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The same old cemetery it may be added, contains monuments to Walter Reinhard (better known as General Sámrū; to four of Perron's children Miss Madeleine Pedron, daughter of Colonel Pedron, the Killahdar of Aligarh who capitulated to Lord Lake ; to members of the Indian branch of the Bourbon family ; to Geronimo Verroneo, a Venetian who was believed to have prepared and submitted to Shah Jehan plans and estimates for the Taj (died 16401, and to John Mildenhall, an Englishman, who had had interviews with the Emperor Akbar (1614).*
Hessing's younger son, Thomas, married at Deegah, 30th June 1819. Miss Jane Frances Brown, third daughter of General Thomas Brown, commanding at Dinapore, and died some two or three years later, letters of administration to his estate being granted in 1822 to John Palmer the well-known Calcutta merchant. Hessings' daughter, Madeleine, had married Colonel Robert Sutherland regarding whom a few words, considering his family-relationship to the Hessings and others, may not be uninteresting.
COLONEL ROBERT SUTHERLAND was a Scotchman and originally an officer in the 73rd Regiment from which he was cashiered. Entering in 1790, de Boigne's first brigade, he obtained command of the third and then of the second. On de Boignes retirement in 1795, Sutherland made every effort to succeed him, but Perron managed to secure the Command for himself, and this led to a life-long feud between the two.
In 1796. Sutherland was employed in reducing some revolted districts in Bundelkhand and bringing into obedience several petty rajahs, during which time
. See letter on “ Historical Graves" by Mr. W. N. Hoff-tadt in the Stateswar of the 19th and the Pioneer of the 23rd October 1911.
It would appear
he captured some half-a-dozen forts. that there was a regular family-party in command of Sindhia's brigades, for Perron, the two Hessings, Sutherland, Derridon and even the Filoses* and Bourguien † were all said to have been more or less connected by marriage-ties. Though Sutherland was (as we have seen) nephew by marriage to Perron, having married the General's niece, they detested one another, and the Frenchman tried his best to get rid of the Scot, for it did not suit his policy that his second-in-command should be a British subject. In 1802, Sutherland was transferred to the command of the Second Brigade, which had escorted Perron down from Hindustan. This humiliation and “a remark of Perron's” (whatever that might have been) caused him to throw up his commission in disgust, and he returned to Agra " without leave,” accompanied by a hundred cavalry. Sindhia was so much concerned at his departure, that Perron went personally to pacify his brigade, promising them a new commander of equal rank. Sutherland remained at Agra till the breaking-out of the war with the English and was (as we shall see) one of the officers confined by the mutinous Agra garrison. He was associated with George Hessing in arranging the terms of capitulation, and being released from his confinement
The Filoses were originally a Neapolitan family whose descendants are still in service in the Gwalior State. One of them, Mr. Michael Filso, Chief Secretary to H. H. the Maharaja Scindia, has just been appointed a K. C. I. E. Michael Filose (the elder) commanded a regiment under Madhava Rao Sindhia. His sons were Fidèle and Jean Baptiste both in Sindhia's service in which the latter continued forty-seven years. For accounts of them, see Compton : Military Adventurers.
† Major Louis Bernard Bourguien (or Bourquin) came out to India with Admiral Suffrein. From Pondicherry he went on to Calcutta and enlisted in the E. I. Co.'s. service. He is said to have become a cook in this city and a pyro. technist at the old Calcutta “Vauxhall Gardens." Next he entered Begum Sumroo's service and i hat of Sindhia. He was defeated by George Thomas Georgeghur but made him surrender at Yansi, and captured Rohtak. He had entered into a conspiracy against Perron and when the latter surrendered to the British, he held temporary command of Sindhia's forces until his defeat by Lake at Delhi, 1803.
was the bearer of the letter to General Lake which contained proposals for a cessation of hostilities, on the 13th October, 1803. Two or three days after this, he and all the European officers in the place found protection under the British flag.
