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ELGIN-ELGIN AND KINCARDINE.

have been imbedded, makes them more readily notorious Wolf of Badenoch (Alexander Stewart, perceptible to the eye, especially if the sunshine Earl of Buchan); in 1402, by Alexander, the son of happens to fall upon them. Cattle dying suddenly the Lord of the Isles ; and in 1452, by the Earl of in the fields were believed to have been struck Huntly—this last calamity originating the proverb, by elf-arrows-a belief which yet lingers in Ireland, Half done, as Elgin was burned. Its once magni. and perhaps in some secluded parts of Scotland. ficent cathedral church, partly of Early English and Thus, when cattle are sick, writes Mr W. R. partly of Middle-pointed architecture, dedicated to Wilde, in his Catalogue of the Antiquities in the the Holy Trinity, was begun by Bishop Andrew Museum of the Royal Irish Academy (Dub. 1857), Moray in 1224, on the transference of the see from

and the cattle doctor, or fairy doctor, is sent for, Spynie; was injured by fire in 1270; was nearly he says the beast has been “elf-shot," or stricken burned down by the Wolf of Badenoch in 1390 ; by fairy or elfin darts ; and he forth with proceeds to was restored under Bishops Bur. Spyny, Innes, and feel the animal all over ; and, by some legerdemain, Leighton (1390—1424); and froza subsequent accicontrives to find in its skin one or more poisonous dent and dilapidation is now a mere ruin. The weapons, which, with some coins, are then placed in other religious buildings of the olden time were the the water which is given it to drink; and so a cure church of St Giles, a picturesque example of our old is said to be effected.' The elf-arrow-head was occa- parish churches, replaced 1826–1828 by the modern sionally set in silver, so as to be worn on the person less interesting structure; the monastery of the as a talisman, or had a hole drilled through it, so Black Friars, long since demolished; the convent of that it might be dipped in water, which, being thus the Gray Friars, the walls of whose church remain; endowed with healing virtue, was used sometimes as the hospital of the Maison Dieu, on the site of which a wash, more commonly as a draught. As a talisman, is Anderson's Institution; the Leper House, still the elf-arrow-head was believed to be most efficacious commemorated by the grounds called the Leper as a preservative from poison and witchcraft. The Lands; and the chapel of St Mary of the Castle, ascription of the flint arrow-head to the elves or which gave name to the Lady Hill and Lady Weil fairies, is but one of several instances of the disposi- on the west of the town. The castle itself, styled tion of a people to elevate or degrade the earlier of old the Manor of Elgin, whose ruins, surmounted races whom they vanquished or dispossessed into by an obelisk-erected to the memory of George, mythical beings, better or worse than mankind. fifth and last Duke of Gordon-crown the Lady Thus, in Greece and Italy, the remains of the rude Hill, was a residence of the Earls of Moray, for strongholds built by the Pelasgi came to be regarded some time superiors of the burgh under our as works of the fabled Cyclops, or one-eyed giants. Scottish kings. So also, in Scotland, the sepulchral mounds of the ELGIN AND KINCA'RDINE, EARL OF, aboriginal inhabitants were called "elf-hillocks;' and Governor-general of India. James Bruce, eighth the vestiges of ancient ploughshares which may be Earl of E., was born in Park Lane, London, in 1811. traced on heaths and hill-tops were called 'elfin- He was educated at his father's seat in Fifeshire, furrows.' Examples of 'elf-arrow-heads' may be and afterwards went to Christ Church, Oxford, seen in most museums of antiquities. They fall to where he was first-class in classics, 1832 ; became be more particularly described in a following page, Fellow of Merton, and graduated M.A. 1835. He under the head of FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS. entered public life in 1841, when, as Lord Bruce,

E'LGIN, a royal burgh, the county town of Elgin he was returned at the general election on the or Morayshire, and a station on the Inverness Conservative interest for Southampton. A peti. and Aberdeen Junction Railway, situated on the tion was presented against the return, and the right bank of the river Lossie, about five miles election was declared void. Before, however, a from the sea. Pop. (1861) 7543. E. joins with new writ could issue, Lord Bruce had succeeded Banff, Peterhead, Inverury, Cullen, and Kintore, his father (who enriched the British Museum by in returning a member to parliament. It was prob- the invaluable collection of sculpture known as ably a royal burgh so early as the reign of King the 'Elgin Marbles,' q.v.) as Earl of Elgin. Those David I. (1124_1153), and had its privileges con who remember his early parliamentary and prefirmed by several of his successors. Its trade is colonial career, state that he gave early promise now almost wholly retail

