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long. The body is covered with coarse angular shell marl underlying the extensive turbaries. In hair, which breaks when it is bent. On the neck England, lacustrine deposits and brick-clay contain and withers there is a heavy mane, and the throat its remains, and, associated with the mammoth and is covered with long hair. A large goitre-like rhinoceros, they are found also in ossiferous caves. swelling under the throat of the younger elks has a very curious appearance. The hoofs of the E., like those of the reindeer and of the buffalo, are so constructed as to part widely, and to afford a better
The most striking feature in this animal was its Elk (Cervus alces).
enormous antlers. A straight line drawn between
their extreme tips in one specimen measured ten footing on soft marshy ground or on snow: they that of any living species of deer. The beam enlarges
feet ten inches. The form of the antler differs from make a clattering when it runs. In running, it carries its muzzle forward, with the horns thrown the fallow-deer, but in adult specimens, this bifur.
and flattens into a palm ; a brow snag exists as in back upon the neck, so that they may not be caught cates and expands somewhat as in the reindeer by branches. Its shoulders being higher than the croup, its common gait is a shambling trot; but it
--a peculiarity never observed in the fallow-deer can also gallop with great rapidity. The colour of group. The antler is also furnished with a back the elk is brownish black, darker in winter than in snag. Some idea of the enormous size and weight summer; the limbs, the sides of the head, and the of the antlers may be formed from the fact that, in mane are of a lighter colour than the body. Elks a specimen where the head weighed 54 pounds, their are sometimes seen in small herds, but often singly; weight was 81 pounds. To sustain this, the vertebræ they are now very rare in Europe, and are no longer of the neck and the limbs are very much larger and found in parts of North America in which they were stronger than in any other deer. A tine and almost once common. They formerly extended as far south perfect specimen of this animal, from the Isle of as the Ohio. They are sometimes seen even on the Man, exists in the Edinburgh Museum. shores of the Arctic Ocean. They delight in marshy EL-KHA'RGEH, capital of the Great Oasis, districts and in forests. When compelled to eat Upper Egypt, is situated in lat. 25° 28' N., long. 30° grass, they must get down on their knees to reach 40' E. In the vicinity of the town are numerous it: their proper food consists of the branches and ruins, among which are those of a temple; there is foliage of shrubs and trees. They are very timid also a remarkable necropolis. Pop. 6000. and inoffensive, except during the rutting season. ELL (allied to elbow, Ger. ellenbogen, Lat. ulna, A single stroke of an elk's fore-foot is sufficient to the fore-arm or arm in general) is a measure of kill the strongest dog. It is also an extremely wary length now little used. It was originally taken in animal, and is with the greatest difficulty approached some vague way from the arm, and hence has been by the hunter. Its sense of smell is very acute, and used to denote very different lengths. The Latin the slightest sound excites its alarm. It is, how- ulna appears to have denoted sometimes the mea. ever, much sought after in North America. In sure from the elbow to the tips of the fingers, Sweden, its destruction is prohibited ; and in Nor- sometimes that between the outstretched hands. way is placed under legal restrictions. The flesh of The English ell
, as a measure of cloth, is equal to the elk x esteemed a good kind of venison; the fat five quarters of a Yard (q. v.). is remarkably soft; the nose and the tongue are E’LLENBOROUGH, EARL OF. Edward Law, reckoned delicacies. The skin is used for a variety first Earl of E., son of the first baron (many years of purposes.
Chief-justice of the King's Bench), was born 1790; The elk is easily domesticated, and was at one educated at Eton and at St John's College, Cambridge, time employed in Sweden for conveying couriers, where he graduated M.A., 1809; succeeded his being capable of travelling more than 200 miles in a father in the barony in 1818; was Lord Privy Seal day when attached to a sledge.
in the Duke of Wellington's administration, 1828— The elk of Ceylon is a deer of the group to which 1829; President of the Board of Control during the the name Rusa has been given.
short-lived Peel administration of 1834–1835; and ELK, IRISH (Megaceros Hibernicus), a large deer appointed, on the return of Sir Robert Peel in found in the Pleistocene strata. There is a double September 1841, to the same office, which he error in its popular name, for it is a true weer, relinquished a month afterwards for the post of between the fallow and rein deer, and though abund-Governor-general of India. He received the thanks ant in Ireland, it is not peculiar to that country, of parliament in 1843 for his 'ability and judgment' being found also in England, Scotland, and on the in supporting the military operations 1 Aighanistan. continent of Europe. In Ireland, it occurs in the In many other respects, his Indiau dwiinistration
was open to censure. He was charged with reserving state of the coasts and of the metropolis, which his favour for the military, and inflicting undeserved called forth some adverse criticism.
