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the rest of the room was the tabernacle, which was view of the sanctuary; especially on solemn days; open for the priests. However, this proportion of but thật on other days, and especially when the the measures of the tabernacle, proved to be an imi- weather was inclined to snow, it might be expanded, tation of the system of the world; for that third and afford a covering to the veil of divers colours. part which was within the four pillars, to which the Hence that custom of ours is derived, of having a priests were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven, fine linen veil after the temple has been built, to be peculiar to God; but the space of the twenty cubits, drawn over the entrances. The ten other curtains is, as it were, sea and land, on which men live: and were four cubits in breadth, and twenty-eight in so this part is peculiar to the priests only. At the length, and had golden clasps, which joined the one front, where the entrance was made, they placed curtain to the other, so exactly, that they seemed to seven pillars of gold, that stood on bases of brass; be one entire curtain. These were spread over the and they spread over the tabernacle veils of fine temple, and covered all the top, and part of the linen, and purple, and blue, and scarlet colours, em- walls, on the sides and behind, within one cubit of broidered. The first veil was ten cubits every way; the ground. There were other curtains of the same and this was spread over the pillars which parted breadth with these, but one more in number, and the temple, and kept the most holy place concealed longer; for they were thirty cubits long: these were within: and this veil was that which made this part woven of hair, and were extended loosely down to not visible to any. Now the whole temple was called the ground, appearing like a triangular front and the Holy Place; but that part which was within the elevation at the gates; the eleventh curtain being four pillars, and to which none were admitted, was used for this very purpose. There were also other called the FIoly of Holies. This veil was very orna- curtains made of skins, above these, which afforded mental, and embroidered with all sorts of fine flow- covering and protection to those that were woven, ers; and there were interwoven into it a variety of both in hot weather and when it rained. And great ornaments, excepting only the forms of animals. was the surprise of those who viewed these curtains Another veil, which covered the five pillars at the at a distance; for they seemed not at all to differ entrance, was like the former in its magnitude, tex- from the colour of the sky. But those that were ture, and colour; and at the corner of every pillar made of hair, and of skins, reached down in the a ring retained it from the top downwards, half the same manner as did the veil at the gates, and kept depth of the pillars; the other half affording an off the rain, and heat of the sun: and after this entrance for the priests, who crept under it. Over | manner was the tabernacle reared. this was a veil of linen, of the same size with the There was also an ark* made, sacred to God, of former; it was to be drawn this way or that way by wood that was naturally strong, and could not be cords, whose rings, fixed to the texture of the veil, corrupted. This was called Eron, in our own lanand to the cords also, were subservient to the draw

the draw- guage. Its construction was thus: its length was ing and undrawing of the veil

, and to the fastening five spans,t but its breadth and height was each of it at the corner, that it might be no hindrance to the them three spans. It was covered with gold, both

* We meet with imitations of this divinely instituted emblem In Lieutenant Cook's voyage round the world, published by among several heathen nations, both in ancient and modern Dr. Hawksworth, vol. ii. p. 252, we find that the inhabitants of times. Thus Tacitus (de Mor. German. cap. 40.) informs us, Huaheinh, one of the islands lately discovered in the South Sea, that “the inhabitants of the north of Germany, our Saxon ances had “ a kind of chest or ark, the lid of which was nicely sewed tors, in general worshipped Herthum, that is, the mother earth, on, and thatched very neatly with palm-nut leaves. It was fixed and believed her to interpose in the affairs of men, and to visit upon two poles, and supported upon little arches of wood, very nations; that to her, within a sacred grove, in a certain island | neatly carved: the use of the poles seemed to be to remove it of the ocean, a vehicle, covered with a vestment, was conse from place to place in the manner of our sedan chair: in one crated, and allowed to be touched by the priest alone, who per end of it was a square hole, in the middle of which was a ring ceived when the goddess entered into this her sacred place, and touching the sides, and leaving the angles open, so as to form a with profound veneration attended her vehicle, which was drawn round hole within, a square one without. The first time Mr. by cows. While the goddess was on her progress, days of re Banks saw this coffer, the aperture at the end was stopped with joicing were kept at every place which she vouchsafed to visit. a piece of cloth, which, lest he should give offence, he left un. They engaged in no war, they meddled not with arms, they touched. Probably there was then something within : but now locked up their weapons; peace and quietness only were then the cloth was taken away; and upon looking into it, it was found known, these only relished, till the same priests re-conducted the empty. The general resemblance between this repository, and goddess, satiated with the conversation of mortals, to her temple.” the ark of the Lord among the Jews, is remarkable: but it is