. E. has 12 yearly fairs, of oratorical distinction, and assert that if he and a weekly grain market. It has a parish church, had thrown himself into the politics of the day, which is collegiate, 2 Free Churches, 2 United Pres. he would have taken a high position as a parliabyterian Churches, 1 Baptist Churcb, 1 Original mentary debater. By succeeding to a Scotch peerSecession, 1 Independent, 1 Episcopal, and 1 Roman age, however, he was, in his own words, 'expelled Catholic; with 10 schools. Gray's Hospital for the from the House of Commons without being admitted sick poor, built and endowed from a bequest of | into the House of Peers.' Being offered the gover£20,000 by the late Dr Alexander Gray of Bengal, norship of Jamaica, in March 1842, by the Earl of and opened in 1819, with a small pauper lunatic Derby-then Lord Stanley-he went to Jamaica, asyluin since attached by public subscription; and where he administered the affairs of the island with the Elgin or Anderson's Institution for the support so much ability and success, that in August 1846, of old age and the education of youth, built and the Governor-generalship of Canada was tendered opened 1831–1833, on the foundation of £70,000 to him by Earl Grey, then Secretary of State for the bequeathed by the late Major-general Anderson, Colonies in the administration of Lord J. Russell. H. E.I.C.S.—are the principal of many public and Lord E., still tinding himself in the same position as private charities. E is chietly remarkable for the a Scottish peer, accepted the office, and went to beauty of its situation, lying placidly in a gentle Canada. His administration of the government of curve of the Lossie, for the salubrity of its climate, Canada will ever be a bright spot in our colonial and for its history as the see of the Bishop of history, and a model to future governors of English Moray. Its appearance, about fifty years ago, was dependencies. He found Canada governed by that of a little cathedral city with an antique cliques, and torn by intestine feuds. With admir. fashion of building, and with a certain solemn able tact and entire success, he inaugurated a drowsy air about the town and its inhabitants.' system of self-government, which has rendered That appearance is fast giving way to that of a gay the provinces of British America a support to the modern county town, surrounded by elegant villas. British throne, in place of being a source of week

ELGIN AND KINCARDINE-ELGIN MARBLES.

He was

strides in importance and prosperity, that between of several of the statues that were placed in the 1847 (in the beginning of which year he entered east and west tympana or pediments, the most upon his government) and 1855, when he returned important of which are the Theseus or Hercules to England, the revenue of that great British possession quadrupled itself. During his administration, he successfully negotiated a treaty for reci. procity of trade between British America and the United States, which admitted the whole produce of British North America to be brought into competition with the products of the United States in their own markets. This treaty likewise put an end to the risk of collision on the subject of the fisheries between this country and America, which Lord E. has described as the most serious risk which had presented itself during the whole time he had been a public servant. His popularity was great, not only in Canada but the adjacent states, the citizens of which offered him ovations. now a peer of the United Kingdom (having been summoned to the House of Lords in 1849), and was appointed lord-lieutenant of Fifeshire. In 1857, the affair of the lorcha Arrow, and the bombard

Theseus. ment of Canton by Sir John_Bowring, led Lord Palmerston to invite Lord E. to go to China Tissus or river-god, upper portions of the torsos of as Plenipotentiary Extraordinary. An army, was Neptune and Minerva, Iris, torso of Cecrops, Ceres, equipped to carry out the policy prescribed by the and Proserpine, the Fates, heads of the horses of British government, and he started on his mission, Hyperion, and one of the horses of Night. Of all But before he could approach his destination, and these, the Thesens, and the head of the horse of when he had barely left England a month, the Night, are the most perfect, the former wanting only Indian mutiny broke out. Lord E. did not hesitate the hands and feet and part of the nose, while even a moment in preferring the safety of India to the the surface of the latter is very little injured. But success of his Chinese negotiations. He despatched however mutilated, the greatness in style of these the Chinese expedition to Lord Canning's assistance, and the English in India were thus enabled to hold magnificent works

is clearly manifest, and from the

merest fragment valuable instruction in art may their ground until further reinforcements arrived. be obtained. 2. Fifteen metopes, executed in high After thus consigning himself to an inaction of relief, representing the battle of the Centaurs and several months, Lord E. proceeded to China, and in Lapithæ. A metope is the interval between the 1858, in conjunction with Baron Gros, the French triglyphs on a Doric frieze-in the Parthenon, there plenipotentiary, he negotiated the treaty of Tien.

