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ELIZABETH. to the side of the Protestants, and to cause a Pro- afterwards, they followed the same path. No war testant majority to be returned to E.'s first parlia- was undertaken in her reign for the sake of terri. inent. The acts of this parliament must be ever torial conquest. To strengthen her own throne, E. memorable in our history. It was then that Eng- secretly succoured the Protestants in Scotland, in land took its position as a Protestant power. The France, and in the Low Countries ; but she had few Bank of Common Prayer, retaining, doubtless, some open wars. To be at peace with a government, nay, mixture of medieval thought, but still vivid with apparently to be upon the most amicable of terms wew energy, was appointed to be used in all with it (as E. was with the French court, while she churches; the Thirty-nine Articles were settled as sent assistance to the Huguenots at Rochelle), and the national faith; the queen was declared to be at the same time to aid its rebellious subjects, was head of the church. Thus all allegiance to Rome in those days thought only part of the politio was thrown off. This revolution was soon accom- dissimulation without which, it was believed, no plished, and with little turmoil. The bishops, with nation could be safely ruled. To maintain the one exception, refused to conform ; but as a sign of security of her own throne, and to prevent foreign the times, marking how thoroughly the priesthood interference in English matters, was the main. must have become demoralised before their power spring of E's foreign policy, and she lost no oppor. was lost, it is noteworthy that of the 9000 clergy- tunity of weakening and finding occupation abroad men who held livings in England, there were fewer for any foreign power that induly threatened her than 200 who resigned, rather than obey the new authority. order of things.

The one great blunder of England's policy was The policy of E.'s ministers was one of peace and the treatment of Mary Queen of Scots. Had E. economy. They found the nation at war with pursued a straightforward course, when her rival France and Scotland, and one of their first acts was thrown into her hands, much evil might have was to secure peace upon favourable terms. Ever | been spared. Some of the English ministers were


Fac-simile of Queen Elizabeth's Signature

prepared to take effectual measures to remove a life This led to new evils. The participation of the which might be turned into so dangerous a tool in Catholic party in the plots was retaliated by persethe hands of Catholics. E. shrank from that course, cution. Many suffered under an act passed in but had not the courage and generosity to set 1585, making it treason for a Catholic priest to be Queen Mary at liberty. Had this course been taken, in England, and felony to harbour one. These cruel Mary would have gone to France or Spain, would measures were the ultimate means of bringing upon have made a foreign marriage, and as a foreigner England the most menacing foreign attack which she would have lost the only, sources of her real had suffered. Philip of Spain hau long meditated power—the sympathies of the Scotch and English vengeance against england. The greatest state in Catholics. As it was, E. retained her a prisoner, Europe, enriched by splendid acquisitions in the New and thus for years gave cause to conspiracy_after World, could ill brook that a power of the second conspiracy, among the English Catholics. For a rank should incite rebellion among her subjects in rebellion incited to set Mary free, the richest and the Netherlands, should aid the Protestants in their most popular of the English nobility, Norfolk, was desperate struggle against Alva, and allow its ships executed. The discovery of every new plot led to (little better than pirates, it must be confessed) to demands, on the part of parliament, for the execu- enter the Spanish harbours, and cut out the rich tion of Mary. The plots then took a graver aspect. laden galloons. These were the real reasons : to The assassination of E, and the placing of Mary restore the Catholic faith, and to revenge the death on her throne, became the object. On the dis- of a Catholic queen, furnished ostensible reasons. covery of Babington's conspiracy for this purpose, Years had been spent in preparation. In 1588, the the popular cry was irresistible, and was joined Invincible Armada' sailed from the Tagus, manned in by Cecil and Walsingham, and others of E.'s by, 8000 sailors, and carrying 20,000 soldiers. To ministers, who had sinned too deeply against Mary aid these, a land-army of 100,000 men was to be to run the risk of her succession to the throne. transported from the Netherlands under the Duke With reluctance and hesitation, the sincerity of of Parma. The news roused all England, and every which need not be questioned, E. consented ; and man who could carry arms—Protestant and Catholio Mary, after long years of confinement, was con- from 18 years of age to 60—was enrolled in the demned and executed.

