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scious to myself that I have taken a great deal of and a sort of sweet spice called calamus; to beat pains for your deliverance: but now God himself has them small, and wet them with a hint of olive oil; determined that Aaron is worthy of this honour, and to mix them together, and boil them, and prepare has chosen him for his priest, as knowing him to be them after the art of the apothecary, and make them the most righteous person among you; so that he is into a very sweet ointment; and afterward to take to put on the vestments which are consecrated to it to anoint and purify the priests themselves, and God; he is to have the care of the altars, and to all the tabernacle, as also the sacrifices. There were make provision for the sacrifices; and he it is that also many and various kinds of sweet spices that must put up prayers for you to God, who will readily belonged to the tabernacle, and such as were very hear them, not only because he is himself solicitous costly, and were brought to the golden altar of infor your nation, but also because he will receive them cense, whose nature I do not now describe, lest it as offered by one that he hath himself chosen to this should be troublesome to my readers. But incense office." The Hebrews* were pleased with what was was to be offered twice a day, both before sun-rising, said, and they gave their approbation to him whom and sun-setting. They were also to keep oil ready God had ordained; for Aaron was the most deserv- purified for their lamps, three of which were to give ing of this honour, on account of his own gift of light all day long upon the sacred candlestick before prophecy, and his brother's virtue. He had at that God, and the rest were to be lighted at the evening. time four sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. When all was finished, Besaleel and Aholiab ap

Now Moses commanded them to make use of all peared to be the most skilful of the workmen ; for the utensils which were more than were necessary they invented finer works than what others had done to the structure of the tabernacle, for covering the before them, and were of great abilities to gain tabernacle itself, the candlestick, and altar of incense, notions of what they were formerly ignorant of: and the other vessels, that they might not be at all and of these Besaleel was judged to be the best. hurt when they journeyed, either by the rain, or by Now the whole time they were about this work was the rising of the dust. And when he had gathered seven months, and after this ended the first year in the multitude together again, he ordained that since their departure out of Egypt. But at the they should offer half a shekel for every man as an beginning of the second year, 7 in the month Xanoblation to God, which shekel is a Hebrew coin, and thicus, as the Macedonians call it, but in the month is equal to four Athenian drachmæ;t whereupon Nisan, as the Hebrews call it, on the new moon, they readily obeyed what Moses had commanded; they consecrated the tabernacle, and all its vessels and the number of offers was six hundred and five which I have already described. thousand, five hundred and fifty. Now this money, God showed himself pleased with the work of the that was brought by the men that were free, was Hebrews, and did not permit their labours to be in given by such as were above twenty years old, but vain ; nor did he disdain to use what they had made; under fifty; and what was collected was spent in but he came and sojourned with them, and pitched the uses of the tabernacle.

his tabernacle in the holy house. And in the followMoses now purified the tabernacle and the priest, ing manner did he come to it: the sky was clear, which purification was performed after the following but there was a mist over the tabernacle only, enmanner: he commanded them to take five hundred compassing it, but not with such a very deep and shekels of choice myrrh, an equal quantity of cas- thick cloud as is seen in the winter season, nor yet in sia, and half the foregoing weight of cinnamon, so thin a one as men might be able to discern any

* It is worthy of observation, that the two principal qualifica have Samaritan inscriptions, coined generally by Simon the tions here required for the constitution of the first high-priest, Maccabee, about 230 years before Josephus published his Anviz. that he should have an excellent character for virtuous and tiquities, which never weighed more than 2s. 4£d. and comgood actions, as also that he should have the approbation of the monly but 2s. 4d. See Reland, De Nummis Samaritanorum, people, are here noted by Josephus, even where the nomination p. 188. belonged to God himself, which are the very same qualifications

$ This hin is a Hebrew measure, and contains two Athenian which the Christian religion requires in the choice of Christian choas, or congiuses. bishops, priests, and deacons, as the Apostolical Constitution informs us, II. 3, VIII. Nor is it unworthy of our notice, that opinion, before sun-rising, and at sun-setting; but, in the days

The incense was here offered, according to Josephus's Philo's peculiar word here cited, apsivon, that the governor was

of Pompey, according to the same Josephus, the sacrifices were to be of a most excellent character, is also the peculiar word of offered in the morning, and at the ninth hour. XIV. 4. the Apostolical Constitutions on this occasion, VIII. 4.