were ninety-two, fourteen on each front, and thirtyEsin, which promised to give Great Britain a freer two on each flank of the temple—and on every access to China than she had ever enjoyed before. He found time, before his return, to negotiate a treaty with Japan, under which English manufactures are admitted at low rates of duty, and a British minister is permitted to reside at Jeddo. On his return home, he was appointed Postmaster-general. He had scarcely time to become acquainted with his duties, before the treachery of the Chinese, in firing upon the British squadron from the Taku forts, led to the organisation of another Chinese expedition, and to Lord E.'s second mission to China. A combined English and French_force penetrated to the capital, and enabled Lord E. and Baron Gros to dictate a peace under the walls of Pekin. On the expiration of Viscount Canning's term of service, the governor-generalship of India was offered by Lord Palmerston to Lord E. (1861), and accepted by him. Lord E. (who is the representative in the male line of the great Scottish House of Bruce) has been twice married: in 1841, to the daughter of Mr Cumming Bruce, M.P. (she

Metope : died 1843); and in 1846, to the daughter of the

From the Parthenon, first Earl of Durham, by whom he has a son, Victor Alexander Lord Bruce, born at Montreal 1849, and metope, a Centaur engaged in conflict with one of other issue. Lord E. is K.T. (1847), privy councillor the Lapithe is represented in a style of the (1857), G.C.B. (civil, extra) 1858.

highest excellence in point of spirit and truthfulness. ELGIN MARBLES, a celebrated collection of 3. A large portion of the frieze of the outer walls ancient sculptures, brought from Greece by Thomas, of the cella This remarkable work represents the seventh Earl of Elgin, and acquired from him by solemn procession to the Temple of Minerva during the nation for the British Museum in 1816, at the the Panathenaic festival, and has never been sum of £35,000.

equalled for elegance of composition and the variety These sculptures adorned certain buildings on the and gracefulness of the figures. It is executed in Acropolis of Athens ; the chief portions, which are low relief, in order to adapt it to the light, for from the Parthenon or Temple of Minerva, were placed within the colonnade, it received its light designed by Phidias, and executed by him, or under between the columns, and by reflection, from the his superintendence. They consist of–1. Portions pavement below. This exquisite frieze occupied, ELGINSHIRE-ELIJAH

[graphic]

slab after slab, a space of 524 feet in length. The the robber of these marbles was not a Frenchman, remains of it in the British Museum on slabs and and their resting place the Museum of Paris.'

Visconti on the Sculptures in the Collection of the Earl of Elgin (John Murray, London, 1816), Library of Entertaining KnowledgeBritish Muscum Lon. don, Charles Knight).

E'LGINSHIRE, MO'RAYSHIRE, or MURRAYSHIRE, a maritime county in tłe north east of Scotland, on the Moray Firth. It contains 531 square miles, and is 30 miles long and 20 miles broad, while above a third part is cut off on the south by a detached part of Inverness-shire. In the south are the high and rugged Monadhliadh Moun. tains of Inverness-shire, dividing the basins of the Spey and Findhorn, and forking in the north to include the basin of the Lossie. The Lossie, 25 miles long, is the only stream entirely included in the county, but the rapid Spey and Findhorn, the latter noted for its fine scenery, skirt its east and west sides respectively. In the south, gneiss predominates with a little granite; and in the north,

sandstone with fish and reptilian remains, and small Portion of Panathenaic Frieze.

patches of colitic and wealden strata. West of

the Findhorn mouth are the sand dunes of Culbin, fragments of marble are to the extent of upwards three square miles in extent, some of them rising of 249 feet, besides 76 feet in plaster casts.