forces. The old queen herself rode at Tilbury,


energetically encouraging the army. A fleet of and produced dignified replies that she would 200 vessels and 15,000 seamen gathered itself on attend to the matter when the time came. Years the southern coasts, and waited the attack. Supe- passed on, and she remained a spinster. Catharine rior skill and courage gained the victory for the of Melici, queen-mother of France, intrigued to English ; and what these had begun, the force of marry her to one of her sons, Henry of Anjou the elements completed. The splendid Armada was (afterwards Henry III.), or the Duke of Alençon, broken and destroyed before it could join the land- afterwards Duke of Anjou. When the foreign army, not a soldier of which ever left foreign envoys pressed the suit of the latter, E. was ground; while not a seaman of the fleet, save those 38 years of age, and her suitor 19 ; but they whom shipwrecks sent, ever set foot on English ingeniously flattered her that she and he looken ground.

of the same age, for she, by her good preservation, E. died on 24th March 1603, having lived nearly looked nine years younger than she was; while 70, and reigned nearly 45 years. If the life of the duke, by his wisdom, gravity, and mature her rival, Mary of Scotland, read somewhat like a inteliect, looked nine years older. This flattery, tragedy, the private life of E. might afford abundant with more plausible attractions, was without effect. materials for comedy. Always parading her wish to E.'s position gave too much scope for the develop live an unmarried life, E. coquetted with suitor ment of the unamiable and ridiculous features of after suitor till long after that period of life when her character. The personal vanity displayed in such proposals verge upon the ridiculous. Of her her extravagant dress, her conversation, her high father's schemes to marry her to the Scotch Earl of and disposed' dancing, excites a smile, not lessened Arran or to Philip the son of Charles V.--afterwards when we read of the irritable mistress boxing the husband of Mary-it is unnecessary to speak, for E. ears of her councillors, cuffing her attendants, had personally little to say in regard to them. But indulging in expressive masculine oaths, and amusing she was scarcely more than a child when her flirta- herself with rough masculine sports. The assertion tions with the handsome Lord Admiral Seymour- that she was of a cruel disposition is false. That the brother of the Protector Somerset-had passed she could do cruel things when her vanity was the bounds of decorum. In Mary's reign, E. was concerned is sufficiently attested by her ordering flattered with the attentions of her kinsman, the Earl the right hand of a barrister, named Stubbes, to of Courtenay, and she declined the hand of Phili- be struck off for writing a remonstrance against bert of Savoy, pressed on her by her sister's council