+ This weight and value of the Jewish shekel, in the days of || Hence we may correct the opinion of the modern Rabbins, Josephus, equal to about 2s. 10d. sterling, is by the learned who say that only one of the seven lamps burned in the dayJews owned to be one-fifth larger than their old shekels, which time, when Josephus, an eyewitness, says there were three, determination agrees perfectly with the remaining shekels that 1 An. 1531.

thing through it; but from it there dropped a sweet to offer formerly, and were burnt to death. Now dew, which showed the presence of God to those when the fire rushed upon them, and began to burn that desired and believed it.

them, nobody could quench it; accordingly they died When Moses had bestowed such honorary pres- in this manner: and Moses bid their father and their ents on the workmen as it was fit they should re- brethren to take up their bodies, to carry them out ceive who had wrought so well, he offered sacrifices of the camp, and to bury them magnificently. Now in the open court of the tabernacle, as God com- the multitude lamented them, and were deeply afmanded him; a bull, a ram, and a kid of the goats, fected at this death, which so unexpectedly befell for a sin-offering. Now I shall speak of what we them ; but Moses entreated their brethren and their do in our sacred offices in my discourse about sacri- father not to be troubled for them; to prefer their fices, and therein shall inform men in what cases honour of God before their grief about them; for Moses bid us offer whole burnt-offerings, and in what Aaron had already put on his sacred garments. cases the law permits us to partake of them as food. Moses refused all that honour which he saw the And when Moses had sprinkled Aaron's vestments, multitude ready to bestow upon him, and attendhimself, and his sons, with the blood of the beasts i ed to nothing but the service of God. He went that were slain, and had purified them with spring- no more up to mount Sinai; but he went into water and ointment, they became God's priests. the tabernacle, and brought back answers from After this manner did he consecrate them, and their God to what he prayed for. His habit was also garments, for seven days together. The same he that of a private man; and in all other circumdid to the tabernacle, and the vessels thereto belong- stances he behaved himself like one of the coming, both with oil first incensed, as I said, and with mon people, and was desirous to appear without the blood of bulls, and of rams, slain day by day, distinguishing himself from the multitude, but one, according to its kind. But on the eighth day, would have it known that he did nothing but to he appointed a feast for the people, and commanded take care of them. He also set down in writing them to offer sacrifice according to their ability. the form of their government, and those laws, by Accordingly they contended one with another, and obedience to which they would lead their lives so were ambitious to exceed each other in the sacrifices as to please God, and so as to have no quarrels which they brought, and so fulfilled Moses's injunc- one among another. However, the laws he ortions. But as the sacrifices lay upon the altar, a dained were such as God suggested to him; so I sudden fire was kindled from among them of its own shall now discourse concerning that form of govaccord; and appeared to the sight like fire from aernment and those laws. flash of lightning, and consumed whatsoever was I will now treat of what I before omitted, the upon the altar,

garment of the high-priest: for Moses left no room Hereupon an affliction befell Aaron, considered as for the evil practices of false prophets; but, if some a man and a father; but he supported it with true of that sort should attempt to abuse the divine fortitude, for he had, indeed, a firmness of soul in authority, he left it to God to be present at his such accidents; and he thought this calamity came sacrifices when he pleased, and when he pleased upon him according to God's will; for whereas he to be absent. And he was willing this should be had four sons, as I said before, the two elder of them, known not to the Hebrews only, but to those Nadab and Abihu, did not bring those sacrifices foreigners also who were there. For as to those which Moses bade them bring, but which they used sardonyxes* which the high-priest bare on his