118 feet. Great masses of peat and trunks of Although the Elgin Marbles are now acknow- trees are often cast ashore near the mouth of the ledged to be the most precious collection existing of Findhorn. The climate is mild and dry, and the spiecimens of Greek art in its purest state, yet it county has been called the Devonshire of Scotwas only after very considerable hesitation that land, the mountains of Aberdeenshire and Banff. government consented to purchase them, and then shire protecting it from the cold moist winds of the sum awarded was not only far short of anything the German Ocean. The soil is open, sandy, and like a fair value, if indeed a value could be put on gravelly, and very fertile in the north, with some such treasures, but Lord Elgin was left largely out deep loams and clays. In 1857, a fourth of the of pocket after all his exertions. Again, from petty county was in crop, the chief crops being oats, jealousy, some of the connoisseurs of the day, who wheat, and turnips. E. was anciently reckoned the had earned a sort of reputation from their collec- granary of Scotland. Pop. (1861) 42,692, (1851) tions--of whom Mr Payne Knight may stand for the 38,959, chiefly agriculturists. The chief exports are type—made strong efforts to underrate these great grain, cattle, salmon, and timber. There are some works; while others, like Lord Byron, from feelings manufactures of woollens and malt liquors. apparently generous, but quite mistaken, because unites with Nairnshire in sending one member to not based on fact, heaped obloquy on Lord Elgin, parliament. It contains 20 parishes, and portions and opposed their acquisition. But it has been of others. In 1851, there were 64 places of Worship clearly proved that Lord Elgin, so far from destroy- (25 of Established, and 20 of Free Church); 96 ing, has saved these master-pieces from destruction. day-schools, with 5726 scholars. The parish schools It was not to be expected but that foreigners would enjoy the Dick Bequest. The chief towns are Elgin grudge this country such an acquisition, but cer, and Forres. The ancient province of Moray included tainly it is remarkable that such opinions should the counties of Elgin and Nairn, and parts of those have been expressed in this country. The view of Inverness and Banff. Scandinavians early settled adopted by a foreigner, who has devoted much in it. About 1160, Malcolm IV. subdued it. The attention to the subject, M. Viardot, author of chief antiquities are Elgin Cathedral, Spynie Castle, Les Musées d Europe, may be accepted as that Duffus Castle, Pluscarden Abbey, Kinloss Abbey, generally taken abroad; and it is very different and the Norman parish church of Birnie. Burgfrom that at one time so pertinaciously maintained head, on the coast, is supposed by many to have by many in this country. M. Viardot remarks: been a Roman station, but its ramparts and ditches, • It is said that, to justify the appropriation of the now almost destroyed, were probably of more recent Lahore diamond, the English allege that if they origin. It was the last stronghold of the Norsemen have taken it, it was merely to prevent its appro- in this part of Scotland. E. was overrun in the civil priation by others. They may give the same excuse wars of Montrose, 1645, &c. for their appropriation of the marbles of the Parthenon. No doubt, Lord Elgin has carried them off ;

ELI'AS, St, a lofty mountain which occupies a and the Greeks of the present day, seeing the old conspicuous position on the north-west coast of temple of their Acropolis despoiled of all its orna. America, in lat. 60° 18' N., and in long. 140° 30 W. inents, have a good right to curse the spoiler. But It rises about 17,860 feet, or almost 3, miles above when we think of the devastation these works have the sea, being visible to mariners at a distance of so often experienced, to the total destruction of the 50 leagues. Physically, it marks pretty nearly the principal statues, and the shameful mutilation of point where the shore, after trending in a north. the others, and the risk these last ran of being divides itself between the territories of Russia and

west direction, turns due west, and politically it entirely destroyed in their turn—when we consider

Great Britain. that these precious relics of art are conserved in a place of surety, and placed in the centre of artistic ELI'JAH (in the Greek form, occurring in the Europe, one loses the desire, and almost the right to New Testament, Elias), the greatest of the prophets charge the English with piracy and robbery. For of Israel, was born at Tishbe, in Gilead, on the my part, if, in the course of my long devotion to borders of the desert. He comes upon the scene in the marbles of Phidias, a regret has come to trouble the time of Ahab, about 920 B. C. When that the ardent pleasure of my admiration, it was, that monarch, to please his Phænician wife Jezebel, had