Among the Mexicans, Vitziputzli, their supreme god, was still more remarkable, that upon inquiring of the boy what it represented in a human shape, sitting on a throne, supported by was called, he said Ewharra no Eautau, the house of God; he an azure globe, which they called heaven. Four poles or sticks could, however, give no account of its signification or use." pents

' heads were carved, the whole making a liter, which the FA-cubit was about 'wenty-one inches; and a span half a priests carried on their shoulders whenever the idol was shown cubit. in public. Picart's Ceremonies, vol. iii. p. 146.

within and without; so that the wooden part was the Hebrews call cinchares: which, if it be turned not seen. It had also a cover united to it, by golden into the Greek language, denotes a talent. It was hinges, after a wonderful manner; which cover was made with its knobs, lilies, pomegranates, and every way evenly fitted to it, and had no eminences bowls: which ornaments amounted to seventy in to hinder its exact conjunetion. There were also all. By this means the shaft elevated itself from two golden rings, belonging to each of the longer a single base, and spread into as many branches boards, and passing through the entire wood; and as there are planets, including the sun among through them gilded bars passed along each board; them. It terminated in seven hands, in one row, that it might thereby be moved, and carried about all standing parallel to each other; and these as occasion should require; for it was not drawn in branches carried seven lamps, one by one, in imia cart by yokes of kine, but borne on the shoulders tation of the number of the planets: these lamps of the priests. Upon this cover were two images, looked to the east and the south, the candlestick called cherubim. They are flying creatures, but being situate obliquely. their form is not like to that of any of the creatures Between this candlestick, and the table, which, which men have seen ; though Moses said he had as we said, were within the sanctuary, was the seen such beings near the throne of God. In this altar of incense; made of wood indeed, but of inark he put the two tables whereon the Ten Com- corruptible wood, and entirely crusted over with mandments were written; five upon each table; and a golden plate. Its breadth on each side was a two and a half upon each side of them: and this cubit, but the height double. Upon it was a grate ark he placed in the most holy place.

of gold, above the altar, which had a golden crown In the holy place he placed a table like those at encompassing it round about; whereto belonged Delphi. Its length was two cubits, its breadth one rings and bars, by which the priests carried it, cubit, and its height three spans. It had feet also, when they journeyed. Before this tabernacle the lower half of which were complete feet, resem- there was reared a brazen altar, but it was within bling those which the Dorians put to their bedsteads; made of wood, five cubits by measure on each but the upper parts towards the table were wrought side, but its height was but three; in like manner, into a square form. The table had a hollow towards adorned with brass plates, as bright as gold. It every side, having a ledge of four fingers' depth, that had also a brazen hearth of net-work; for the went round about, like a spiral; both on the upper ground underneath received the fire from the and lower part of the body of the work. Upon hearth, because it had no basis to receive it. every one of the feet was also inserted a ring, not Near this altar, lay the basons, the vials, the far from the cover, through which went bars of censers, and the caldrons, made of gold; but the gilded wood beneath, to be taken out upon occasion; other vessels, made for the use of the sacrifices, there being a cavity where it was joined to the rings: were all of brass. And such was the construcfor they were not entire rings; but before they came tion of the tabernacle, and the vessels thereto bequite round, they ended in acute points; one of which longing. was inserted into the prominent part of the table, and the other into the foot; and by these it was

CHAP. VII. carried when they journeyed. Upon this table, which was placed on the north side of the temple, not far from the most holy place, were laid twelve unleav THERE were peculiar garments appointed for ened loaves of bread, six upon each heap, one above the priests, and for all the rest, which garments another; they were made of two tenth deals, of the they call cahanææ, or priestly garments, as also purest flour, which tenth* deal is a measure of the for the high-priests, which they call cahanææ rabHebrews, containing seven Athenian cotylæ. Above bæ, and denote the high-priest's garment. Such those loaves were put two vials full of frankincense. was therefore the habit of the rest : but when the Now after seven days, other loaves were brought in priest approaches the sacrifices, he purifies himtheir stead on the seventh day, which is by us called self with the purification which the law prescribes. the sabbath; but for the occasion of this invention and in the first place he puts on that which is of placing loaves here, we will speak of it in an- called machanase, which means somewhat that is other place.

fast tied. It is a girdle composed of fine twined Over against this table, near the southern wall, linen, into which the feet are inserted, in the nature was set a candlestick of cast gold, hollow within, of breeches; but above half of it is cut off, and and of the weight of one hundred pounds, which it ends at the thighs, where it is tied fast.

