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Melville accompanied by Dr. Nicholson arrived at the bed-side of the dying millionaire. After having attentively examined the case, the Doctor drew from his pocket a small phial from which he let fall a single drop of its contents on the neck of Ramdoolal. The effect was miraculous. A large blister immediately formed and as immediately burst. The man who only a moment before was to all appearance dying, now sat bolt upright. He had regained his voice and had become thoroughly restored to health. The fame of this cure gave Dr. Nicholson a hold upon the esteem and the reverence of the Hindoo community which lasted throughout the long life of that eminent physician.

But though Ramdoolal was thus rescued from the jaws of death, his constitution became completely shattered. In two years he was again carried to the banks of the Ganges to die ; and again his friends rejoiced in his recovery. At last on the Ist April 1825, after having completed his 73rd year, this good and benevolent Hindoo--this child not merely of fortune but of virtue, this father of the poor and friend of the suffering, amidst the lamentations of all classes of men, gave up his soul to heaven. Two sons, Ashootosh Deb and Promothonath Deb, a grandson then quite an infant Grish Chundra Deb, and five daughters, were left to perform Ramdoolal's shradh or funeral obsequies. The Brahmin and the beggar overflowed in Calcutta at this solemn ceremony. To the former, gold and carriages and palanqueens were given away with princely munificence; to the latter upwards of three lacs of rupees were distributed. On no one was less than a rupee bestowed, and if a beggar woman was found to be enciente, a rupee was given to her and another to the child in her womb. Did a beggar bring a bird in his hand, the bird obtained its alms equally with its master. The entire expense of this shradh amounted to nearly five lacs of rupees.

. THE PANIC AT CALCUTTA. (Reprinted from the Hindoo Patriot,May 28th, 1857.)

Never since the day on which Serajoodowlah sent his Pathans into Calcutta to wrest the factory from the East

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India Company and put every white man to the sword or in cords, was Calcutta so beside itself with terror as at the present moment. The English have always been noted for looking danger steadily in the face. But at times an excess of caution assumes a rather ridiculous turn. The state of feeling now exhibited by the notabilities of Chowringhee and their humbler satellites in Cossitollah is very much akin to that which drew the laughter of the world on the Aldermen of London and their militia when Boney was a stalking-horse in the imagination of the British people. Within the last fortnight, the gunsmiths have been deluged with custom, and their fortunes have been as effectually made as if the dreaded loot of Calcutta had been poured into their laps. Indeed guns, pistols, and rifles have turned up to famine prices, and many a portly citizen who never before in all his life was guilty of the least insight into the mechanism of these murderous weapons, may now be daily observed to look as fierce as a hussar, screw up his mouth, twinge his eyes, and pull away at the trigger till he grew red in the face and the smart crack of the cap warranted not to miss fire, nor fly” told the flattering tale of his invincibility. Some have achieved the feat of offering for the militia, others have got themselves sworn in as special constables-a feint with many to throw off the responsibility of defending their wives and their daughters and run off on the smallest alarm to a place where numbers would at least lessen the chances of their being taken off like game. Among the classes that

. have emptied Manton and Rodda of their stock in trade there is one whose known heroism affords a better guarantee of the safety of the Calcutta lieges than Lord Canning's protestations, we refer to the class the members of which swore, when a native was appointed magistrate in Calcutta, that there were six hundred youths amongst them who would go to all manner of hardihood in order to resist the jurisdiction of the new functionary

But ridicule apart, we seriously ask, is Calcutta really in danger ? If two thousand sepoys can loot the metropolis of British India, put every citizen to the sword and burn and pillage without let or hindrance, then the metropolis of British India has no business to encroach upon the map of the country and the Bay of Bengal would perform a grateful service by washing away the doomed city into the Indian Ocean. The native soldiery in Bengal have no alternative but to remain still in their places. It is a position forced upon them by the population of these districts. As the soldiers of Government they are an object of dread to those with whom they are brought into contact. It is not the power of the sepoys in the abstract, however, that is respected--but the

power of the British Government which the sepoys represent. Let the distinction be withdrawn and the vengeance of the state proclaimed against its native soldiery, the life of a sepoy in Bengal will not be worth a second's purchase. The men of the Upper Provinces can never obtain the sympathy of our people. On the contrary, every door will be closed and every available musket in the country will be found against them. Want of supplies, an inveterate pursuit, and determined hostility will annihilate the temerarious men who may attempt to parade through these provinces in defiance of constituted authority. The sepoys are fully aware of this state of things, and if they have the faintest love for existence they will not attempt in Bengal the game which their comrades have been playing at Delhi. We can guarantee peace and protection to this part of the country, and as to Calcutta being sacked, we give it as our firm unwavering opinion that such a contingency is not likely to precede the millenium. Let those, therefore, who have purchased guns and pistols and improvised themselves nto

fighting allies,' in the turning of an eye, dismiss those dreadful instruments before they have shattered either their own hands or their neighbours' heads-events not unlikely to occur with heroes who never till the present emergency witnessed a fire-arm. If they live to see a millenium, they may live to cover themselves with glory as the defenders of Cossitollah.