ELIMINATION-ELISHA.

introduced, on an extensive scale, the worship originally divided into three districts-Cæle or of Baal, E. ronounced a curse on the land. The Hollow Elis, Pisatis, and Triphylia. Of these, the prophet had to flee He took refuge by the brook tirst-named was by far the largest and most valuable, Cherith, probably one of the torrents that cleave comprising as it did the broad and fertile plains the high table-land of his native region. Here he watered by the Peneus and the Ladon, and produce Wius miraculously fed by ravens. He then went to ing excellent crops of corn, cotton, and flax; while Zarephi-th, a town lying between Tyre and Sidon. the pastures by the river-banks reared cattle and Here he lodged with a widow woman, prolonged horses of proverbial excellence. This district, from her oil and meal, and brought back her son to its fertility, was called 'the milk-cow of the Morea. health from the brink of the grave. Subsequently, Pisatis is drained by the Alpheus, and is separated he made a temporary reconciliation with Ahab, from Cole Elis by Mount Pholoë, a spur of Erymanand on Mount Carmel executed dreadful venge- thus. The low grounds of this division possess great ance on the prophets of Baal, slaying 400 with natural fertility. Most of the surface of Triphylia his own hand. Such a deed enraged Jezebel to is hilly, being occupied with offshoots from the great the utmost. She swore to destroy the prophet, Arcadian ranges. It is separated from Pisatis by who once more took refuge in flight. He rested the Alpheus, on whose banks were the grove and not till he reached Beersheba in the far south, temple of Olympic Jove, and the plain in which the on the edge of the desert that leads down to great Olympic games were celebrated. Though E. Sinai. The brief allusion in Scripture to his had few facilities for preventing invasion, it yet weary wanderings is very touching. At last he suffered less from war than any other of the Greek comes to Horeb, where he has an interview with states—an advantage chiefly due to the sacred Jehovah. The passage in which this is recorded character of the country, as the seat of the greatest is one of the grandest and most significant in the of the national festivals. Their prerogative of hold. whole of the Old Testament. He then receives ing the Olympic games gave the Eleans a prestige certain instructions from Jehovah, among others which they continued to enjoy in greater or less that he should select Elisha to be prophet in his degree till the games themselves were suppressed room. E.'s next appearance is when Ahab rides by the Emperor Theodosius in 394 A. D.-ELIS, now forth to take possession of Naboth's vineyard : he Kaloscopi, the capital of the foregoing country, denounces the murderous monarch, and utters an stood on the Peneus, and was long famous as one awful prophetic curse on him and his wife. After of the most splendid and populous cities of Greece. the death of Ahab, he rebukes the idolatries of It was at one time strongly fortified, and contained his son Ahaziah in a solemn and bloody fashion; many magnificent buildings, conspicuous among and after the death of Abaziah, we find him inter which was the Gymnasium, in which it was necessary fering in the affairs of the king of Judah, who that all athletes intending to take part in the Olym. had married a daughter of Ahab, and had begun pic games should go through a month's training to 'walk in the ways of the kings of Israel.' He before they were allowed to compete. See Leake's Jenounced his evil doings, and predicted his death. Morea, and Curtius's Peloponnesus. The closing scene of his life on earth is exquisitely ELI'SHA, a prophet of Israel, the successor of narrated. A chariot of fire and horses of fire appeared Elijah, who found him at the plough, and consecrated after Elisha and he had crossed the Jordan, and him to the sacred office by throwing his mantle over * Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.' His his shoulders. He exercised his functions for political and religious aims were carried out by his period of 55 years. When Elijah was carried up disciple and successor, Elisha.

into heaven, E. returned to Jericho, where he dwelt ELIMINATION is a process by which, where

for some time. He then proceeded to Bethel, where we have a number of statements concerning several

the perplexing miracle occurred of the destruction

of the 42 children by the two she-bedrs. After quantities, we can obtain a separate statement concerning each. Thus, in Algebra, elimination is the

this period, he seems, besides performing an extraoperation which consists in getting rid of a quan

ordinary number of miracles, to have taken an tity or letter which is common, say, to two equa

active part in the religious politics of his country tions, by forming out of the two a new equation, in

but he exhibited nothing of the fiery and san.