. her marriage with the Duke of Alençon, which When queen, with some hesitation she refused the she thought unduly reflected on herself; but in offer of Philip II., who was desirous of perpetuating her reign, the reckless waste of human life which his influence over England, and she began that marked the reigns of her predecessors was unknown connection with Leicester, which so seriously com- She was not, however, of fine feelings. Her broth r promised her character. It is certain that she could compliment her on the calm mind and elegant loaded him with honours as soon as she had them sentences with which she replied to the communi. to bestow; allowed him to become a suitor for her cation of the death of her father. On the news of hand within a few days after the sudden death of her sister's death, she burst out with rhapsodical his wife, Amy Robsart, attributed by all England quotations from the Psalms; and when she heard of to his agency; and allowed him to remain a suitor the execution of her lover Seymour, she turned long after his open profligacy had disgusted the away the subject with something like a jest. By nation, and had even opened her own eyes to his her attendants, she was more feared than loved. worthlessness. If we credit the scandal of the The one quality which never failed her, was pertimes, the intimacy was of the most discreditable sonal courage ; and when she chose, her demeanour kind. If we credit those sources of information, was stately and royal. Religion was with her, recently turned to more profit by Mr Froude than as with a great proportion of the nation at that by any of his predecessors, which are found in the time, a matter more of policy and convenience dispatches of the Bishop of Aquila, ambassador of than of feeling or principle. She preferred ProPhilip II. in London, preserved in the archives of testantism, from early associations, because it gave Simancas, not only was the moral character of E. her the headship of the church, freed her from bullied with the darkest crimes, but even the quality foreign interference, and was more acceptable to for which she has ever been most honoured, her her ministers and to the nation. But she had English patriotism, was mere affectation. These conformed in Mary's time to Catholicisın with little dispatches represent her as accessory-at least, after difficulty ; and, had there been necessity for it, she the fact—to the murder of Amy Robsart, and as would rather have reigned a Catholic than not have offering to Spain to become a Catholic, and to restore reigned at all. To the last, she retained in her the Spanish ascendency in England, if Philip would private chapel much of the ritualism of the Roman support her on the throne as the wife of Leicester; Church; and while refusing her Catholic subjects and they represent her as being restrained from the exercise of their religion, she entertained the giving way to the fatal consequences of her wild addresses of Catholic suitors. How thoroughly passion only by Cecil's control. That there is some incapable she was of appreciating a matter of basis of truth in this revelation, it is scarcely religious principle may be gathered from the fact, possible to deny ; but the hatred with which that she looked upon the great Puritan movement, Philip regarded Ě., after her refusal to marry him, destined soon afterwards to play so important a has undoubtedly led the courtly bishop to gross part in the nation's development, as some frivolous exaggerations. It is undeniable, however, that had controversy about the shape of clerical vestments. E. followed her own inclinations, she would have of toleration, then well enough understood by married Leicester. Her ministers, wisely for the Bacon and the more advanced spirits of the age, nation, prevented this, but E. never seriously enter- she had no conception. tained another proposal. Cecil could prevent her What makes the name of E. so famous, was marrying whom he would not, but he could not the splendour of her times. In her long reign, force her to marry whom he would. Among less the true greatness of England began. Freed from distinguished suitors, the Archduke Charles of the possession of those French provinces which Vienna, and Prince Eric of Sweden, pressed their rather harassed than enriched—with little domestic suit in vain. Petitions from parliament to the commotion--with no great foreign wars—with an


the nation turned to the arts of peace. An one of the small beginnings of our vast colonial unequalled literature arose. The age that produced empire. The social condition of the people also Spenser, Shakspeare, and Bacon, could not be greatly improved in her reign. The crowds of other than famous. Under Frobisher and Drake, vagabonds which the monastic institutions had maritime adventure began, and the foundations of fostered, and who had pillaged the country in all our naval force were laid. Commerce, from being ways on the secularisation of the monastic property, a small matter in the hands of a few foreign died out, or were absorbed in industrious employ merchants, developed itself largely: The Exchange ments. The last traces of bondage disappeared of London was opened in E.'s time; and in the Simultaneously with the growth of greater comfort charter which she granted to that Company of and intelligence in the people, parliament began to Merchant Adventurers, which afterwards took the assert, with greater vigour, its constitutional rights. name of the East India Company, may be seen | The right of the Commons to free speech, and to

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nitiate all opev-bills, was steadily asserted ; and parents of her future husband. She early displayed the right of the Crown to grant monopolies, or to what may be called a passion for the severities of issue proclamations having the force of law, vigor- the Christian life, as it was conceived in those days. ously assailed. In the later years of her reign, the She despised pomp, avarice, ambition; cultivated attempts of E. to gain arbitrary power, and her humility, and exhibited the most self-denying bene. caprices, had forfeited the popularity which she volence. Her conduct, even as a girl, astonished so anxiously cultivated. But after her death, her the Thuringian court; but such was the grace and fame revived ; and during the time of the Stuarts, sweetness of her disposition, and the excellence of amid the jealousy of the Scotch, the troubles of her beauty, that Louis-though her affections seemed the civil wars, and the hatred of a Catholic sove to be given wholly to God-still wished to marry reigą, the nation looked back with fond regard to her. They were united when E. was only 14. Louis the long reign of the 'Good Queen Bess,' when himself, far from blaming the devout girl whom he peace had prevailed, and the government had been had made his wife for her long prayers and cease. thoroughly English.

less almsgiving, was himself partially attracted to a ELIZABETH, Sr, daughter of Andreas II., king similar mode of life. A boy and two girls were the of Hungary, was born at Presburg in 1207. At the fruit of their union; but the happiness of E., in so far age of four, she was affianced to the Landgraf of as it depended on anything earthly, was shattered

Thuringia, Louis IV., called the Pious, and brought by the death of her husband in 1227, when al sent to his court to be educated under the eyes of the on the crusade headed by Barbarossa. Her confessor, ELIZABETH PETKOVNA-ELIZABETH STUART.