He was a slights upon the civil servants of the Company. He munificent patron of the arts, and made many made showy progresses; addressed proclamations to valuable additions to the collection of pictures the rulers and natives of India which appeared to which he inherited with the large estates of the sanction idolatry; and, finally, in his proclamation last Duke of Bridgewater. He also built a noble concerning the sandal-wood gates of the temple of gallery for their reception, which he liberally threw Juggernaut, when brought back from Ghuznee, he open to the public. After faithfully voting with reached the climax of a series of extravagances, the Conservative party in parliament for a quarter which induced the directors of the East India of a century, he, on the retirement of the l'eel Company to exercise power only used in extreme administration in 1846, obtained a revival in his cases, and to recall him. The ministry, however, favour of the peerages of Ellesmere and Brackley. stood by him, and he was created by the crown an His last public a; pearance was in May 1856, when earl and a viscount; he also received the distinction he moved, in the House of Lords, an address to the of G.C.B. In 1846, Sir R. Peel made him first Lord crown, approving of the treaty of peace after the of the Admiralty, an office which he resigned in war with Russia. He died in 1857 at his new July of the same year, when the disruption of the mansion, Bridgewater House, London, and was Peel administration took place. In the Derby succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, Viscour.d alministration of 1858 he was again Minister for Brackley. India, and the author of an India Bill, which failed to obtain the sanction of parliament. Having Shropshire, near
ELLESMERE, a town in the north-west of
a beautiful lake or mere, 19 quermitted a dispatch to see the light, in which he miles north-north-west of Shrewsbury. Pop. 1861, had administered a severe and caustic rebuke to 2114. It has considerable malting establishments. Viscount Canning, Governor-general of India, an On the present site of a bowling-green once stood
uutcry was raised against him, which threatened an ancient castle, alternately held by the English the existence of the Derby government. To avert and Welsh. this result, Lord E. resigned. He has since taken a frequent and influential part in the debates of the
E'LLIOT, EBENEZER, the CORN-LAW RHYMER, Upper House. He is styled, by no less a judge than was born at Masborough, in Yorkshire, March 7, 1781. M. Guizot, the most brilliant of the Tory orators. His father was a man of strong character and narrow He has been twice married—first to a daughter of opinions, and, as appears from Ebenezer's Autothe Marquis of Londonderry, and second to the biography (published in the Athenæum in 1850), daughter of Admiral Digby. His divorce from exercised no little influence on his son's modes of the latter made some noise at the time. Should he thinking and sympathies. When a boy at school, die without issue, the earldom and viscounty will E. was not a quick pupil; and even after his father become extinct.
had sent him to work in the iron-foundry where
he himself held the situation of a clerk, the youth ELLENRIEDER, MARIE, a female painter of exhibited no fondness for reading. Before long, very high excellence, was born at Constance in 1791, however, he entirely changed, and commenced to studied in Munich, and in 1820 went to Rome, study Milton, Shakspeare, Ossian, Junius, and other to perfect her knowledge of art. Her admiration authors
. His tirst published poem was composed of the old German masters gave a religious bent to in his 17th year: it is entitled The Vernal Walk. her genius. On her return to Germany, she resided This was succeeded by Night, Wharncliffe, &c. In for some time at Carlsruhe, where she painted a 1821, E. began business as an iron-founder on his own • Martyrdom of St Stephen' as an altar-piece for account at Sheffield. He was very successful; and the Roman Catholic Church. She was afterwards in 1841 retired to an estate which he had purchased appointed court-painter at Munich, but has since at Great Houghton, near Barnesley, where he died fixed her residence at Constance, and devoted her. 1st December 1849. E.'s principal productions are self exclusively to her profession. Among her Love, accompanied with a letter to Lord Byron, his principal pieces are the Transfiguration of St famous Corn-law Rhymes, The Ranter, and The Village Barthelemy,' , 'Christ Blessing Little Children,' Patriarch, a work full of noble and earnest poetry,
Mary and the Infant Jesus, Joseph and the all of which appeared between 1823—1830. In 1834, Infant Jesus,' “St Cecilia,' Faith, Hope, and Charity, he issued a collected edition of his works, in 3 vols. ; and a Madonna Marie E. is reckoned in Germany and in 1840, an edition in one volume. E. followed the greatest female artist of the present age. So Crabbe, but with more depth and fire of feeling in full of ideal grace and beauty are the heads of depicting the condition of the poor as miserable and her women and children, in particular, that it has oppressed, tracing most of the evils he deplores to been said that she seems to paint in the presence the social and political institutions of the country. of angels;' her colouring, however, is gray, dull, The laws relating to the importation of corn were and sombre, like that which prevails among the old denounced by E. as specially oppressive, and he masters of the German school.
