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some assistance) a panorama of the city of Madras and afterwards (by himself) another of Lucknow, with a representation of the method of taming elephants. Thomas Daniell was elected R. A. in 1799 and William in 1822. The former died in 1840 at the great age of 91 years, and the latter in 1837, aged 68. Mention should not be omitted of a third member of this talented family. William Daniell had a younger brother named Samuel, who painted in Africa and Ceylon. From his sketches William published a book called Views of Bhootan. Samuel Daniell died in Ceylon in 1811, aged 36.

A most notable book is Blagdon's History of India, published in 1805 by Edward Orme, of Bond Street, London. For appended to it is a collection of over 68 plates of imperial folio size, coloured from the original drawings of Thomas Daniell, Colonel F. S. Ward and Lieutenant J. Hunter. To quote a descriptive catalogue: “these grandly illustrated works (bound up into one) produced by the combined skill of the engraver and the artist, have rarely been equalled and probably never surpassed in their effective beauty."

There is in the Imperial Library a slim volume of views in Madras by the celebrated artist George Chinnery (1807). This copy is specially interesting as it belonged to the once well-known publisher Edward Orme, and, as the inscription shows, was “sent him by his brother from Madras.”

Gaur, the ancient capital of Bengal, has been pictorially described by Henry Creighton, who, in 1817, published 1 he Ruins of Gaur, described and represented in eighteen coloured views. When still very young Creighton entered, in 1783. the service of Charles Grant, who at that time was holding the post of Commercial

Resident at the East India Company's factory in the Malda district, for providing silk and cotton piece-goods and raw silk, within a few miles of the site of Gaur. Mr. Grant having established a manufactory of indigo at Gaurmatty among the ruins of that famed city, employed Creighton to superintend it, and there the latter remained from 1786 until his premature death in 1807, about the fortieth year of his age

It may be added that the ruins of the ancient capital of Bengal were subsequently photographed by Mr. J. H. Ravenshaw, B.C.S., Magistrate and Collector at Malda. After his death they were published (1878)

lished (1878) in a work entitled Gaur: its ruins and inscriptions, the descriptive letterpress being adapted by his widow from the writings of Francklin and Blochmann.

Between the years 1826 and 18 30 was published, in London, a work in six parts, entitled the Scenery, Costumes and Architecture, chiefly on the Western side of India, by Captain R. M. Grindlay of the East India Company's Bombay Army. The various appointments which he successively held during his eighteen years' service in India

India afforded
afforded him

him special advantages in collecting his materials, and his work illustrates with fidelity a large portion of the country hitherto undescribed. One of the plates represents the shaking minarets of the fine mosque erected at Ahmedabad by Sultan Ahmed early in the 15th century. The minarets are so called, explains Captain Grindlay, on account of an architectural phenomenon, namely, the vibration produced in them by a slight exertion of force at the arch in the upper gallery, which is communicated from one to another, although there is no perceptible agitation of the part connecting the two on the roof of the building. Colonel Monier-Williams found that every


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perfect pair of stone minarets throughout the city of Ahmedabad possessed the same peculiarity Among the most beautiful of Grindlay's views (which space will not permit us to describe) is that of the great excavated temple at Ellora. In one of the well-known “ Noctes Ambrosianae” by Professor John Wilson (published in Blackwood's Magazine, 1827), this work forms the subject of a dialogue-Christopher North observing : “Captain Grindlay's admirable representations bring back thousand dreams to my mind . . . I have been assuredly quoting the Captain, who writes as well as he draws. Pen, pencil, or sword, come alike to the hand of an accomplished British officer.”

Captain Robert Elliott, R.N., made a series of sketches taken on the spot, of views of India and other countries. These were published by Fisher in 1830-3 under the title Views in the East, comprising India, Canton and the Red Sea, with historical and descriptive letterpress by Miss Emma Roberts. The same lady edited Lieutenant G. F White's Views in India, chiefly among the Himalaya mountains, 1836-7. The work, which included representations of the sources of the Jumna and the Ganges, is dedicated to H. M. Queen Adelaide, Consort of William IV.

In 1833 appeared A Series of Twenty-eight Panoramic Views of Calcutta, extending from Chandpal Ghat to the end of Chowringhee Road, together with the Hospital, the two Bridges, and the Fort by William Wood, Junior. The work, which is of imperial folio size, was published by William Wood, London, and dedicated to the then Governor-General, Lord William Bentinck. These lithographs represent the principal buildings of Calcutta which existed at the time. Here we have, for example, the Supreme Court, the old fourstoreyed Club House known as “Gordon's Folly” on the Esplanade and afterwards as the Military Department, the General Post Office (at the corner of Chowringhee and Lindsay Street), Speke (now Sudder) Street, the Sadar Dewani Adalat and the Chowringhee Theatre. The figures of adjutant-birds add to the interest of the pictures.

During a residence of eight years in India Colonel (then Captain) John Luard filled a portfolio with interesting sketches of the country and its inhabitants from Calcutta to the Himalaya mountains. It was published under the title of Views in India, St. Helena, etc. (London, 1835, fol.) drawn by himself on stone. The work is dedicated to the Governor-General, Lord Amherst. Among the most important of the sixty plates are those depicting the siege of Bhurtpore, where Luard had served. He had also been present at Waterloo.

Captain Jump's Views in Calcutta was published by Parbury in 1837. The six plates represent Kidderpore Bridge, Bahleahghat (in which the Canal communicates with Salt-water Lakes), Barabazar, the Martinière, Roopchand Roy Street (in the northern quarter of the city) and Government House, Calcutta. In the lastnamed the dome is surmounted by the statue of Britannia which was struck by lightning in 1838 and removed in consequence.

Captain G. P. Thomas, of the 64th B. N. I., published, in 1846, his Views of Simla with letterpress relating to the inhabitants and productions of the Himalaya mountains. The work is dedicated to the Court of Directors.

The Route of the Overland Mail to India (1850) contains two lithographic views of Madras and Calcutta.


The Indian Mutiny directed attention to India, and a large illustrated work on the country was projected by Day and Son of London. With this object they sent Mr. William Simpson, the artist, well known as "Crimean Simpson,” to make sketches. For three years Simpson remained here visiting both the Eastern and Western cities, sojourning in the Himalayas and even venturing across the borders of the forbidden land of Tibet, where he had access to some of the Buddhist temples. He had accompanied the Governor-General, Lord Canning, in his triumphal progress (1860) over the scenes of the Mutiny. The finishing of his pictures occupied four years after his return. He had completed two hundred and fifty of them and placed these in the hands of Day and Son, when that firm suddenly became bankrupt and all Simpson's work for seven years was reckoned as an asset of the firm, because of the advances they had made to meet his current expenses. Simpson's work appeared in 1867 under the title of India, Ancient and Modern. It consists of a series of 6fty illustrations of the country and people of India and adjacent territories, including architecture, scenery, costumes, etc., beautifully executed in chromolithography, with descriptive letterpress, original and selected, by Sir J. W. Kaye.



In 1830 was published by Edward Orme a volume of twenty coloured plates entitled The European in India. The artist was Sir Charles D'Oyly, one of a family of Anglo-Indian baronets. His father was Sir John Hadley D'Oyly, 6th Baronet, of the Honourable East India Company's Civil Service and a friend of Warren Hastings, who took an interest in the son and secured for him a nomination in the service in 1796. Previously

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