The editing-which, although obviously a labour of love, must have been no unconsiderable task-has on the whole been carefully done. The rather formidable list of errata may perhaps be disposed of by the reflection that the errors corrected extend over a large number of pages. There still remain a few which appear to have escaped the eagle eye of the youthful editor. For example (in the Contents) the definite article should be omitted in " the Mookerjee's Magazine;" again, in the editorial note on page 104—"the prize was carried by a European, “ off” should follow “carried." The name of Captain Marryat, the sea-novelist, has been incorrectly spelt at page 124.

“ Chamber's Journal ” should be “Chambers's Journal." The book is clearly printed, partly at the “ Valmiki”

, Press and partly at that of the “ Indian Daily News," and, like its predecessor, is (neatly bound in dark green cloth.

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Notwithstanding its price which may strike some as being comparatively high, we trust, in conclusion, these writings of Grish Chunder Ghose will help to preserve his memory as that of a pioneer of the Anglo-Bengali Press, a talented publicist and a good and gifted man,

A HISTORY OF THE MAHRATTAS. By James Grant-Duff, with

copious notes. 3 vols. R. Cambray and Co., Calcutta, 1912. 8vo. Price Rs. 16.

History, it is said, presents the pleasantest features of Poetry and Fiction,--the majesty of the epic, the moving accidents of the drama and the surprises and moral of the romance. There are some histories that will always hold their own against similar works dealing with the particular periods to which they relate. The history of no other country reads so much like a romance as that of India. Grant-Duff's History of the Mahrattas, having stood the test of well-nigh ninety years, stands foremost among works dealing with that particular period of Indian history. References to this warlike race are to be found in the well-known works of Elphinstone, Mill, Orme and Wilks. Books dealing more particularly with them have been written by Blacker, Broughton, Thorn, Tone, Waring, Lord Wellesley and others. But all these writers laboured more or less under difficulties for want of sufficient materials. The main reason of the superiority of GrantDuff's to other histories of the Mahrattas is that the author enjoyed special facilities for writing such a work and availed himself of them to the utmost. Among these people he had lived for many years and had come fully to understand their national characteristics. The sources of information on which his work is based are, as we learn from his Preface, many and varied and were hitherto inaccessible to the public. On the defeat of Peshwa Baji Rao, Captain Duff came into official possession of the state papers at Poona as well as the public and secret correspondence of the Peshwas. The records of the Satara Government subsequently fell under his immediate

charge, and many original papers of importance, unknown even to the Peshwa, were confided to him by the Raja. He had access to the records of Bombay and Surat, while the Viceroy of Goa furnished him with whatever extracts he required from the records of the Portuguese Government. Then, the Court

, of Directors of the East India Company allowed him access to the records at the India Office. He also acquired a mass of information from various valuable manuscripts, Persian and Mahratta, which were either presented to him by private individuals, or which he himself purchased. The value of Duff's History is also proved by the fact that, four years after its publication in 1826, it was translated into Mahratti by Captain (afterwards General Sir David) Capon. As a historian, Duff is graphic and, what is more, truthful and strictly impartial. Hence his work has continued to elicit praise on all sides. Among other authorities, men so widely differing from each other as, for example, Sir Henry Lawrence and Sir Richard Temple, Meredith Townsend and Justice Ranade, agree in speaking of it in the highest terms. The work opens with certain preliminary observations on the geography, religion, learning, early history and institutions of the Mahratta country. The history of the Mahrattas may be said to begin with the irruption of the Mohamedans into the Deccan early in the eleventh century when they crossed the Nerbuda under Ala-ud-din Khilji, traversed Khandesh, besieged the celebrated fort of Deogarh, now Daulatabad, and finally seated their chief upon the throne of Delhi. There sprang up in the Deccan five independent states which were soon reduced to the three kingdoms of Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golconda. The ruler of Ahmednagar, Burahan Nizam Shah by name, conferred upon a Brahmin the office of Peshwa or Prime Minister. This title subsequently came to be assumed by the head of the Mahratta Confederacy. This circumstance to a large extent accounts for the influence acquired by Brahmins in the government of those states. In the middle of the seventeenth century there flourished the celebrated Sivaji, the national hero of the Mahrattas. We are presented with a full account of his valorous exploits. The

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