These answers by the oracle of Urim and Thummim, which last good high-priest of the family of the Maccabees. Now it words signify light and perfection, or, as the LXXII. render is worth our observation, that the oracle before us, was that by them, añmwois xai Adadesc, revelation and truth; and denote which God appeared to be present with, and gave directions to nothing farther, that I see, but the shining stones themselves, his people Israel, as their king, all the while they submitted to which were used in this method of illumination, in revealing the him in that capacity, and did not set over them such indepenwill of God, after a perfect and true manner, to his people dent kings as governed according to their own wills and poliIsrael : I say, these answers were not made by the shining of tical maxims, instead of divine directions; accordingly we met the precious stones, after an awkward manner, in the high with this oracle, besides angelic and prophetic admonitions all priest's breast-plate, as the modern Rabbins vainly suppose, and along, from the days of Moses and Joshua to the anointing of as the learned interpret Philo and Josephus, but without any Saul, the first of the succession of kings. Numb. xxvii. 21. sufficient foundation, so far as I see; for certainly the shining Judg. i. 1, xviii. 5, 6, xx. 18, 23, 26, 27, 1 Sam. i. 14, iii. per of the stones might precede or accompany the oracle, without | tot. iv. per tot. Nay, till Saul's rejection of the divine commands itself delivering that oracle; see Antiq. VÍ. 6; but rather by an in the war with Amalek, when he took upon him to act as he audible voice from the mercy-seat, between the cherubim. See thought fit himself, 1 Sam. xiv. 18, 19, 36, 37. Then this Prid. Connect. at the year 534, at large. This oracle had been oracle left Saul entirely, (which indeed he had seldom consultsilent, as Josephus here informs us, 200 years before he wrote ed before; see 1 Sam. xvi. 35, 1 Chron. xviii. 3, Joseph. Antiq. his Antiquities, or ever since the days of John Hyrcanus, the || VII. 4,) and accompanied David, who was anointed to succeed

shoulders, the one of them shined out when God | on a fitter opportunity: but I will now go on with was present at their sacrifices: bright rays dart- my proposed narration. ing out thence, and being seen even by those who The tabernacle being consecrated, and a reguwere most remote; which splendour yet was not lar order settled for the priests, the multitude before natural to the stone. This has appeared judged that God now dwelt among them; and a wonderful thing to such as have not so far in- betook themselves to sacrifices,t and praises to dulged themselves in philosophy, as to despise di- God, as being now delivered from all expectation vine revelation. Yet will I mention what is still of evils; and entertaining a hopeful prospect of more wonderful; for God declared beforehand by better times hereafter. They offered also gifts to those twelve stones which the high-priest bare on God; some as common to the whole nation, and his breast, and which were inserted into his breast- others as peculiar to themselves, and these tribe plate, when they should be victorious in battle; by tribe. For the heads of the tribes combined for so greať a splendour shone forth from them together, two by two, and brought a wagon, and before the army began to march, that all the peo- a yoke of oxen; these amounted to six, and these ple were sensible of God's being present for their carried the tabernacle, when they journeyed; beassistance. Whence it came to pass, that those sides which, every head of a tribe brought a bowl, Greeks who had a veneration for our laws, be- a charger, and a spoon of ten daricks,& full of incause they could not possibly contradict this, call-cense. Now the charger and the bowl were of ed the breast-plate the Oracle. Now this breast- silver, and together they weighed two hundred plate and this sardonyx left off shining two hun- shekels, but the bowl cost no more than seventy dred years* before I composed this book; God shekels: and these were full of fine flour mingled having been displeased at the transgression of his with oil, such as they used on the altar, about the laws. Of which things we shall further discourse sacrifices. They brought also a young bullock, him, and who consulted God by it frequently, and complied with Roman empire, and that in the days of Nero, and before either its directions constantly. See 1 Sam. xxii. 13, 15, xxiii. 9, 10, Galba, Otho, or Vitellus, was thought of to succeed him. Of xxx. 7, 8, 2 Sam. ii. 1, v. 19, 23, xxi. 1, 1 Chron. xiv. 10, 14, the War, III. 8, IV. 10, and this confirmed by Suetonius in