guinary zeal of his master. Mild, tolerant, con. such a way as to make the quantity in question dis appear. If three unknown quantities, for instance,

ciliatory, we hardly ever, if at all, find him rebuking are to be found from three independent equations,

the Baal-worship that was still prevalent in Israel. the first step is to form out of the three given equa- |

Many of the incidents in his history recall the

creations of eastern fancy, such, for example, as tions two new equations, so as to eliminate one of the unknown quantities; from these two equations

those of the horses and chariots of fire round about another of the quantities is eliminated in the same

E. on the hillside, of the smiting of the Syrian

host with blindness, so that the prophet led them way, giving one equation with one unknown quantity, the value of which is then found. In complicated

all unconsciously into Samaria, captive, &c. With equations, elimination becomes difficult, and often

Elijah, it has been said (see Smith's Dictionary of impossible. Elimination is an important process in

the Bible: Art. “Elisha'), the miracles are introother sorts of reasoning besides the mathematical ;

duced as means towards great ends, and are kept ir this larger acceptation, it means the setting aside

in the most complete subordination thereto. But of als extraneous considerations-of everything not

with E., as he is pictured in the Hebrew narra. essential to the result. In astronomical observa

tive, the case is completely reversed; with him, tions, the elimination of errors of observation is

the miracles are everything, the prophet's work

at nothing. The man who was for years the intimate often effected by repeating the observations several nothing: The

of companion of Elijah, on whom Elijah's mantle times in such a way as to cause the errors to be of

descended, and who was gifted with a double poropposite kinds, then adding the observed values, and

notion of his spirit, appears in the Old Testament taking their averag.— The word to eliminate,' is often erroneously usd in the sense of to elicit,' or

chiefly as a worker of prodigies, a predicter of

future events, a revealer of secrets, and things bring to light.

happening out of sight or at a distance.' The ELIS, one of the ancient divisions of the Pelopon- difficulties that thus beset the litera] acceptance of nesus, bounded N. and N.-E. by Achaia, E. and S. the narrative of E.'s miracles have beer felt by by Arcadia, and W by the Ionian Sea. It was most modern commentators, and to (vale these

ELIXIR_ELIZABETH.

no one.

was

difficulties various methods, more or less satisfac- the gravity of advanced years. Edward used to tory, have been employed. For several years, E. speak of her as his “sweet sister Temperance.' was the chief theocratical counsellor of Jehoram. During her sister's reign, this demureness was Onder the reign of Jehu and his successors, he exaggerated into prudery, and the vanity which, in gradually withdrew from public affairs, and died in after years, with ampler means at its command, Samaria in the reign of Jehoash, grandson of Jehu displayed itself in the utmost profusion of personal (about 840 B. C.). It has been customary to draw decoration, then sought for distinction by excess a parallel between E. and Christ; and his mild- of plainness. Her Protestantism, and the way in ness and gentleness—always excepting the story of which court was paid to her by the Protestant tne destruction of the children at Bethel, which nobility, caused uneasiness to Mary and her council. has perplexed all humane readers of Scripture- On her sister's command, she conformed to papacy, seem to justify this. E. is canonised in the Greek but the insincerity of the conformity imposed upon Church ; his day is the 14th of June.

Upon the pretext of having been con. ELI'XIR (Lat. elizare, to extract by boiling), a cerned in Wyatt's rebellion, she was sent in 1554 term in pharmacy, which has come down from the to the Tower. She entered it with all the gloomy days of alchemy, and is applied to various prepara- who had been recently within its walls, could

forebodings which the fate of so many royal ladies tions, consisting mostly of solutions of aromatic and bitter vegetable substances in spirits of wine. suggest. In daily fear for her life, many months The term tincture is now more common.

