts which they were to in the I therefore charge you for his sake, practise; that the energy of what should be spoken and the sake of his works, and what we have done might not be hurt by its utterance, by that tongue by his means, that you do not put a low value on of a man which could but imperfectly deliver it to what I am going to say, because the commands their understanding. And they all heard a voice have been given by me; nor because it is the that came from above; insomuch that none of tongue of a man that delivers them to you. But if those words escaped them, which Moses wrote in you have a due regard to the great importance of two tables; and though it is not* lawful for us to the things themselves, you will understand the set them down directly, we will declare their imgreatness of Him whose institutions they are; and port. who has not disdained to communicate them to The first commandment teaches us, that there me for our common advantage. For it is not to is but one God, and that we ought to worship him be supposed that the author of these institutions only. The second commands us not to make the is barely Moses, the son of Amram and Jochebed, image of any living creature to worship it. The but he who obliged the Nile to run bloody for your third, that we must not swear by God in a false sakes, and tamed the haughtiness of the Égyptians, matter. The fourth, that we must keep the seventh by various sorts of judgments; he who provided a day, by resting from all sort of work. The fifth, way through the sea for us; he who contrived a that we must honour our parents.t The sixth, method of sending us food from heaven, when we that we must abstain from murder. The seventh, were distressed for want of it; he who made the that we must not commit adultery. The eighth,
Ηνικα βλεψης μορφης ασέρ ευιερον πυρ
* Of this and another superstitious notion of the Pharisees, Δαμσομενον σκιρληδον ολα καλα βενθεα Κοσμα
which Josephus complied with, see note on II. 12. Κλυθι πυρος φωνην,
† As disobedience to parents is, by the law of Moses, threatsay the Chaldaic oracles; and as for earthquakes, or shaking i ened to be punished with death; so, on the contrary, long lise of mountains, this is no more than what all nations suppose have 'is promised to the obedient; and that in their own country, ever come to pass upon God's manifesting himself at any time : which God had peculiarly enriched with abundance of blessings. for it is not only the Psalmist who tells us, that the earth shook, Heathens also gave the very same encouragement, saying, that and the heaven dropped, at the presence of God; but in the such children should be dear to the gods, both living and dying. description which Virgil gives us of the approach of Phæbus, So Euripedes. It was also one of their promises, Thou shalt live he does in a manner translate the words of Moses :
long, if thou nourish thy ancient parents. Whence children are Tremere omnia visa repente,
called by Xenophon repobodxon. Patrick, in locum. B.
Vide Nicholl's Conference, part 2. B
THE HONOUR OF GOD.
that we must not be guilty of theft. The ninth, had of them, and by what manner of conduct they that we must not bear false witness. The tenth, might live happily: telling them that, during his that we must not admit of the desire of any thing absence, God had suggested to himț also that he that is another's.*
would have a tabernacle built for him, into which Now when the multitude had heard God him- he would descend when he came to them, and how self giving those precepts which Moses had dis- they should carry it about with them when they coursed of, they rejoiced at what was said; and removed : and that there should be no longer any the.congregation was dissolved. But on the fol- occasion for going up to mount Sinai; but that lowing day they came to his tent, and desired he would himself come and pitch his tabernacle him to bring them besides other laws from God. amongst them, and be present at their prayers. Accordingly he appointed such laws, and after- As also that the tabernacle should be of such ward informed them in what manner they should measures and construction as he had showed him; act in all cases; which laws I shall mention in and that the work must be immediately begun, and their proper place: but I shall reserve most of prosecuted diligently. When he had said this, he them for tanother work : and make there a dis- showed them the two tables, with the Ten Comtinct explication of them.
mandments engraven upon them, five upon each When matters were brought to this state, table, and the writing was by the hand of God. Moses went up again to mount Sinai, of which he had told them beforehand. He made his as
CHAP. VI. cent in their sight; but when he had been absent from them forty days, fear seized upon the He- OF THE TABERNACLE WHICH MOSES BUILT IN THE WILDERNESS, FOR brews, lest he should have come to any harm. Nor was there any thing that so much troubled Now the Israelites rejoiced at what they had them, as the idea that Moses had perished. Now seen and heard of their conductor; and were not there was a variety in their sentiments about it; wanting in diligence according to their ability; some saying that he was fallen among wild beasts; but they brought silver, and gold, and brass, and and those that were of this opinion were chiefly the best sorts of wood, and such as would not at such as were ill disposed to him; but others say- all decay by putrefaction; camels' hair also, and •ing that he was departed and gone to God. The sheep-skins; some of them dyed of a blue colour, wiser sort were led, by their reason, to embrace and some of a scarlet: some brought the flower neither of those opinions with any satisfaction; for the purple colour, and others for white, with thinking that as it was a thing that sometimes wool dyed by the aforementioned flowers; and happens to men, to fall among wild beasts and fine linen, and precious stones, which those that perish that way, so it was probable enough that use costly ornaments set in ounces of gold: they he might depart and go to God, on account of brought also a great quantity of spices. For of his virtue; they therefore were quiet, and expected these materials did Moses build the tabernacle : the event; though they were exceeding sorrowful which did not at all differ from a movable temple. upon the probability that they were deprived of a Now when these things were brought together governor, and a protector; such an one, indeed, with great diligence, (for every one was ambitious as they could never recover again. Nor would to further the work, even beyond their ability,) this suspicion give them leave to expect any com- he set architects over the works, and this by the fortable event about this man ; nor could they command of God: and indeed the very same prevent their trouble and melancholy upon this which the people themselves would have chosen, occasion. However, the camp durst not move all had the election been allowed to them. Now their this while: because Moses had commanded them names are set down
names are set down in writing in the sacred books; to stay there.
