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creations-a kind of composite photograph. And even then much would be left to our imagination. A wholehearted devotion to the work in hand, a most thorough hatred of sham, a generous and noble nature, one

" Whose carol is an allegory fine

The burden of whose chimes is holy and benign," such was Charles Dickens the man.

He is dead these fifty years or so, yet what a mockery it is to speak of Charles Dickens as dead. Other men of genius there are, some of whom are admired, others respected like living beings after their own day; but few, very few are loved as household gods, such as he. For, among other things, his were words, as a contemporary wrote,

Which rouse up all
The dormant good among us found
Like drops that from a fountain fall
To bless and fertilize the ground."



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OF James I. we are told that he “ wished he could

be chained to a shelf in the Bodleian." Among the many pleasures derived from a well-equipped library, books containing actual delineation of scenes and events set forth in the text are specially interesting to the average reader. Here, both pen and pencil impart instruction as well as amusement, rendering of little account Pope's disparaging couplet in the Dunciad, in regard to illustrated books, where

“...the pictures for the page atone, And Quarles is saved by beauties not his own." We propose to notice a few of the more important illustrated works on India from the point of view of the ordinary reader rather than that of the artist or librarian. The outlook does not, of course, claim to be an exhaustive one.

For instance, we do not include religious and scientific works, such as Moor's Hindu Pantheon, Gould's Birds of Asia, Gray's Indian Zoology, Fayrer's Thanatophidia of India, and Raja Sir Saurindramohan Tagore's Hindu Ragas (to mention a few instances), nor recent works most of which are illustrated from photographs.

BOOKS OF Views. Of books of views, one of the earliest is that of William Hodges. R. A. The son of a blacksmith, Hodges was born in 1744. He became a draughtsman in connection with Captain Cook's second expedition (177-275), after which he was engaged by the Admiralty in superintending the engraving of his drawings. In 1778, he came out to India under the

patronage of Warren Hastings and during the next five years painted a number of scenes in Bengal for Hastings as well as for Augustus Cleveland, Collector and Judge of the districts of Bhagalpur, Monghyr and Rajmehal. After the latter's death in 1784 some twenty of Hodges' views in these districts were sold. On his return to England that same year he took with him a number of his paintings, of which a set was executed in aquatint by himself and printed for the author in 1786 under the title of Select Views in India, drawn on the spot in 1780-83, with descriptive text. It contains forty-eight plates (all drawn and engraved by himself) consisting of views in the Bengal Presidency. This is perhaps the earliest series of aquatints dealing with India and, although none of them actually relate to Calcutta itself, there are several of places in the immediate vicinity, such as the view of Chinsura, then a Dutch settlement. Mr. Martin Hardie thus refers to Hodges' work in his English Coloured Books : “ His sketches are bold and coloured by hand with a freedom that makes them practically original water-colours. The colouring indeed serves to suppress rather than employ and accentuate the aquatint ground.” Humboldt in his Cosmos says that the sight of Hodges' Indian views was one of the inducements which led him to travel. A peculiarity of the pictures is the freshness of the water-colours. Hodges also published, in London, A Comparative View of the Ancient Monuments in India, and an account of his Travels in India during the years 1780-83 with plates from his own drawings. His paintings are still preserved at Daylesford. Hastings was more proud of them than of his “old masters " for, as has already been stated, he had entertained and encouraged the artist when he visited him in Calcutta. Hodges was elected


an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1786 and R. A. in the following year.

He died in 1797, aged 54. Among the Eight Water-Colour Views and Sketches in Indian Ink published by James Connor, an ensign in the 17th Battalion of Sepoys, is one of the “ Hindu Ceremony of Huson Hawson" (?) and another of Calcutta near the Old Fort (1784).

Between 1795 and 1808 were published the six sections of Thomas and William Daniell's great work Oriental Scenery (one hundred and forty-four plates and nine plans)—"the finest illustrated work ever published on India,” including six plates relating to Calcutta. Accompanying these prints was an octavo volume of descriptive text. The following advertisement appeared in the Calcutta Gazette of the 22nd October, 1795:

" Proposals for publishing the following Twenty-four views in Hindostan from the drawing of Mr. Thomas Daniell, to be engraved by himself. On the delivery of the last pair of views, the subscriber will be presented with such a description as may be necessary to the elucidation of each plate.

CONDITIONS. “The size of the plates 25 inches by 19, the price to subscribers for the views, if subscribed for and delivered in England, per pair one guinea and a half, coloured by Mr. Daniell in the manner of the original drawings : to be paid for on delivery The first pair will be ready in the month of March 1795, and every two inonths, until the whole are completed.

“And if subscribed for and delivered in India, the price for the twenty-four views, will be two hundred (sicca) rupees; balf the subscriptions to be paid upon the delivery of the first twelve views, which will certainly be sent out to India by the earliest ships of the season 1796.

“ Those gentlemen who would wish to become subscribers in England, are requested to leave their names with Mr. Daniell,

No. 37, Howland Street, Fitzroy-Square, where the drawings may be seen ; or at Mr. Bowyer's, the Publisher, Historic Gallery, Pall Mall; And in India, those gentlemen who would wish to become subscribers, are requested to leave their names with Messrs. Cockerell, Traill and Co. or Mr. Holmes, at Calcutta ; and Messrs. Porcher, Redhead and Co., at Madras."

The engravings were in aquatint, coloured in imitation of paintings. The work contains views of palaces, cities, mountains, rivers and forest scenery, illustrations of the rock-cut temples of Ellora, other Hindu antiquities of the Deccan and Southern India, as well as the Mahomedan palaces, mosques and tombs in Bengal and the North-Western Provinces.

Thomas Daniell, the son of an inn-keeper at Chertsey, was born in 1749. He first exhibited at the Academy about 1774, and continued to do for ten years before turning to the East and devoting himself for the rest of his life to oriental subjects. A nephew by name William, then a lad of fourteen, accompanied him to India. They sketched many parts of the country which had not before been represented. For some time they both painted Indian views. Five of the six volumes of Oriental Scenery were engraved in mezzotint by William's own hand or under his immediate supervision. While in Calcutta, Thomas published a series of views of this city (1786-88) drawn and engraved by himself. They are perhaps the earliest “street views of Calcutta, and probably represent the artist's earliest efforts in

in aquatint engraving--a process then in its infancy, but which he and his nephew brought to great perfection in aster years. The uncle persevered steadily in his Eastern vein, but the nephew was also successful in English views. Returning to India later on, he, in 1832, painted (with

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