Conrad of Marburg, a narrow fanatical monk (to councillor. E., however, did not possess the qualities whose miserable teaching E. mainly owed her requisite in a ruler. She wanted energy, knowledge perverted idea of life and duty), had trained her to and love of business, and allowed herself to be stifle the emotions of her nature as sinful, and guided by favourites. In order to strengthen her the poor widow hardly dared to bewail her loss. position, E. took pains to win over her nephew. Great misfortunes soon befell her. She was deprived the young prince Peter, the son of her sister, the of her regency by the brother of her deceased Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp. She summoned hin. husband, and driven out of her dominions on the to Petersburg in the year 1742, and proclaimed him Flea that she wasted the treasures of the state by her successor. E. took part in the Austrian Wa. her charities. The inhabitants of Marburg, whose of Succession, and in spite of the opposition of miseries she had frequently relieved, refused her France, despatched an army of 37,000 men to the an asylum, for fear of the new regent. At last she assistance of Maria Theresa, and thereby hastened found refuge in a church, where her first duty was the conclusion of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in to thank God that he had judged her worthy to 1748. E. shewed herself less placable towards suffer. Subsequently, after other severe privations, Frederick II., against whom she cherished a personal such as being forced to take up her abode in the enunity, excited by some severe expressions he had stable of a hostelry, she was received into the employed respecting her. At the commencement monastery of Kitzingen by the abbess, who was her of the Seven Years' War, she allied herself with aunt. When the warriors who had attended her Austria and France, and marched her troops into husband in the crusade returned from the East, she the Prussian states. Her troops gained the victory gathered them round her, and recounted her suffer in the battles of Grossjägerndorf and Kunersdorf, ings. Steps were taken to restore to the unfor- and took possession of Berlin, but without any tunate princess her sovereign rights. She declined decisive result. E. died before the expiration of the regency, however, and would only accept the the war, 5th January 1762. She founded the revenues which accrued to her as landgravine. The university of Moscow and the Academy of Art at remainder of her days were devoted to incessant St Petersburg. Though no person was put to death devotions, almsgivings, mortifications, &c. There during her reign, the most shocking punishments is something mournfully sublime in her unnatural were inflicted, and thousands were exiled to Siberia self-sacrifice. We shudder even in our sympathy and Kamtchatka. E had several illegitimate when we read of this beautiful tender-hearted crea. children. Profligacy, espionage, and persecution ture washing the head and the feet of the scrofulous reigned in her court, the administration of justice and the leprous. Murillo has a painting (now in was restrained, and the finances neglected; but E. the Museum at Madrid) of this act of evangelical was nevertheless extremely strict in the observance devotion. The solemn tragedy of her brief life of the public ordinances of religion. assumed towards its close a ghastly intensity ELIZABETH STUART, Queen of Bohemia, through the conduct of her confessor, Conrad, who, remarkable not only as a heroine, but as forming under pretence of spiritual chastisement, used to the connecting link between the ancient royal strike and maltreat her with brutal severity. The families of England and Scotland and the present alleged cause of this was Conrad's aversion to her reigning dynasty, was born in the palace of Falk

squandering' her money among the poor. Perhaps land (9. v.) on the 19th of August 1596. On the he thought it should have gone to him. At last her accession of her father, James VI. of Scotland, to health gave way; and on the 19th November 1231, the crown which fell to him by the demise of Queen at the age of 24, E. died, the victim partly of ill. Elizabeth, in 1603, she accompanied the family to usage and partly of a mistaken theory of religious England, where she was educated. On the 14th of life, but as gentle and saintly a soul as figures in the February 1613, E. was married to Frederick, Electorhistory of the middle ages. She was canonised Palatine, whom she soon after accompanied to his four years after her death. See Montalembert's residence, the castle of Heidelberg (q. v.); see also Histoire de Sainte Elisabeth de Hongrie (Paris, 1836). PALATINATE. When the Protestant princes of The Rev. Charles Kingsley's dramatic poem, entitled Germany sought for a fitting person to fill the The Saint's Tragedy (London, 1848), is founded on throne of Bohemia, they made choice of Frederick, the story of E.'s life.