Joseph. Antiq. VI. 12, VII. 4. Saul, indeed, long after his re- Vespas. 5, and Dio. in Xiphiline, page 317. This, I think, jection by God, and when God had given him up to destruc- may be considered as the very last instance of any thing like tion for his disobedience, did once afterwards endeavour to con- the prophetic Urim among the Jewish nation, and just preceded sult God when it was too late ; but God would not then answer the fatal desolation. But how it could possibly come to pass him, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets ; 1 Sam. that such great men as Sir John Marsham and Dr. Spencer xxvii. 6. Nor did any of David's successors, the kings of Judah, should imagine that this oracle of Urim and Thummim, with that we know of, consult God by this oracle till the Babylonish other practices as old, or older than the law of Moses, should captivity, when those kings were at an end, by taking upon have been ordained in imitation of somewhat like them among them, I suppose, too much of despotic power and royalty, and the Egyptians, which we never heard of till the time of Diotoo little owning the God of Israel for the supreme King of dorus Siculus, Elian, and Maimonides, or little earlier than the Israel, though a few of them consulted the prophets sometimes, Christian era at the highest, is almost unaccountable. While and were answered by them. At the return of the two tribes, the main business of the law of Moses was evidently to prewithout the return of the kingly government, the restoration of serve the Israelites from the idolatrous and superstitious prac. this oracle was expected: Neh. vii. 65, 1 Esd. v. 40, 1 Mac.iv. 46, tices of the neighbouring pagan nations, and while it is so unand indeed it may seem to have been restored for some time after deniable that the evidence for the great antiquity of Moses's the Babylonish captivity, at least in the days of that excellent law is incomparably beyond that for the like of greater antihigh-priest, John Hyrcanus, whom Josephus esteemed as a king, quity of such customs in Egypt or other nations, which, indeed, a priest, and a prophet, and who, he says, foretold several things is generally none at all, it is absurd to derive any of Moses's that came to pass accordingly; but about the time of his death, laws from the imitation of those heathen practices. Such hy. he here implies, that this oracle ceased, and not before, the fol- potheses demonstrate to us how far inclination can prevail over lowing high-priests, now putting diadems on their heads, and evidence in even some of the most learned parts of mankind. ruling according to their own will, and by their own authority, See Dr. Bernard's very valuable notes upon this chapter, in oplike the other kings of the pagần countries about them, so that position to Dr. Spencer, as they stand at large in Havercamp's while the God of Israel was allowed to be the supreme King of edition. Israel, and his directions to be their authentic guides, God * About An. 107, two hundred years before A. D. 93, the them such directions as their supreme king and governor, and thirteenth of Domitian, when Josephus published his Antiqui

, of ties. no Yonger ; see Dr. Bernard's notes here ; though I confess I " # of the Jewish sacrifices, the learned reader may consult cannot but esteem the high-priest Jaddus's divine dream, Antiq. the notes in Havercamp's edition, and Dr. Outram's excellent XI. 8, and the high-priest Caiaphas's most remarkable prophecy, treatise De Sacrificiis. John xi. 47–52, as two small remains, or specimens, of this. These old coins called Daricks, are, I think, first mentioned ancient oracle, which properly belonged to the Jewish priests; by Xenophon in his Kúps Jaud, page 339, edit. Hutch. a few nor, perhaps, ought we entirely to forget that eminent prophetic years after the beginning of Cyaxares II. or Darius the Mede, dream of our Josephus himself, (one next to the high-priest

, as (of whose Median name Darius this seems the only original reof the family of the Asmoneans or Maccabees, by his mother's mains in heathen antiquity,) and those by him mentioned as side, and by his father of the first of the twenty-four classes of vastly large, seem to have been a kind of coronation medals of the priests,) as to the succession of Vespasian and Titus to the ll the same king's.


and a ram, with a lamb of a year old, for a whole | the bodies, divide them into parts, salt them, and lay
burnt-offering; as also a goat, for the forgiveness them upon the altar; while the pieces of wood are
of sins. Every one of the heads of the tribes piled one upon another, and the fire is burning,
brought also other sacrifices called peace-offer- They then cleanse the feet of the sacrifices, and the
ings; for every day two bulls, and five rams, with inwards, in an accurate manner; and so they lay
lambs of a year old, and kids of the goats. These them to the rest, to be purified by the fire, while the
heads of tribes were twelve days in sacrificing, priests receive the hides: this is the way of offering
one sacrificing every day. Now Moses went no à burnt-offering.
longer up to mount Sinai; but went into the taber Those who offer thank-offerings do indeed sacri-
nacle, and learned of God what they were to do, fice the same creatures; but such as are unblem-
and what laws should be made: which laws were ished, and above a year old : however, they may
preferable to what have been devised by human take either males or females. They also sprinkle
understanding, and proved to be firmly observed, the altar with their blood; but they `lay upon the
for all time to come; as being believed to be the altar the kidneys, the caul, and all the fat, and the
gift of God: insomuch that the Hebrews did not lobe of the liver; with these they bring also the
transgress any of those laws, either as tempted in rump of the lamb; they give also the breast and
times of peace by luxury, or in times of war by the right shoulder to the priests; so they feast upon
distress of affairs.

the remainder of the flesh for two days; and what

remains they burn. CHAP. IX.