Over this he wore a linen vestment, made of * A homer.

fine flax doubled, and called chethone, for we call


linen by the name of chethone. This vestment gether; besides which, a piece of fine linen covers
reaches to the feet, and sits close to the body; the whole cap, from the upper part, and reaches
and has sleeves that are tied fast to the arms: it down to the forehead, and hides the seams of the
is girded to the breast a little above the elbows, swaths, which would otherwise appear indecently:
by a girdle often going round, four fingers broad; this adheres closely upon the solid part of the
but so loosely woven, that it resembles the skin head, that it may not fall off during the sacred
of a serpent. It is embroidered with flowers of service about the sacrifices. Such was the habit
scarlet, purple, blue, and fine twined linen ; but the of the generality of the priests.
warp is nothing but fine linen. The beginning of The high-priest is adorned with the same gar-
its circumvolution is at the breast; and when it ments already described; but over these he puts
has gone often round, it is there tied, and hangs on a vestment of a blue colour; this also is a long
loosely down to the ankles. I mean this, all the robe, reaching to his feet: in our language it is
time the priest is not about any laborious ser- called meeir, and is tied round with a girdle, em-
vice; for in this position it appears in the most broidered with the same colours and flowers as the
agreeable manner to the spectators; but when he former, interwoven with a mixture of gold: to the
is obliged to assist at offering sacrifices, and to bottom are hung fringes, in colour like promegra-
do the appointed service, that he may not be nates, with golden* bells,t by a curious and beau-
hindered in his operations by its motion, he throws tiful contrivance; so that between two bells hangs
it to the left, and bears it on his shoulder. Moses a promegranate, and between two promegranates
calls this belt abaneth ; but we have learned, from a bell. Now this vesture was not composed of
the Babylonians, to call it emia. This vestment two pieces, nor was it sewed together upon the
has no loose or hollow parts anywhere in it, but shoulders and the sides, but it was one long vest-
only a narrow aperture about the neck: and it is ment, so woven as to have an aperture for the
tied with certain strings hanging down from the neck: not an oblique one, but parted all along the
edge over the breast, and over the back; and is breast, and the back; a border also was sewed to
fastened above each shoulder. It is called massa- it, lest the aperture should look too indecently;

it was also parted where the hands were to come
Upon his head he wears a cap, not brought to out.
a conic form, nor including the entire head; but Besides these, the high-priest put on a third
still including more than the half of it. It is garment, called the ephod, which resembles the
named masnaemphthcs, or a mitre, but its make epomis of the Greeks. It was woven to the depth
is such that it seems to be a crown. It is made of a cubit, of several colours, with gold intermixed,
of thick swaths, but the contexture is of linen, and and embroidered: but it left the middle of the
it is doubled round many times, and sewed to- breast uncovered; it was also made with sleeves,

* The use of these golden bells, at the bottom of the high- goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he priest's long garment, seems to have been this; that by shaking cometh out, that he die not. The sound of the numerous bells his garment at the time of his offering incense in the temple, on that covered the hem of his garment, gave notice to the assemthe great day of expiation, or at other proper periods of his sa bled people that the most awful ceremony of their religion had cred ministrations on the great festivals, the people might have commenced. When arrayed in this garb, he bore into the sancnotice of it, and might fall to their own prayers at the time of tuary the vessel of incense; it was the signal to prostrate themincense, or other proper periods; and so the whole congregation selves before the Deity, and to commence those fervent ejacumight at once offer those common prayers jointly with the high- lations which were to ascend with the column of that incense priest to the Almighty. See Luc. i. 10. Nor probably is the to the throne of heaven. “One indispensable ceremony in the father of Sirach to be otherwise understood, when he says of Indian Pooja is the ringing of a small bell by the officiating Aaron, the first high-priest, Eccles. xlv. 9, God compassed Brahmin. The women of the idol, or dancing girls of the paAaron with promegranates, and with many golden bells round goda, have little golden bells fastened to their feet, the soft harabout; that as he went there might be a sound, and a noise made, monious tinkling of which vibrates in unison with the exquisite that might be heard in the temple, for a memorial to the chil- | melody of their voices." (Maurice's Indian Antiquities, vol. dren of his people.

v. p. 137.) The ancient kings of Persia, who, in fact, united + The bell seems to have been a sacred utensil of very an to their own persons the regal and sacerdotal office, were accuscient use in Asia. Golden bells formed a part of the ornaments tomed to have the fringes of their robes adorned with pomeof the pontifical robe of the Jewish high-priest, with which he granates and golden bells. The Arabian courtesans, like the Ininvested himself upon those grand and peculiar festivals, when dian women, have little golden bells fastened round their legs, he entered into the sanctuary. That robe was very magnifi- neck, and elbows, to the sound of which they dance before the cent; it was ordained to be of sky-blue, and the border of it, at king. The Arabian princesses wear golden rings on their fingers, the bottom, was adorned with the promegranates and gold bells to which little bells are suspended, as well as in the flowing intermixed equally, and at equal distances. The use and in- tresses of their hair, that their superior rank may be known, tent of these bells is evident from these words : And it shall be and they themselves, in passing, receive the homage due to upon Aaron to minister, and his sound shall be heard when he | their exalted station.” Calmet's Dictionary, article Bell. B.