who accepted the perilous honour, partly, perhaps, ELIZABETH PETROʻVNA, Empress of Russia, from the ambition of his wife, who is alleged to have daughter of Peter the Great and Catharine I., was longed for the title of queen. The Palatine removed born in the year 1709. On the death of Peter II. with E. and three children to Prague, which they in 1730, she allowed Anna, Duchess of Courland, entered, October 21, 1619. Frederick and E. occuto ascend the throne, she herself being apparently pied the throne of Bohemia only about a year. By indifferent to anything. but the indulgence of her the forces of the Catholic League, the army of passions. Anna died in 1740, and Ivan, the son of Frederick was routed at the battle of Prague, her niece (also called Anna), an infant of two November 8, 1620, and the royal family fled into months, was declared emperor, and his mother exile, for already the Palatinate was laid waste. regent during his minority. Shortly after this, a With her husband and children, and a few faithful plot was formed to place E upon the throne; the attendants, E. took up her residence at the Hague, two principal agents in it were Lestocq, a surgeon, and ever afterwards the family lived in a state of and the Marquis de la Chetardie, the French dependence. E. was the mother of thirteen chil. ambassador. The officers of the army were soon dren, the eldest of whom was accidentally drowned won over; and on the night of the 5th December in Holland, and three others died young. The next 1741, the regent and her husband were taken into were Charles-Louis and Rupert, and, following in custody, and the child Ivan conveyed to Schlüssel. order, were Elizabeth, Maurice, Edward, Philip, burg. The leading adherents of Anna were con Louisa, Henrietta-Maria, and Sophia. From this demned to death, but pardoned on the scaffold, and numerous offspring, E. derived little comfort in her exiled to Siberia. By eight o'clock in the morning, misfortunes. Charles-Louis was a selfish, calculatthe revolution was completed, and in the afternoon ing person, with low, disreputable habits. Rupert all the troops did homage to the new empress. (q. v.), the 'mad cavalier,' and his brother, Maurice, La Chetardie was handsomely rewarded ; and fought in England during the civil war, and, after Lestocq was created first physician to the empress, the loss of the royalist cause at the battle of President of the College of Medicine, and privy Naseby, they betook themselves to the sea, and for ELIZABETHAN ARCHITECTURE-ELK.

some time were little better than pirates. Edward, mixed style a palace for the Protector Somerset (for in 1645, abjured Protestantism, and was admitted which purpose the cloisters of St Paul's were taken into the Roman Catholic Church. Philip committed down), and the mansion of Longleat for his secre. an assassination at the Hague, fled from justice, tary, Sir John Thynne. The vast dimensions of the became a soldier of fortune in France, and was apartments, the extreme length of the galleries, and slain in the civil wars. Elizabeth accepted the office of superior of the Lutheran abbey of Hervorden, Henrietta-Maria was espoused by Ragotzi, Prince of Transylvania, but died shortly after her marriage. Louisa fled to France, and died as abbess of Maubisson. Previous to these events, E. became a widow by the death of Frederick, February 17, 1629, when his right to the Palatinate devolved on Charles-Louis, who, by the treaty of Westphalia, was restored to the family inheritance, October 24, 1648. This favourable turn of affairs did not mend the fortunes of E., who was scandalously neglected by her son, the young Elector-Palatine; and all he would do for the family was to give a shelter to his youngest sister Sophia, until she was married to Ernest-Augustus, a scion of the House of Brunswick, who ultimately succeeded to the electorate of Hanover.