and they were these, Bazaleel, the son of Uri, of When forty days and as many nights were ex
the tribe of Judah, the grandson of Miriam, the pired, Moses came down ; having tasted nothing sister of their conductor; and Aholiab, the son of of food usually appointed for the nourishment of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. Now the people men. His appearance filled the army with glad went on with what they had undertaken with so ness; and he declared to them, what care God great alacrity, that Moses was obliged to restrain
* Exod. xx. 1 to 18.
omitted here the heinous sin of the Israelites, in making and + This other work of Josephus's, here referred to, does not worshipping the golden calf, or the Egyptian Apis, made of appear to have been ever published.
wood, but covered over with cast gold round about it. See # It is a query whether Josephus, in all his own transcripts, Isaiah xl. 19, 20. Jer. x. 3, 4. and Hab. ii. 19.
them, by making proclamation, that what had | ornamental construction of the inclosure about been brought was sufficient, as the artificers had the court of the tabernacle, which was exposed to informed him : so they fell to work upon the build- the open air. ing of the tabernacle. Moses also informed them, As to the tabernacle itself, Moses placed it in according to the direction of God, both what the the middle of that court, with its front to the east; measures were to be, and its dimensions; and how that when the sun rose, it might send its first rays many vessels it ought to contain, for the use of upon it. Its length, when it was set up, was thirty the sacrifices. The women also were ambitious cubits, and its breadth was ten cubits. One of its to do their parts about the garments of the priests, walls was on the south, and the other was and about other things that would be wanted in exposed to the north, and on the back part of it this work, both for ornament, and for the divine remained the west. It was necessary that its service itself.
height should be equal to its breadth, ten cubits. When all things were prepared, the gold, and There were also pillars made of wood, twenty on the silver, and the brass, and what was woven, each side; they were wrought into a quadranguMoses, having previously appointed that there lar figure, in breadth a cubit and a half, but the should be a festival, and that sacrifices should be thickness was four fingers: they had thin plates offered according to every one's ability, reared up of gold affixed to them, on both sides, inwardly the tabernacle. And when he had measured the and outwardly: they had also, each of them, two open court, fifty cubits broad, and a hundred long, silver tenons, inserted into their bases; in each he set up brazen pillars, five cubits high; twenty of which was a socket to receive the tenon. But on each of the longer sides, and ten pillars for the the pillars on the western wall were six. Now breadth behind. Every one of the pillars also had all these tenons and sockets accurately fitted one a ring. Their chapiters were of silver, but their another, insomuch that the joints were invisible; bases were of brass; they resembled the sharp and both seemed to be one united wall: it was ends of spears, and were of brass, fixed into the also covered with gold, both within and without. ground. Cords were also put through the rings, The number of pillars was equal on the opposite and were tied at the farther ends to brass nails sides, and there were on each part twenty; and of a cubit long, which at every pillar were driven every one had the third part of a span in thickinto the floor, and would keep the tabernacle from ness: so that the number of thirty cubits were being shaken by the violence of winds. But a cur- fully made up between them. But as to the wall tain of fine soft linen went round all the pillars, behind, where the six pillars made up together and hung down in a flowing manner from their only nine cubits, they made two other pillars, and chapiters, and inclosed the whole space, forming cut them out of one cubit, which they placed in a kind of wall about it. Such was the structure of the corners, and made them equally fine with the three of the sides of this inclosure: but as for the others. Now every one of the pillars had rings of fourth side, which was fifty cubits in extent, and gold affixed to their fronts outward, as if they had was the front of the whole; twenty cubits of it taken root in the pillars, and stood one row over were for the opening at the gates, wherein stood against another round about ; through which were two pillars on each side, after the resemblance of inserted gilded bars, each of them five cubits long, open gates; these were made wholly of silver, and and these bound together the pillars; the head of polished all over, excepting the bases, which were one bar running into another, after the nature of of brass. Now on each side of the gates there one tenon inserted into another. But for the wall stood three pillars, which were inserted into the behind, there was but one row of bars that went concave bases of the gates, and were suited to through all the pillars : into which row ran the them; and round them was drawn a curtain of ends of the bars on each side of the longer walls; fine linen. But to the gates themselves, which and all joined so fast together, that the tabernacle were twenty cubits in extent, and five in height, could not be shaken, either by the winds, or by the curtain was composed of purple, and scarlet, any other means; but remained firm, quiet, and and blue, and fine linen; and embroidered with immovable. divers sorts of figures, excepting the figures of As for the inside, Moses divided its length into animals. Within these gates was the brazen laver, three partitions. At the distance of ten cubits from for purification, having a bason beneath of the the most sacred end, he placed four pillars; whose like matter: in which the priests might wash their workmanship was the same with that of the rest, hands,* and sprinkle their feet. And this was the and they stood upon the like bases with them; each
at a small distance from his fellow. Now the room * Exod. xxx. 19.
within those pillars was the most holy place: but