The sacrifices for sins are offered in the same manner, as is the thank-offering: but those who are

unable to purchase complete sacrifices, offer two I will now make mention of a few of our laws, pigeons, or turtle-doves; one of which is made a which belong to purifications, and the like sacred burnt-offering to God, and the other is given as food offices, since I am accidentally come to this matter for the priests. But we shall treat more accurately of sacrifices: these sacrifices are of two sorts, one about the oblation of these creatures, in our disbeing offered for private persons, and the other for course concerning sacrifices: but if a person fall the people in general: and they are done in two into sin by ignorance, he offers an ewe lamb or different ways.

In one case, what is slain is burnt, female kid of the goats of the same age; and the as a whole burnt-offering; whence that name is given priest sprinkles the blood at the altar; not after the to it: but the other is a thank-offering, and as de- former manner, but at the corners of it. They also signed for feasting those that sacrifice. I will speak bring the kidneys, and the rest of the fat, together of the former: Suppose a private man offer a burnt- with the lobe of the liver, to the altar: while the offering, he must slay either a bull, a lamb, or a kid priests bear away the hides, and the flesh, and spend of the goats, and the two latter of the first year; it in the holy place, on the same day; for the law though of bulls he is permitted to sacrifice those of does not permit them to leave of it until the morna greater age: but all burnt-offerings are to be of ing. But if any one sin, and is conscious of it himmales. When they are slain, the priests sprinkle self, but hath nobody that can prove it upon him, he the blood* round about the altar: they then cleanse offers a ram; the flesh of which the priests eat, as



* It is, says Bp. Patrick, no improbable conjecture of Fortu- carcass of the victim was removed, and the priest issued forth natus Scacchus, that from hence the heathens learned their Tau- from the cavity, a spectacle ghastly and horrible, his head and robolia, and Criobolia, which in process of time they disguised vestments being covered with blood, and clotted drops of it with infernal rites and ceremonies. The Taurobolium of the adhering to his venerable beard. As soon as the pontifex apancients was a ceremony in which the high-priest of Cybele peared before the assembled multitude, the air was rent with was consecrated, and might be called a baptism of blood, which congratulatory shouts; so pure and so sanctified, however, was they conceived imparted a spiritual new birth to the liberated he now esteemed, that they dared not approach his person, but spirit. In this dreadful and sanguinary ceremony, according to beheld him at a distance with awe and veneration." Maurice's the poet Prudentius, cited at length by Banier on the ancient Ind. Ant. vol. v.

p. 196. B. sacrifices, the high-priest about to be inaugurated was intro | What Reland observes here, out of Josephus, as compared duced into a dark excavated apartment, adorned with a long with the law of Moses, Levit. vii. 15, (that the eating of the silken robe, and a crown of gold. Above this apartment was a sacrifice the same day it was offered, seems to mean only before floor perforated in a thousand places with holes like a sieve, the morning of the next, although the latter part, i. e. the night, through which the blood of a sacred bull, slaughtered for the be in strictness part of the next day, according to the Jewish purpose, descended in a copious torrent upon the inclosed priest, reckoning,) is greatly to be observed upon other

occasions also. who received the purifying stream on every part of his dress, The Jewish maxim, in such cases, it seems, is this : that the day rejoicing to bathe with the bloody shower his hands, his cheeks, goes before the night, and this appears to me to be the language and even to bedew his lips and his tongue with it. When all both of the Old and New Testaments. See also the note on IV. the blood had run from the throat of the immolated bull, the 4, and Reland's note on IV. 8.

before, in the holy place, on the same day. And if I goat, and to be an expiation of the sins of the whole the rulers offer sacrifices for their sins, they bring multitude; but the other is brought into a place of the same oblations that private men do; except they great cleanness, within the limits of the camp, and so far differ, that they are to bring for sacrifices a is there burnt, with its skin, without any sort of bull, or a kid of the goats, both males.

