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his charities were not so extensive as those of his father, he performed many deeds which showed that he possessed great feeling and liberality.

. WILLIAM, eldest son and heir, was his father's successor; and in the sixth of Richard the First, 1194, paying £100 for his relief, had livery of his lands. In the time of King John, he was the most resolute of the barons who took up arms to compel that weak prince to sign Magna Charta, June 9th, 1215. After the death of King John, he espoused the cause of Prince Lewis of France against Henry the Third, and was among those taken prisoners at the decisive battle fought in the streets of Lincoln ; but, through the interposition of Robert de Burgh, his submission was received. He retired to his possessions in the Isle of Axholme, where he died in 1222; and his body was taken for interment to the Abbey of Newburgh. His wife was Agnes, daughter of the Earl of Arundel, by whom he had two sons, Nigel and Roger.

In this history of the lineal descendants of the house of Mowbray, we perceive that, whether engaged at home or abroad, whether advocating the royal cause or supporting the measures of the disaffected, they always took a leading part, and frequently displayed considerable courage and resolution. . But individuals like nations have their periods of tranquillity and peace; and the sons of the last mentioned William seem to have been but little engaged in state affairs.

NIGEL DE MOWBRAY, in the eighth of Henry the Third, paying £500 for his relief, had livery of his lands ; but he died soon after, in 1228, leaving no issue; and was buried at Nantes in Brittanny. His wife was Maud, daughter and heir to Roger de Camvil.

ROGER, his brother, succeeded to his property; and was one of the barons Henry appointed to command the army which he sent into Scotland, to assist the King of that country against the rebels: and when Henry went to Chester, to subdue the Welch, Roger attended him. Roger married Maud, daugh


King, of Swansham, Fulburn, and Cotesey, which were the lands of Allan de Roan. Roger dying without children, these were afterwards inherited by his brother William,

ter to William de Beauchamp, of Bedford, by whom he had issue Roger, Robert, Andrew, John, Edmund, and William; and also three daughters, whose names are not mentioned. Being fond of domestic ease, he retired to his domains in the Isle of Axholme, where, in the 51st Hen. III. A. D. 1226, he breathed his last, and was buried at Pontefract.

ROGER, his eldest son, in the sixth year of Edward the First, on doing his homage, had livery of his whole inheritance, and had summons to the Parliaments of the twenty-second, twenty-third, twenty-fourth, and twentyfifth of Edward the First *. He was one of the King's attendants when he went into Flanders; but dying at Ghent, his body was brought over for interment to England, where it was buried in the Abbey of Fountains, A. D. 1299. Roger was married to Rose, sister † to Gilbert Earl of Clare, by whom he had several sons.

JOHN, the eldest, being a minor on the death of his father, was given in ward to William de Breoss, whose daughter Aliva he married.


* Roger de Mowbray was one of the barons summoned by Edward the First to sit on the trial of David, the Welsh Prince, at Shrewsbury, when that brave but unfortunate sovereign was sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, for defending the liberties of his native country and his own hereditary authority. But perhaps we may feel less commiseration for his fate, when we recollect that, on being dispossessed of his inheritance by his brother Llewellyn, he had sought and received the protection of Edward, and assisted all the efforts of that Prince to enslave his country

This is alluded to in the summons : "Et quia vobiscum, qui, ut prædiximus circa expugna. tione dictorum fratrum et suorum complicum, dampna, labores, sumptus una nobis sustenuistis, colloquio habito, intendimus ordinare quid de David fieri debet, memorato (quem susceperamus exulem nutriveramus orphanum ditaveremus de propriis terris nostris, et sub alarum nostrarum clamide foveramus, ipsum inter majores palatii nostri collocantes.

+ Hornby, in his Remarks on Dugdale’s Errors, says, she was not a daughter but great-granddaughter to Rich. de Clare, Earl of Hertford.

§ Jones, in his History of Brecknockshire, Vol. 1. p. 95, observes, that this last William de Breos, or Braose, was a most abandoned and dissipated spendthrift, defrauded his son, John de Mowbray, of the lands of Gower, on whom he had settled them, and cheated his creditors by mortgaging them three times over, and at last sold them to three different persons at the same time, none of whom obtained possession, although all paid him the purchase-money,

fourth year

John was one of the three hundred nobles who received knighthood when Edward Prince of Wales had that honour conferred upon him. In the thirty

of Edward the First, 1305, this John, although not of full age, had livery of his lands, and attended the King on his expedition into Scotland. Edward the Second, on succeeding his father, appointed John to the shrievalty of Yorkshire, and to the government of the city of York. He was afterwards made governor of Malton and Scarbrough castles. These distinguished honours, and certain marks of royal favour, did not, however, secure the loyalty of Mowbray. He joined Thomas Earl of Lancaster, and other great nobles, in an insurrection against the Spencers*, and shared the ill fortune of his confederates, being taken prisoner with the said Earl and many others, at Boroughbridge, and was afterwards hanged at York. All his landed property was confiscated to the Crown, of which Epworth in the Isle of Axholme was a part. Edward also imprisoned Aliva and her son John in the Tower.

