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the inhabitants ; on the contrary, it is resorted to for conjurors '); the origin, again, of which grotesque Bufety during the prevalence of contagious diseases. belief is perhaps to be sought for in the circumF. has a High School founded by Queen Christina, stance that mystical liquids kept in vials have a museum, an institution for instruction in the been immensely in vogue among the

conjurors science of mining, several cotton and flax-spinning of all ages and countries. It is not clear, as mills, and some manufactures of blankets and some think, that we can include Socrates among carpets—which are made from cow-hair-tobacco- those who shared this vulgar superstition, for pipes, leather, &c. Pop. 4618.

although he spoke of his attendant dæmon' in very FALUNS, a term given by the agriculturists of ambiguous terms, the opinion of all enlightenext Touraine to shelly sand and marl, which they spread critics is, that he meant by the word nothing more over their lands as a fertilising manure, and employed and nothing less than what Christians mean by the by geologists as the name of the deposits from which presence of a divine light and guide in the heart those materials are obtained. They are loosely and conscience. But according to Delrio—a great aggregated beds of sand and marl, in which are shells authority on this subject--the belief in familiar and corals, some entire, some rolled, and others in spirits in the grosser and more magical form did minute fragments; occasionally, they are so com- exist among the ancient Greeks, who, he affirms, pacted by calcareous cement as to form a soft build- designated such beings Paredrii, companions, as ing-stone. They occur in scattered patches of slight being ever assiduously at hand.' The story of the thickness in the lower part of the valley of the ring of Gyges, king of Lydia, as narrated by Loire. The animal remains contained in them are Herodotus, is held by Heywood' (see Hierarchie of chiefly marine, and have the stamp of a more tropical the Blessed Angels, &c.) to prove the existence of fauna than the Mediterranean. A few land and the belief in that country also; and it is quite fluviatile mollusca are found mixed with the oceanic certain that during the middle ages the belief in forms, and with these are associated the remains of 'enchanted rings' containing familiar spirits was terrestrial quadrupeds, as Dinotherium (q. v.), Mas- widely diffused throughout Europe, the magicians todon (q. v.), Rhinoceros (q. v.), &c. It is probable of Salamanca, Toledo, and those of Italy, being that the falun-beds were deposited near the shore in especially famous for their skill in thus subjugatshallow water, and at a time when the temperature ing and imprisoning demons. Asia, in fact, would was warmer than it is now. About 25 per cent. of seem to have been the original home of the belief the organic remains are said to belong to recent in familiar spirits, which has long been established species. The strata form the typical beds of Lyell's as & cardinal superstition of the Persians and Miocene Period (q. v.), the middle division of the Hindus, and which appears in perfection in the Tertiary rocks.

Arabian Nights. The slave of the lamp' who waits FAMA (Gr. Pheme), the goddess of rumour, belief in familiar spirits sprung up independently

upon Aladdin is an example in point. Whether the appears in the works of the earliest poets. Sophocles among the nations of Western Europe, or was transdaughter of Terra, the sister of Enceladus and Cæus. planted thither by intercourse with the East, does Terra produced her to avenge herself upon the gods

not clearly appear. A favourite form assumed by for the defeat of her sons the giants, as F. would the familiar spirit was that of a black dog. Jovius everywhere proclaim their evil deeds. Ovid describes and others relate

, that the famous Cornelius Agrippa her dwelling as a palace of sounding brass with a

(q. v.), half philosopher, half quack, was always thousand entrances.

accompanied by a devil in the shape of a black

dog;' and add, that when he perceived the approach FA'MA CLAMOʻSA, in the ecclesiastical law of of death, he took a collar ornamented with nails, Scotland, is a wide-spread report, imputing iinmoral disposed in magical inscriptions, from the neck of conduct to a clergymau, probationer, or elder of the this animal, and dismissed him with these memorchurch. A fama clamosa, if very clamant, may form able words: Abi, perdita Bestia, quce me totum per. the ground of process by a presbytery, without any didisti(* Away, accursed beast, who hast ruined specific complaint being brought before them, or there me wholly for ever'). Butler, in his Hudibras, being any particular accuser. In these circumstances, speaks highly of this animal : the presbytery act for the vindication of their own srder, and in behalf of the morals of the community.

Agrippa kept a Stygian pug Should the inquiries of the presbytery lead them

l' the garb and habit of a dog to the conviction that the rumour is not without

That was his tutor, and the cur foundation, they will serve the accused party with

Read to the occult philosopher, a libel, and thus bring him for trial before them.

