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Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XXXVI.

. Part III. Governinent of India. Agricultural Statistics of Bengal for 1910-11. Bengal

Government. Report on the Administration of the Land Records in the United

Provinces of Agra and Oudh for the year ending 30th

September 1911. United Provinces Government. Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India

for January 1912. Mining and Geological Institute of

India. Reports on the Land Revenue Administration of the Punjab

for the Agricultural year ending 30th September 1911.

Punjab Government. Accounts relating to the Irade by Land of British India with

Foreign Countries for the nine months, April to December 1911, compared with the corresponding period of the years

1909 and 1910. Government of India. Note on the Resin Value of Podophyllum and the best season for

collecting it. By Puran Sing, 1. C. S. Government of

India. Annual Statement of the Coasting Trade and Navigation of

British India in the year ending 31st March 1911. Govern

ment of India, List of Inscription on Tombs or Monuments in the Punjab,

N. W. F. Province, Kashmir and Afghanistan, Vol. II.
Part I. Punjab Government.

1 Annual Report on the Working of the Bundelkhund Alienation

of Land Act for the year ending 30th September 1911.

United Provinces Government. Report on the Administration of the Andaman and Nicobar

Islands and the Penal Settlement of Port Blair for

1910-11. Government of India. Final Report of the Third Regular Settlement (1905-1910) of

the Rhotak District. Punjab Government.

Progress Report of Forest Administration in the Punjab for the

year 1910-11. Punjab Government. Report on the Pertabgarh Agricultural Station of the United

Provinces of Agra and Oudh for the year ending 30th June

1911. United Provinces Government. Report on the Administration of Eastern Bengal and Assam for

1910-1. Eastern Bengal and Assam Government. Abstract and Detailed Tables showing Imports according to

Countries of Consignment and Export according to Countries of final destination for the official year ending 31st March.

1911. Government of India. Hindusthan Review for January, February, March and April

1911. Editor. Indian World for January, February, March and April 1911.

Editor. Indian Antiquary for July, March and April 190. Editor. Indian Review for June, July and March 1912. Editor. Hieronymus Rides, by Anna Coleman Ladd, Macmillan and

Co. The Victories of Olivia and other Stories, by Evelyn Sharp.

Macmillan and Co. From Midshipman to Field-Marshal, by Evelyn Wood.

Methuen and Co. The Sign, by Mrs. Romilly Fedden. Macmillan and Co. Under Five Reigns, by Lady Dorothy Neville. Methuen and

Co. Mirage, by E. Temple Thurston. Methuen and Co. The Charm, by Alice Perrin. Methuen and Co. Felix Christie, by Peggy Webbing. Methuen and Co. The Charwoman's Daughter, by James Stephens. Macmillan

and Co. The Halo, by Baroness Von Hutten. Methuen and Co.

Annual Report of the Calcutta Improvement Trust for the

period ending 31st March 1912. Calcutta Improvement

Trust. Annual Report of the Royal Botanic Garden and of the

Gardens in Calcutta and of the Lloyd Botanic Garden,

Darjeeling, for 1911-12. Bengal Government. Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India.

The Honorary Secretary, Editor.
Third and Final Forecast of the Spring Oilseed Crops of the

Districts of the Presidency and Burdwan Divisions and
Darjeeling, 17th May 1912. Department of Agriculture,

Bengal.
Third and Final Forecast of the Wheat Crop of Bengal 1911-12,

14th May 1912. Department of Agriculture, Bengal. Annual Report on the Condition and Management of the Jails

in the United Provinces, for the year ending 31st Decem-
ber 1911. Government Press, Allahabad.

THE
HE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, including Ceylon and Burma. Pab-

lished under the authority of the Secretary of State for India in Council. Medium 8vo., with Text Illustrations and 5 plates. FRESHWATER SPONGES, HYDROIDS and POLYZOA.

London : Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. Calcutta and Simla : Thacker, Spink and Co. Bombay: Thacker and Co., Ld. Berlin : Friedländer and Sohn, Carlstrasse, II.

IOS.

THE

CALCUTTA REVIEW

.

No. 269.-JULY 1912.

Art. 1.-WAR IN TWO ASPECTS.

I.

The ETHICS OF WAR WITH the exception of Religion itself, war is

perhaps the most fascinating subject that can occupy the human mind. The spectacle of organised warfare is, in the first place, a daring challenge to that instinct of self-preservation which is said to be the first law of nature. It is also a challenge to that divine law which says to us in a hundred languages “Thou shalt not kill."

Yet in defiance of the first law we find that in every so-called civilised country there exist enormous numbers of men who are paid rained, armed and kept for years in unproductive idleness in order that, should Government see fit to order them out, they may kill or maim as many of the people they are sent against as possible and of course run more or less risk of being killed or maimed themselves, In defiance of the second law we find that every army has its corps of priests or ministers of religion, who not merely administer spiritual consola. tion to the wounded and dying, but also stimulate their men to fight by blessing regimental colours and by direct appeals to the God of battles. Here are surely two of the most staggering contradictions in that most contradictory and puzzling entity-human nature : How difficult it is for even the greatest minds to think clearly and consistently on this subject is illustrated by Carlyle's masterly description of a modern battlefield in “Sartor Resartus”

":What (says Teufelsdröckh, the hero of Carlyle's immortal phantasy) speaking in quite unofficial language, is the net purport and upshot of war? To my own knowledge, for example, there dwell and toil, in the British village of Dumdrudge, usually some five hundred souls. From these, by certain "natural enemies” of the French, there are successively selected, during the French war, say thirty able-bodied men : Dumdrudge at her own expense, has suckled and nursed them : she has, not without difficulty and sorrow, fed them up to manhood and even trained them to crafts, so that one can weave, another build and the weakest can stand under 30 stone avoirdupois. Nevertheless, amid much weeping and swearing, they are selected ; all dressed in red ; and shipped away, at the public charges, some two thousand miles, or say only to the South of Spain ; and fed there till wanted. And now, to the same spot in the South of Spain, are thirty similar French artizans. from a French Dumdrudge, in like manner wending : till at length, after infinite efforts, the two parties come into actual juxtaposition; and thirty stands fronting thirty, each with a gun in his hand. Straightway the word “Fire" is given ; and they blow the souls out of one another ; and in place of sixty brisk, useful craftsmen the world has sixty dead carcases, which i: must bury and anew shed tears for. Had these men ary quarrel ? Busy as the devil is, not the smallest. They lived far enough apart ; were the entirest strangers ; nay, in so wide a universe, there was, even unconsciously, by commerce,

mutual helpfulness between them. How then ? Simpleton ! Their governors had fallen out, and instead of shooting one another, had the cunning to make these poor blockheads shoot.

It would be difficult to imagine a more scathing exposure of the cruelty and injustice of such a war as

some

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