inveighed against them with a fervour of manner E’LLESMERE, first EARL OP, politician, patron and a harshness of phraseology which ordinary of the arts, and author.
minds feel as repulsive, even while acknowledged as Francis Egerton, second son of the first Duke of Sutherland, was born flowing from the offended benevolence of the poet. 1800; graduated at Christ Church, Oxford, where hides a multitude of faults. More enduring, how
But the glow of earnestness kindles his verse, and he was second-class in classics, 1820; entered the House of Commons, 1820, and represented succes ever, than his rhyming philippics are his descripsiveiv Bietchingly, Sutherland county, and South tions of English, and especially of Yorkshire scenery, Lancashire ; filled the office of Chief-secretary for and his delineations of humble virtue and affection. Treland from January 1828 to July 1830, and Secre. These are instinct with the purest spirit of poetry. nry at War from July to November 1830; in 1833 ELLI'PSE is the name of a figure in Geometry, assumed the name of Lord Francis Egerton, in lieu important from its being the approximate shape of of his patronymic Leveson-Gower. He achieved the planetary orbits. It is a curve of the second considerable literary distinction as a writer of order, and is a conic section, formed by cutting graceful poems, translations from the German, &c. a right cone by a plane passing obliquely through He also published a pamphlet on the defenceless its opposite sides. It may be defined as a curve, ELLIPSIS–ELLORA.
29.4”.57 – &c.), where do
the sum of the distances of every point in which the circumference of an ellipse is got by multiplying from two fixed points within the curve is always
d? the same. These two fixed points are called the the major axis by the quantity = (1.
22 22.45 foci; and the diameter drawn through them is the
1- 462 major axis; the minor axis bisects the major at
&c. right gles. The distance of either focus from the middle of the major axis is the eccentricity. ELLI'PSIS (Gr. omission) is a term used in The less the eccentricity is compared with the axis, Grammar and Rhetoric, to signify the omission of the nearer the figure approaches to a circle ; and a a word necessary to complete the expression or circle may be considered as an ellipse whose foci sentence in its usual form. The object of ellipsis is coincide.
shortness and impressiveness ; accordingly, it preThere are various contrivances for describing an vails in proverbs. Ellipses are used in all languages, ellipse, called ellipsagraphs or elliptic compasses. but the same forms of ellipses are not common to The simplest method of description is to fix on a all. Thus, the house we saw, instead of the plane the two ends of a thread with pins in the house that we saw,' is a kind of ellipsis peculiar, so foci
, and make a pencil move on the plane, keep- far as we know, to English. ing the thread constantly stretched. The end of the
ELLI'PSOID is a surface of the second order of pencil will trace an ellipse, whose major axis is which the Spheroid (q. v.) is a species, and the most equal to the length of the thread. The equation to an ellipse (see CO-ORDINATES), being spheroidal. The equation to an ellipsoid
interesting, from the
fact of the form of the earth referred to its centre as origin, and to its major referred to its centre and rectangular co-ordinates is
x? and minor axes as rectangular axes, is
62 c? where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes respectively. From this equation, it may be
ELLIPTI'CITY (of the Earth). See EARTH. sh
ELLO'RA, a decayed town in the dominions of ellipse is equal to sab; or is got by multiplying the Nizam, not far from the city of Dowlatabad, in the product of the semi-major and semi-minor axis lat. 20° 2 N., and long. 75° 13' E. It is celebrated by 3:1 116. It may also be shewn that the length of for its wonderful rock-cut temples. Their number