On his withdrawal from Sindhia's service Sutherland, under favour of the Governor-General's proclamation, obtained a pension of Rs. 800 a month which he enjoyed for some years. He died at Muttra at the age of thirty-six on the 20th July, 18c4--this date was apparently not known to Compton. A monument to his memory in the form of a sandstone obelisk raised on a high and substantial plinth, may be seen in what is known as “Seth's Garden," near the Sudder Bazar, Muttra. The following is the inscription on it :
“In memory of Robert Sutherland, Colonel in
Maharaja Daulat Rao Sindhia's Service, who departed this life on the 20th July 1804, aged 36 years.
Also in remembrance of his son C. P. Sutherland, (a very promising youth) who died at Hindia, on the
14th of October 1801, aged 3 years. His descendants are still living in England.
THE STORM OF AGRA, One of the fullest and best accounts of the siege of Agra will be found in Colonel Hugh Pearse's Life of Lord Lake. But written as it is by a distinguished soldier, its details may be considered somewhat too technical for the ordinary reader. It is necessary, however, that the particulars of the assault should be summed up here in a few lines and we shall accordingly do so before proceeding to sketch the life of the younger Hessing.
Marching down from Delhi, Lake arrived at Agra (or Akbarabad) on 4th October 1803, and encamped with,
in cannon-shot of the fortress. He had been reinforced by 5,003 Ját cavalry from Bhartpur sent in by the Raja. The garrison consisted of 4,500 fighting men under the command of George Hessing who had with him half-adozen other European adventurers. The men, however, distrusting their white officers, had broken into mutiny and placed them in confinement. Owing to this circumstance Lake could get no reply to his repeated summons to surrender! Over and above this force in the garrison there were occupying the glacis and the city three battalions of the troops that had been defeated at Delhi, and four battalions of Perron's Fifth Brigade under the command of a Major Brownrigg, * which had just arrived from the Deccar and were provided with twenty-six guns. The garrison had refused them admittance because there was within the fort a treasure amounting to some twenty-five lakhs, which it was feared, that if they were admitted, would have to be shared with them. In addition, there were twelve battalions of regular troops who took up a position in the rear of the besieging army, on the road to Delhi.
Before opening the siege, Lake determined first of all to move against the troops outside with the object of dislodging them from the city and the glacis. On Ioth October he detached two battalions of Native Infantry under Brigadier Clarke to attack the city, and
battalions, under Colonel McCullough, Major Haldane and Captain Wolsley, to attack the enemy on the western and southern sides of the fort. The
* Brownrigg was known among the natives as Buránti Saheb, this being merely an unfortunate (or rather intemperate) corruption of his name! He was an Irishman by birth, held in such great esteem by Daulat Rao Sindhia that it is said even Perron became jealous of him. He inflicted one or two defeats on Helkar (1801) and co-operated with Arthur Wellesley against Dhundia Waugh one of Tipu Sultan's followers who, after his master's death, had escaped from Seringapatam. Eventually be entered the East India's Co.'s service and tell at the siege of Sirsa.
enemy maintained a stout resistance lasting for some days, but were at length defeated with a loss of 600 men and all 26 pieces of cannon--the loss on the British side being 218 men killed and wounded. A couple of days later 2,500 of the enemy surrendered on the condition that they should be taken into the British service on the same pay as they drew in Sindhia's service. The following day they marched into the British camp.
Lord Lake next turned his attention to the fort itself and on the 16th April, his batteries opened fire. A breach, made in the south-eastern bastion, was almost practicable when next day the garrison sued for terms of capitulation which after some discussion were granted
The following incident connected with the storming of Agra finds a place in Major Thorn's Memoir of the War in India. It has already been mentioned that Colonel Sutherland was liberated from confinement by the besieged and sent to the British camp with a letter addressed to General Lake containing proposals for the surrender of the fort. To this, the Commander-in-chief returned a reply which was entrusted to a Captain Thomas Salkeld who accompanied Colonel Sutherland back into the citadel. Captain Salkeld on his admission into the fort saw that a great difference of opinion prevailed among the chiefs on the subject of the terms. But from this point we must let Thorn tell the rest of the story in his own words :
Many difficulties were started and whilst he was endeavouring to obviate them, the firing recommenced from the fort, which unexpected occurrence induced him to hasten his return to camp about eight o'clock in the evening. The only communication with the place was by water, and when Captain Salkeld stepped into his boat with a light, the officer who comanded our battery of two twelve-pounders, which was on