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and appeared like a short coat; but in the void || the seam, and hung down: there were likewise place of this garment was inserted a piece of the golden loops, that admitted its fringes at each erbigness of a span, embroidered with gold, and the tremity of the girdle, and included them entirely. other colours of the ephod; it is called essen, or The high-priest's mitre was the same as we dethe breast-plate, which in the Greek language scribed before, and was wrought like that of all signifies the oracle. This piece exactly filled up the other priests: above which there was another, the void space in the ephod, and was united to it with swaths of blue embroidered, and round it was by golden rings at every corner; and a blue riband a golden crown of three rows, one above another: was made use of to tie them together by those out of which arose a cup of gold, resembling the rings; and, that the intermediate space might not herb which we call saccharus, but those Greeks appear empty, they contrived to fill it up with that are skilful in botany call it hyoscyamus. Now stitches of blue ribands. There were also two lest any one that has seen this herb, but has not sardonyxes upon the ephod, at the shoulders, to been taught its name, and is unacquainted with fasten it in the nature of buttons, having each end its nature; or having known its name, knows not running to the sardonyxes of gold, that they might the herb when he sees it, I shall give a descripbe buttoned by them. On these were engraven tion of it. This herb is often in tallness above the names of the sons of Jacob, in Hebrew char- three spans: its root is like that of a turnip; but acters, six on each of the stones, on either side; it leaves are like the leaves of mint: its branches and the elder sons' names were on the right shoul- send out a calyx, cleaving to the branch: and a der: twelve stones also were upon the breast- coat encompasses it, which it naturally puts off plate, of extraordinary size and beauty; and they when it is changing, in order to produce its fruit. were ornaments not to be purchased by men, be- this calyx is of the bigness of the bone of the little cause of their immense value. These stones how- finger, but in the compass of its aperture is like a ever stood in three rows, by four in a row, being cup. To render this more plain: suppose a sphere set in ouches of gold, and inserted in the breast- be divided into two parts, round at the bottom, plate; so that they might not fall out. The first but having another segment, that grows up to a three stones were, a sardonyx, a topaz, and an circumference from that bottom: suppose it to beemerald ; the second row contained a carbuncle, a come narrower by degrees; and that the cavity jasper, and a sapphire; the first of the third row of that part grow decently smaller, and then gradwas a ligure, then an amethyst, and the third an ually grow wider again at the brim; such as we agate, being the ninth of the whole number; the see in the navel of a pomegranate, with its notches. first of the fourth row was a chrysolite, the next And indeed such a coat grows over this plant, as was an onyx, and then a beryl, which was the last renders it an hemisphere, and that, as one may say, of all. Now the names of all those sons of Jacob | turned accurately in a lathe, and having its notches were engraven in these stones, whom we esteem extant above it; which, as I said, grow like a the heads of our tribes; each stone having the pomegranate, only that they are sharp, and end in honour of a name, in the order according to which nothing but prickles. Now the fruit is preserved they were born; and whereas the rings were too by this coat of the calyx, which fruit is like the weak for themselves, to bear the weight of the seed of the herb sideritis; it sends out a flower, stones, they made two other rings of a larger size, that may seem to resemble that of poppy. Of this at the edge of that part of the breast-plate, which was a crown made, as far as from the hinder part reached to the neck: and inserted it into the very of the head, to each of the temples: but this ephietexture of the breast-plate, to receive chains finely lis, for so this calyx may be called, did not cover wrought, which connected them with golden bands the forehead; but was covered with a *golden to the tops of the shoulders, whose extremity plate, which had inscribed upon it the name of turned backwards and went into the ring, on the God, in sacred characters: and such were the orprominent back part of the ephod. And this was naments of the high-priest, for the security of the breast-plate, that it might Now here one may wonder at the ill-will which not fall out of its place: there was also a girdle men bear to us, and which they profess to be on sewed to the breast-plate, which was of the afore-account of our despising that Deity which they mentioned colours, intermixed with gold: which, pretend to honour; for if any one do but consider when it had gone once round, was tied again upon the fabric of the tabernacle, and take a view of