has not been precisely ascertained, but Erskine process was, first to sink a great quadrangular trench reckoned 19 large ones, partly of Hindu and partly or pit, leaving the central mass standing; and of Buddhist origin. Some are cave-temples proper then to hew and excavate this mass into a temple. -i. e., chambers cut out in the interior of the rock The most beautiful of these objects is the Hindu -but others are vast buildings hewn out of the temple, Kailasa. At its entrance, the traveller solid granite of the hills, having an exterior as well passes into an antechamber 138 feet wide by 88 as an interior architecture, and being, in fact, mag- deep, adorned by numerous rows of pillars. Thence uificent monoliths. In executing the latter, the he proceeds along a colonnade over a bridge into
& great rectangular court, which is 247 feet in cinally in cutaneous diseases ; it is mucilaginous, length and 150 broad, in the centre of which and has a bitter astringent taste. The Elm BALSAM stands the temple itself, a vast mass of rock (Beaume d'orme), which was formerly in great repute, richly hewn and carved. It is supported by four is a brownish substance, which is found in dried rows of pilasters, with colossal elephants beneath, galls of the leaves in the south of Europe, Persia, and seems suspended in the air. The interior is &c. From these galls, in an earlier stage, flows a about 103 feet long, 56 broad, and 17 high, but the clear, viscid, sweetish liquid, called Elm Water Eau entire exterior forms a pyramid 100 feet high, and dorme), which is used for washing wounds, contuis overlaid with sculpture. In the great court are sions, and sore eyes.— The seeds of the elm are numerous ponds, obelisks, colonnades, sphinxes, and eagerly eaten by pigeons and common poultry. The on the walls thousands of mythological figures of all elm is one of the principal timber trees of Britain, kinds, from 10 to 12 feet in height. of the other most extensively planted, and a chief ornament temples, those of Indra and Dumarheyna are little of English scenery.—The CORK-BARKED ELM (U. inferior to that of Kailasa. Regarding their anti- suberosa), by many regarded as a variety of U. quity and religious significance, authorities are not campestris, is distinguished by the corky wings of agreed; but at all events they must be subsequent to the bark of the branches. It is a taller and more the epic poems Ramayana or Mahabharata, because spreading tree, with much larger leaves. It is a they contain representations taken from these European tree, common in plantations in Britain, poems, and also to the cave-temples at Elephanta, but a doubtful native.—The DUTCH CORK-BARKED because they exhibit a richer and more advanced ELM (U. major) is also looked upon by many as a style of architecture.
ELLO'RE, a town of the district of Masulipatam, in the presidency of Madras, stands in lat. 16° 42 N., and long. 81° 10' E. In an official report, the place has been indefinitely styled 'populous.' Independently of its population, properly so called,
42 E, as a military station, has a considerable garrison. It occupies both banks of the Jummulair, a torrent of the Eastern Ghauts, which, instead of reaching the Bay of Bengal, loses itself three miles further down, in the land-locked Colair Lake. In fact, for about 50 miles to the westward of the sea, the neighbouring country is depressed below the level of the maritime belt, the stagnant pool above mentioned not only having independent feeders of its own, but also receiving supplies, in the season of high-water, from the Kistnah or Krishna, and the Godavery. Under such circumstances, the climate of E. is at once unpleasant and unhealthy. During the south-west monsoon, bringing with it, of course, the accumulated heats of the whole breadth of the penin. sula, the temperature is more particularly oppressive, having been known to rise, in the night, to 120° F.
E'LLSWORTH, a small but flourishing town of North America, in the state of Maine, on both sides of the navigable river Union, 30 miles south-east of
Common English Elm (Ulmus campestris). Bangor, and about 4 miles west of Frenchman's Bay. It exports 50,000,000 feet of timber annually, variety of U. campestris. It is still more corky in carries on cod and mackerel fisheries, and had, in its bark, and has still larger leaves. It is of very 1854, 5000 inhabitants.