The numerous acts of compassion exercised by Edward III, on his accession to the throne, shewed that he possessed in no ordinary degree that brave and generous disposition so well calculated to ensure a prosperous and happy reign. He liberated the wife f and son of Mowbray; and, acknow


* Fabian in his Chronicles gives the following account :

“In this XII yere, the kynge held his great councell at York, where contrary to the mynde of his lords, syr Hugh Spencer the sone was made hyghe chaumberlayne of England; by reason whereof he bare hym so hawtely and so prowde, that no lorde of this land myghte gaynsaye hym anythynge that he thought good, whereof grew the occasion of the barons warre, as after followeth.”

Walsingham says it was occasioned by this Hugh Spencer obtaining a license from the King to hold an estate in capite which the Earl of Hereford had purchased of William de Breos, the fatherin-law of Mowbray. Another historian says that Mowbray, on the death of his father-in-law, immediately took possession of the estates, without the formality of taking livery of the King. Spencer, longing for the barony, prevailed on the King to put the rigour of the feudal law in force, and seize it to the Crown, and to confer it on him.

† Aliva married for her second husband Sir Richard Peshall, knt. and died fifth Edw. III. but before her death she obtained from the King a confirmation of Gowherland to herself and her son John, who in his Charter, styles himself “ Dominus Insula de Haxeholme, et de Honoribus de Gowher et de Brember. See Dug. Mon, Ang. Vol. 1. 776. Cart. 2. Edw. III.

ledging the sense he entertained of the eminent services which the forefathers of John de Mowbray had rendered his royal progenitors, accepted his homage, and gave him livery of all the lands which his father had forfeited by rebellion to the Crown; and, upon the death of his mother, John

gave three hundred pounds fine for all the lands which she had inherited. In the fourteenth of Edward III, 1340, John was made governor of Berwickupon-Tweed. He was in that memorable battle near Durham, against David King of Scotland, who was taken prisoner. John attended the King in his campaigns abroad ; and, from his constancy and attachment to him during a long and active life, proved himself worthy of the royal favour which had been extended towards him. He fell a victim to the pestilence which pre- . vailed at York, in the thirty-fifth of Edward III. His body was taken to Bedford, and buried in the Grey Friars of that city.

He had one son, John, born at Epworth, A. D. 1326, by Joan, his wife, who was the daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster. This John granted the famous deed, of which mention is made in other parts of this History, to his tenants and resiants in the Isle of Axholme, in which he gave them free use of all the waste lands adjoining to the several parishes for their common.

JOHN DE MOWBRAY, like his father before him, stood high in the favour of the King, whom he attended to the wars in France. In the memorable battle of Crescy, Mowbray is mentioned, with Mortimer and others, as attendants of Edward, who conducted in person the last line of the English forces; and when peace was concluded between the sovereigns of France and England, John de Mowbray was one of the English lords who made oath for the just observance of its articles *. In forty-second of Edward III, he went to the Holy Land; and was killed by the Turks near Constantinople, A. ). 1368 t. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Lord Segrave, by whom he had two sons, John and Thomas, the former of which was born at Epworth, A. D. 1365. JOHN DE MOWBRAY succeeded his father, and on the coronation of Richard II, 1377, was created Earl of Nottingham*, with this special clause in the charter of his creation, that all the lands and tenements of which he was then possessed or should become possessed, should be held “sub honore comitatu, and as parcel of his earldom t." These, however, he enjoyed but a short time; for dying in the the sixth year of Richard II, 1382, at London, he was buried in the church of the Friars Carmelites, near Fleet Streetg.


* Froissart, f. 146.

+ Dug. Mon, Ang. Vol. 2. 294.

THOMAS DE MOWBRAY, on the death of his brother John, was created Earl of Nottingham F, and three years afterwards was constituted Earl Marshal of England for life, being, according to Sandford, the first Earl Marshal; for before his time they were only Marshals, though Dugdale calls Thomas of Brotherton, Earl Marshal. He joined the Duke of Gloucester, and the Earls of Arundel and Warwick in accusing the King's ministers of high treason, who, together with Burleigh, Beauchamp, Berners,and Salisbury, were sent into banishment or perished by the hand of the executioner. He af. terwards not only lent his aid to accomplish the destruction of his father-in. law, the Earl of Arundel, but was ** one of those who guarded him to his execution, and is affirmed to have been the person who bound up his eyes, and even cut off his head. He is also stated to have had a principal hand in the execrable murder of the King's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester. The precise manner of the death of this unfortunate noble. man has ever been wrapped in the veil of mystery, and is differently related by different authors. Mowbray was Governor of Calais when the Duke was imprisoned there.

Thomas de Mowbray was one of the ambassadors sent into France to demand the Princess Isabella, eldest daughter of Charles the Sixth, and


* Cart. 1. Rich. II. m. 30.

+ Selden.

§ Stow's Survey, p. 438. | Thomas was grandson of Thomas of Brotherton, through his daughter Margaret, who married Lord Segrave. His daughter Elizabeth married John as before stated. Thus Thomas had a claim to the honors of Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal.

** The Archbishop of York, the Duke of Ireland, the Earl of Suffolk, Robert Tresillian, Nicholas Brembre. Knyghton's Col. 2693. Brady's Hist. Vol. 2. 368.

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