ELIXIR passed. Indeed, the warrant for her execution was OF VITRIOL, or Aromatic Sulphuric Acid, is pre

at one time prepared ; and it is unquestionable that pared from 14 fuid ounces of sulphuric acid (oil the stern bigotry of Mary and her councillors, of vitriol), 10oAuid ounces of rectified spirit, & oz. but for the fear of popular commotion. The people,

Gardiner and Bonner, would have sacrificed E., cinnamon in powder, 1 oz. ginger in powder. The acid is gradually added to the spirit

, and the however, regarded E. with great favour, and many mixture being placed in a closed vessel, is allowed already looked forward to the time when the to digest at a gentle heat for three days ; the death of Mary should free the court from foreign cinnamon and ginger are then added, and 'after influence, and give room for a milder government. being allowed to stand about six days, the whole Thus the life of E. was saved, but for some time is strained through cloth. The elixir of vitriol is longer she was kept a prisoner at Woodstock. useful for quenching thirst, sharpening the appetite, During the remainder of Mary's reign, E., though checking profuse perspiration, and often reducing occasionally at court, resided chiefly at her resi. the action of the pulse. The dose may range she occupied herself with feminine amusements,

dence of Hatfield House, in Hertfordshire, where from 10 to 40 minims, and is administered in a wine-glassful of water, or some mild liquid, as and the study of classical literature, under tho infusion or conserve of roses.-Elixir VITÆ OF

learned Roger Ascham. Mathiolus is composed of alcohol, and upwards of

When Mary died (17th November 1558), E. was

Her accession twenty aromatic and stimulating substances, and twenty-five years of age. was at one time administered to patients suffering welcomed alike by Catholic and Protestant. The from epilepsy.

former were, outwardly at least, the majority in ELIZABETGRAD, a town of South Russia, is who really cared for the peculiar doctrines of the

Mary's reign ; but among them there were few situated in the midst of a delightful plain, on the Roman Church, and there were many who were banks of the Ingul, in lat. 48° 27' N., long. 32° 15' E., weary of priestly interference, foreign dictation, about 130 miles north from Kherson. It consists of and cruel persecution. Like E. herself, there were a town proper and four suburbs, is well built, its many who had conformed merely to save themselves streets straight, wide, and adorned with avenues of from trouble. They had obeyed the Six Articles trees. E. has a large arsenal within the walls, and in Henry's time; had agreed to the Protestant is protected by six bastions. A considerable trade settlement of Edward ; had turned with Queen is carried on here in the produce of the surround. Mary, and were now ready to turn again with ing districts; and an annual fair is held, which is Queen Elizabeth. The Protestants, of course, who attended by many thousands of dealers; commerce had never believed the sincerity of E.'s conformity, is also carried on with Poland and Moldavia. In welcomed her to the throne. È. then began, amidst the immediate neighbourhood of the town there are dangers and difficulties, a reign which, contrary to upwards of 30 wind-mills. Great numbers of cavalry the expectation of all, was of unexampled length are always present in E., as it is the head-quarters and prosperity. It would be wrong not to attribute of the military colonies east of the river Bug. Pop. to her influence some effect in producing the great in 1855, 13,494

changes which, during the next forty-four years, ELI'ZABETH, Queen of England, was the took place in England; but so far as these changes daughter of Henry VIII. and the unfortunate Anne were not produced in the natural course of the Boleyn, and was born 7th September 1533. While development of the nation's powers, and so far as she was yet in her third year, her mother was they bear the mark of an individual mind, they beheaded. After her mother's execution, she was bear much more the impress of the bold yet cautious sent to the country, where, in comparative poverty judgment and clear intellect of the great minister, and seclusion, under the care of ladies who leaned to Cecil, than of the sovereign's will. It is to the the new learning,' and sometimes, though seldom, highest praise of E. that her first act on succeeding with the companionship of her brother Edward, or was to consult with such a man, and that to the her sister Mary, the greater part of her early youth very last she could bend her capricious temper to was spent. When Catharine Parr became queen, his control. E., who was a favourite with her, was more seen at How the government influence was to be directed, court; but from some unknown cause, she incurred was not long in being shewn. Till parliament should her father's displeasure, and was again sent to the meet, E. issued a proclamation that the English country. Her father died when she was twelve language should be used in the greater part of the years old. During the reign of her brother Edward, church service, and that the Host should not be her life passed quietly and peacefully. She was elevated by the priest during mass. This suifithen remarkable for a great demureness and sobriety ciently indicated into what hands power had passed, of manner, discoursing with her elders with all and was enough to throw the mass of the indifferent

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