quick growth, but the wood is very inferior.—The ELM (Ulmus), a genus of trees of the natural BROAD-LEAVED or Wych ELM (U. montana) is the order Ulmacea, natives of temperate climates, with only species that can with certainty be regarded as serrated leaves unequal in their two sides, and indigenous to Scotland. It has rough and broad small flowers growing in clusters appearing before leaves, a stem less upright than the English elm, the leaves, and containing 4-12 stamens and one and large spreading branches. The wood is used germen. The fruit is a samara, or compressed one for all the purposes of the English elm. The tree seeded little nut, winged all around. One of the is of very quick growth. Protuberances of gnarled most important species is the COMMON SMALLwood are not unfrequently produced, which are LEAVED or ENGLISH ELM (U. campestris), a tree of finely knotted and richly veined; they are much 60–80 feet in height, with ovato-elliptic, doubly esteemed for veneering, and are sometimes very terrated leaves, and flowers almost destitute of valuable. Varieties of this species are known stalks. The wood is compact, and very durable as the GIANT ELM and CHICHESTER ELM.—The in water. The tree is diffused all over Europe ; is SMOOTH-LEAVED ELM (U. glabra) is by some found also in the west of Asia and north of Africa, regarded as a variety of U. montana, but is distin. and is used for a great variety of purposes by wheel- guished, besides other characters, by smooth leaves, wrights, machine-makers, ship and boat builders, which are much smaller. It is a native of Eng. &c.; it is also prized by joiners for its fine grain, land. A variety called the HUNTINGDON ELM is and the mahogany colour which it readily assumes much esteemed. -The CORNISH ELM (U. stricta), on the application of an acid. It is reckoned supe- found in the south-west of England, is remarkable rior to the wood of any other species of elm. The for its rigid, erect, and compact branches.—Very bark is used in dyeing and in sugar-refining, and, different is the habit of U. effusa, a continental on times of scarcity, has been used in Norway for species with a large spreading head and smocth Tinding into meal and mixing in bread, which has bark, distinguished also by the long stalks of its e lego disagreeable taste than that made from meal flowers and its ciliated fruit. -The AMERICAN or mixed with fir-bark. The inner bark is used medi. WHITE ELM (U. Americana), which abounds in the
ELMINA-EL PASO DEL NORTE.
insir of the Mississippi, and attains its loftiest and shoes are made at E., and are sold at all the statun, between lat. 42o and lat. 46o, is a magnifi. fairs in the duchies of Slesvig and Holstein. Many cent tree, sometimes 100 feet in height, the trunk Jews reside here, as this is one of the few places in reaching 60 or 70 feet before it separates into the duchies in which they are allowed to settle branches, and the widely diffused pendulous branches without having previously obtained permission. E floating gracefully in the air ; but the timber is not has an important annual cattle-market. Pop. 4461. much esteemed. - The PED or SLIPPERY ELM (U.
EL OBEID. See IL OBEID, or LOBEID. fulva) is also common in the basin of the Mississippi as far south as lat. 31°, and in the western
ELOCU'TION (Lat. for speaking out), the art of parts of Canada. It attains a height of 50 or 60 feet. effective speaking, more especially of public speak. The wood is more valuable than that of the last ing:, It regards solely the utterance or delivery; species, but much inferior to the English elm. The while the wider art of oratory, of which elocution is leaves and bark yield an abundant mucilage, which a branch, takes account also of the matter spoken. is bland and demulcent, and esteemed a valuable The art of elocution held a prominent place in remedy in catarrh, dysentery, and other complaints. ancient education, but has been greatly neglected --- The Wahoo or WINGED ÉLM (U. alata) is a small in modern times. See READING and SPEAKING. tree, found from lat. 37° to Florida, Louisiana, and
ÉLOGE. When a member of the French Arkansas, remarkable for the branches being fur. Académie dies, it is customary for his successor to nished on two opposite sides with wings of cork. deliver an oration, setting forth his merits and The wood is fine-grained, compact, and heavy.-U. services. This is called an éloge (Lat. elogium, Gr. Chinensis is a Chinese species of elm, the leaves eulogia, praise), and a considerable branch of of which often bear galls used by the Chinese in French literature goes by the name. Many of th3 tanning and dyeing.