O Deprived, in one way or other, of all her children, the Queen of Bohemia—by which title she continued to be known-resolved to quit Holland. Relieved of her debts by the sale of jewels, and by aid of a

Holland House. pecuniary subsidy from the British parliament, she embraced an invitation from her nephew, Charles II., enormous square windows, are the leading characto come to England. She arrived May 17, 1661. teristics of this manner of building. The ornaments From this time she was in a great measure indebted both within and without were cumbrous ; nothing to the hospitality of Lord Craven, in a mansion which could exceed the heaviness of the cornices and ceilhe had purchased from Sir Robert Drury, in Drury ings wrought into compartments; in short, the Lane, London. Charles II. paid her little attention; architecture was just in keeping with the dress of but at her death, which occurred February 13, 1662, the period, rich and gorgeous, rather than elegant, he caused her remains to be interred in Westminster graceful, and comfortable. The following examples Abbey. Charles-Louis, her son, died in 1680, leaving of mansions of the 17th c. may be still seen near a son, who died without issue, and the Palatinate London: Holland House, Campden House ; and. then went to a distant branch of the family; he left the following in Kent : Sir T. Willow's at Charlton, also a daughter, Charlotte-Elizabeth, who, in 1671, the Marquis of Salisbury's at Hatfield, and Knowlo, had married Philip, Duke of Orleans, only brother the property of the Duke of Dorset. The most of Louis XIV. In 1674, she gave birth to a prince, eminent architects of those times were John Thorpe, who became the noted Regent of France during the Gerard Christmas, Rodolph Symonds, and Thomas. minority of Louis XV. She died at St Cloud in Holt. 1722. The late Louis-Philippe, king of the French, ELIZABETO'POL, a town of Russian Transwas her lineal descendant. When, in 1708, the caucasia, is situated in lat. 40° 42' N., long. 46° 20' E. question of succession to the crown of Great Britain The town consists of three parts, one of which is was debated, it was found that all the descendants fortified with a bastioned wall. Its principal buildof James I. were either dead or were Roman ings are its churches and mosques, of which there Catholics, except Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and are many. A peculiarity of this town is its numer. her family. By act of parliament, that year, the ous fruit-gardens or vineyards. Horticulture, the CTOwn was accordingly secured to her and her rearing of silk-worms, bees, and cattle, with agriculdescendants, 'being Protestants ;' and in virtue of ture and mining, are the chief occupations of the this act of settlement, on the death of Queen Anne, inhabitants. Pop. (1855) 12,966, principally Tartars Sophia would have ascended the throne, but she and Armenians. predeceased the queen three months, and her son ELK, MOOSE, or MOOSE DEER (Alces became sovereign of these realms as George I., Malchis, or Cervus alces), the largest existing species August 12, 1714. In this extraordinary and unfore- of the Cervidæ, or deer family, is a native of the seen manner did a grandson of the unfortunate northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. When queen of Bohemia become king of England, and full grown, it is about six feet in height at the originate the dynasty of the reigning monarch. The shoulders, and sometimes weighs 1200 pounds. The Memoirs of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, by body is round, compact, and short ; the neck is, Miss Benger, 2 vols., may be perused as an accurate short and thick, unlike that of deer in general, but and pleasing piece of biography.

thus adapted for sustaining the great weight of the ELIZABETHAN ARCHITECTURE, a term head and horns. The head is very large, narrow, applied to the mixed style which sprang up on about two feet long. The horns in males of the the decline of Gothic architecture. By some it second year are unbranched, not flattened, and about is called the Tudor style, but that name belongs a foot long; as the animal becomes older, they more correctly to the Perpendicular, or latest kind begin to display a blade, with more numerous snags, of Gothic. The Elizabethan is chiefly exemplified and in mature elks the blade becomes very broad, by mansions erected for the nobility in the reigns of the snags sometimes fourteen on each horn; a singleElizabeth and James I., and originated in the first antler has been known to weigh about sixty pounds.. attempt to revive classic architecture, influenced, no The horns have no basal snag projecting forwards. doubt, by Holbein, who was patronised by Henry The ears are long, and have been compared to those VIII, and furnished several designs in this manner. of the ass. The eyes are small. The limbs are long, Sobn of Padua succeeded him, and built in the and very graceful. The tail is only about four inches

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