* The reader ought to take notice, that the very Mosaic but of Origen; and that its inscription, Holiness to the Lord, esiradov, or golden plate, for the forehead of the Jewish high- was in the Samaritan characters. See Antiq. VIII. 3, and Re. priest, was itself preserved, not only till the days of Josephus, | land, De Spol. Templi, page 132, 133.


the garments of the high-priest, and of those ves- || Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and sels which we make use of in our sacred ministra- the moon; those I mean that were in the nature tion, he will find that our legislator was a divine of buttons on the high-priests’ shoulders. And for man, and that we are unjustly reproached by the twelve stones, whether we understand by them others; for if any one, without prejudice, and with the months, or the like number of the signs of that judgment, look upon these things, he will find they circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall were every one made in imitation and representa- | not be mistaken in their meaning. The mitre, tion of the universe; for when Moses distinguished which was of a blue colour, seems to me to denote the tabernacle into three parts,* and allowed two heaven; for how otherwise could the name of God of them to the priests, as a place accessible and be inscribed upon it? It was also illustrated with common, he denoted the land and the sea, for a crown of gold, because of that splendour with these are accessible to all; but when he set apart which God is pleased. Let this explicationţ sufthe third division for God, it was because heaven fice at present, since the course of my narration is inaccessible to men. When he ordered twelve will, on many occasions, afford an opportunity of loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, enlarging on the virtue of our legislator. as distinguished into so many months. When he made the candlestick of seventy parts, he secretly

CHAP. VIII. intimated the decani,t or seventy divisions of the planets: and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, WHEN what has been described was brought to a of which that is the number; and for the veils, conclusion, gifts not being yet presented, God appearwhich were composed of four things, they declared ed to Moses, and enjoined him to bestow the highthe four elements, for the fine linen was proper to priesthood upon Aaronş his brother ; as upon him signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the that best deserved to obtain that honour, on account earth; the purple signified the sea, because that of his virtue: and when he had gathered the multicolour is dyed by the blood of a shell-fish; the tude together, he gave them an account of Aaron's blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will virtue, and of his good-will to them, and of the dannaturally be an indication of fire. Now the vest- gers he had undergone for their sakes ; upon which, ment of the high-priest being made of linen, signi- when they had given testimony to them in all refied the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being spects, and showed their readiness to receive him, like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise Moses said to them, “O) ye Israelites, this work is of its bells resembling thunder; and the ephod already brought to a conclusion, in a manner most showed that God had made the universe of four acceptable to God, and according to our abilities: elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I sup- and now, since you see that he is received into this pose it related to the splendour by which all things tabernacle, we shall first of all stand in need of one are enlightened. He also appointed the breast- that may officiate for us, and may minister to the plate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to sacrifices, and to the prayers that are to be put up resemble the earth, for that has the very middle for us. And, indeed, had the inquiry after such a place in the world; and the girdle which encom- person been left to me, I should have thought myself passed the high-priest round, signified the ocean, worthy of this honour, both because all men are which goes round about, and includes the universe. naturally fond of themselves, and because I am con

* When Josephus, both here and chap. 6, supposes the taber. | phus had long been when he wrote these Antiquities. In the nacle to have been divided into three parts, he seems to esteem mean time it is not to be doubted but in their education they the bare entrance to be a third division, distinct from the holy, must have both learned more Jewish interpretations, such I mean and the most holy places : and this the rather, because in the || as we meet with in the epistle of Barnabas, in that to the Hetemple afterward there was a distinct third part, which was call- | brews, and elsewhere among the old Jews. Accordingly, when ed the porch. Otherwise Josephus would contradict his own Josephus wrote his books of the Jewish War, for the use of the description of the tabernacle, which gives us a particular ac. Jews, at which time he was comparatively young, and less used count of no more than two parts.

to Gentile books, we find one specimen of such a Jewish inter+ These Decani, or seven times ten parts for the planets, are pretation : for there, VII. 5, he makes the seven branches of the described in Julius Firmicus Maturnus ; to whom the reader is | temple candlesticks, with their seven lamps, an emblem of the referred.

seven days of creation and rest, which are here emblems of the # This explication of the mystical meaning of the Jewish tah seven planets; nor ought ancient Jewish einblems to be excrnacle, and its vessels, with the garments of the high-priest, is plained any otherwise than according to ancient Jewish, and taken out of Philo, and adapted to Gentile philosophical notions. not Gentile, notions. See of the War, I. 33. This may possibly be forgiven in Jews greatly versed in heathen § Exod. xxviii. 1. learning and philosophy, as Philo had ever been, and as Jose

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