French éloges are mere florid panegyrics; but others, The name SPANISH ELM is given in the West particularly those written by Thomas, D'Alembert, Indies to a tree also called BOIS DE CHYPRE, Cordia Bailly, Condorcet, Cuvier, and other eminent savants, Gerascanthus, of the natural order Cordiaceæ, the are interesting and valuable biographies. The proper timber of which is valuable ; also to Hamelia ven- epoch of the éloge began with Fontenelle (2 vols., tricosa, of the natural order Rubiaceæ, the timber of Par. 1731), who was distinguished for clearness, eace, which is known to cabinet-makers as Prince-wood. and elegance. His successors have tried to outshine
ELMI'NA, a fortified town and seaport of West him in pomp of language. Africa, capital of the Dutch settlements on the ELOHIM, Hebr., plural of Eloúh, Arab. Ilah, Gold Coast, is situated in an undulating and Chald. Eláh, Syr. Aloh, might, power; in pl.ır., thickly wooded district, in lat. 5° 10 N., and long intensified, collective, highest power-great beings, about 1° 40' W. It is a large, irregularly built, and kings, angels, gods, Deity. As a pluralis ercellentio extremely unclean native town, and seems to be or majestatis, and joined to the singular verb, it entirely destitute of any noteworthy architectural denotes, with very rare exceptions, the One, true features. The inhabitants consist chiefly of traders, God. Joined to the plural verb, however, it usually fishermen, and artisans. A few miles to the east is means gods in general, whether including the One Cape Coast Castle. E. was first established by the or not. It is mostly used in the singular sense) Portuguese in 1481, and was the first European for or together with Jehovah (the Everl.sting settlement planted on the coast of Guinea. It was One); but some portions of the Scriptures employ taken by the Dutch in 1637, and, four years after, exclusively either the one term or the other. was finally ceded to them by the crown of Portugal. This circumstance has given rise to endless discus. Pop. estimated at from 8000 to 10,000.
sions, and has also suggested amongst others the ELMI'RA, a town of New York state, contains, notion of different authors of Genesis. On this, and according to the census of 1860, 8682 inhabitants on the relation of those two words to each other, In point of situation, it possesses both natural and see the article JEHOVAH. We shall only mention artificial advantages. It stands on the Chemung, a here the hitherto unnoticed opinion of the Tal. navigable feeder of the Susquehanna ; it is connected mudists, that Elohim denotes the Almighty under by a canal with Seneca Lake and the interior of the aspect of a God of strict justice; Jehovah, of Pennsylvania, and it is intersected by the railway clemency and mercy. As important for the history which, with a length of 460 miles, connects Jersey of the word Elohim, we may add, in conclusion, that City, virtually a suburb of New York, and Dunkirk it was very probably Petrus Lombardus who first on Lake Erie. E. is 273 miles distant from the tried to prove the Trinity out of this plural form capital of the state.
an attempt which, although unanimously and scorn. E'LMO'S FIRE, Sr, is the popular name of an Calixtus, the younger Buxtorf, &c., to our times,
fully rejected by all scholars, from Calvin, Mercerus, appearance sometimes seen, especially in southern has lately been revived by Rudolf Stier, who has climates during thunder-storms, of a brush or star objects
. It is sometimes accompanied by a hissing the articles SHEMITIC PLURAL and PENTATEUCH. of light at the tops of masts, spires, or other pointed one so far as to invent a rew grammatical term,
See also noise, and is evidently of the same nature as the light caused by electricity streaming off from points
ELONGATION, ANGLE OF, is the angle measur. connected with an electrical machine. See ELEC- ing the distance between two stars, as seen from the
The phenomenon, as seen at sea, was earth. Usually, it is employed only in speaking of woven by the Greeks into the myth of Castor and the distance of planets from the sun ; the word Pollux ; and even yet such lights at the mast-head distance' being used instead of the word elongaare considered by sailors a sign that they have tion, in regard to fixed stars and planets, as related nothing to fear from the storm.
to one another, ELMSHORN, a town of Denmark, in the ELO'PEMENT. See ADULTERY. duc of Holstein, 20 miles north-west of Ham- EL PA'SO DEL NOʻRTÉ (in English, the Pass burg, is situated on both banks of the Krückau, a of the North) is a narrow valley of nine or ten miles navigable stream, and feeder of the Elbe. It is in length, near the north-eastern extremity of the well built, has considerable manufactures, and an republic of Mexico. It is situated within the active trade in grain; it has also a boat-building state of Chihuahua (q. v.), in lat. 31° 42° N., and yard,
and some tanneries. Vast numbers of boots , long. 106° 40' W., being on the right bank of the