cleansing. With this goat is burnt a bull not brought Now the law requires, both in private and public by the people, but by the high-priest, at his own sacrifices, that the finest flour be also brought; for charge, which, when it is slain, he brings of the blood a lamb, the measure of one tenth deal; for a ram, into the holy place, together with the blood of the two; and for a bull, three. This they consecrate kid of the goats, and sprinkles the ceiling with his upon the altar, when it is mingled with oil: for oil finger seven times, as also its pavement, and as often is also brought by those that sacrifice; for a bull, towards the most holy place, and about the golden the half of a hin; for a ram, a third part of the same altar. He also at last brings it into the open court, measure; and one quarter of it for a lamb. They and sprinkles it about the great altar. Besides this, bring the same quantity of oil which they do of wine, they set the extremities, and the kidneys, and the fat, and they pour the wine about the altar: but if any with the lobe of the liver, upon the altar, and the one does not offer a complete sacrifice of animals, high-priest presents a ram to God as a burnt-offering. but brings fine flour only for a vow, he throws a On the fifteenthş day of the same month, when handful upon the altar, as its first fruits; while the the season of the year is changing for winter, the priests take the rest for their food; either boiled, or law enjoins us to pitch tabernacles in every one of mingled with oil, but made into cakes of bz .d: but our houses, but so that we preserve ourselves from whatsoever it be, that a priest himself offers, it must the cold of that time of the year; as also that when of necessity be all burnt. Now the law forbids us we should arrive at our own country, we should to sacrifice any animal at the same time with its come to that city which we should have then for our dam; and in other cases, not till the eighth day after metropolis, because of the temple therein to be built: its birth.

and keep a festival for eight days, and offer burntOther sacrifices are also appointed for escaping offerings, and sacrifice thank-offerings ; that we distempers, or for other occasions; in which meat- should then carry in our hands a branch of myrtle, offerings are consumed, together with the animals and willow, and a bough of the palm-tree, with the that are sacrificed; of which it is not lawful to leave addition of the pomecitron; that the burnt-offering any part till the next day, only the priests are to on the first of those days was to be a sacrifice of take their own share.

thirteen bulls, fourteen lambs, and fifteen rams, with

the addition of a kid of the goats, as an expiation CHAP. X.

for sins; that on the following days the same number of lambs, and of rams, with the kids of the

goats; but abating one of the bulls every day, till The law requires, that out of the public expenses they amounted to seven only. On the eighth day a lamb of the first year be killed every day, at the all work was laid aside, and then, as we said before, beginning and ending of the day :* but on the sev- they sacrificed to God a bullock, a ram, seven lambs, enth day, which is called the Sabbath, they kill two, and a kid of the goats, for an expiation of sins: and and sacrifice them in the same manner. On the new this is the accustomed solemnity of the Hebrews moon they both perform the daily sacrifices, and when they pitch their tabernacles. slay two bulls, with seven lambs of the first year, But in the month of Xanthicus, which is by us and a kid of the goats also, for the expiation of sins, called Nisan,|| and is the beginning of our year, that is, if they have sinned through ignorance. on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when

On the seventh month, which the Macedonians the sun is in Aries, (for on this month it was that call Hyperberetæus, they make an addition to those we were delivered from bondage under the Egypalready mentioned, and sacrifice a bull, a ram, seven tians, the law ordained that we should every lambst and a kid of the goats for sins.

year slay that sacrifice, which I before observed The tenth day of the same lunar month they we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which fast till the evening; and this day they sacrifice a was called the Passover; and so do we celebrate bull, two rams, seven lambs, and a kid of the goats this passover in companies, and leave nothing of for sins; and besides these, they bring two kids of what we sacrifice till the day following. The feast the goats, one of which is sent alive out of the of unleavened bread succeeds that of the

passover, limits of the camp into the wilderness, for the scape- and falls on the fifteenth day of the month, and * Exod. xxix. 38. Numb. xxviii. 3.

Levit. xxiii. 27.

§ Numb. xxix. 12. † Numb. xxix. 2.

l Or Abid. Deut. xvi. 1.



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