And taught him subtly to maintain

All other sciences are vain, (Hill's Church Prac. 49; Cook's Styles ; and Wood On Libels.)

The readers of Goethe, too, will remember that FAMILIAR SPIRITS, a term employed to Mephistopheles first appears to Faust and Wagner denote certain supernatural beings, in attendance during their evening walk in this shape ; but, in upon magicians, wizards, witches, conjurors, and truth, the earliest instances of such transmigration other skilful professors of the black art. The are much older at least, if medieval tradition can word 'familiar is in all likelihood derived from be credited, for it assures us that Simon Magus and the Latin famulus (a domestic,' a 'slave'). The other ancient magicians had familiar spirits who belief in such spirits goes far back into the history attended them in the form of dogs. *Curiously of the race.

We read of them in the time of Moses, enough, in spite of the servitude to which the who admonishes his countrymen to regard not attendant imps were reduced by the potent spells thern that have familiar spirits" (Lev. xix. 31), which of the magicians, they were popularly supposed, would imply the prevalence of the superstition during the middle ages, to have their revenge at last, among the Egyptians. The word in the original by carrying with them into eternal torment the rendered 'familiar spirits' is oboth; it is of frequent souls of their deceased masters. This idea of divine occurrence in the Hebrew Scriptures, and literally retribution overtaking the practisers of magic is, signifies · leathern bottles;' thereby indicating the however, not found out of Christendom. The Jews antiquity of the idea, that magicians were wont to think not the less but the more of Solomon because imprison in bottles the spirits whom their spells he was, as they say, one of the greatest of magicians ; bal subdued (whence ou bottle-imps' and bottle- and a similar feeling in regard to wonder-workers


pervades eastern nations generally, though it is to nected with domestic life. The formal bond of the be noticed that the latter are often represented as family is Marriage (q. v. ; see also POLYGAMY); and using their power malignantly. See Magic. an essential condition of its right development seems

to be a distinct abode, which shall be not a mere FAMILIARS. See INQUISITION.

shelter, but a house or home, affording a certain FAMILY (Lat. familia). Though we are in the measure of comfort and decency, according to the habit of regarding the life of antiquity, and more standard prevalent in the community. See Genius particularly that of Greece, as less domestic than and Design of the Domestic Constitution, by Rev. that of Christian Europe (and probably with reason), Christopher Anderson (Edin. 1826). the idea of the family or house (Gr. oikós), as the

FAMILY OF LOVE. See AGAPEMONE. nucleus of society, as the political unit, was there very early developed. Aristotle speaks of it as FA'MINE, Port, an abortive settlement of Spain, the foundation of the state, and quotes Hesiod to on the northern side of the Strait of Magellan, is the effect that the original family consisted of the situated in lat. 53° 38' S., and long. 70 58' W. It wife and the labouring ox, which held, as he says, owes its name to the death, by starvation, of the to the poor the position of the slave (Polit. i. 1). Spanish garrison ; and it is said to be now a penal The complete Greek family then consisted of the colony of the republic of Chili. Some voyagers, man and his wife and his slave; the two latter, however, have spoken of the neighbourhood ag Aristotle says, never having been confounded in 'covered with flowers,' and decorated with luxu. the same class by the Greeks, as by the barbarians riance,' and capable of being made, so far as soil is (16.). In this form, the family was recognised as concerned, one of the finest regions in the world.' the model of the monarchy, the earliest, as well as FAN, an instrument or mechanical contrivance the simplest, form of government. When, by the for moving the air for the sake of coolness, or for Lirth and growth of children, and the death of winnowing chaff from grain. In the East, the use of the father, the original family is broken up into fans is of remote antiquity. The Hebrews, Egypseveral, the heads of which stand to each other in a tians, Chinese, and the miscellaneous population of co-ordinate rather than a strictly subordinate posi- India, all used fans as far back as history reaches. tion, we have in these the prototypes of the more At the present day, it is customary, in the better advanced forms of government. Each brother, by classes of houses in India, to suspend a large species becoming the head of a separate family, becomes a of fan from the ceiling, and keep it in agitation member of an aristocracy, or the embodiment of a with strings, pulled by servants, in order to give a portion of the sovereign power, as it exists in the degree of coolness to the air. See PUNKAH. Among separate elements of which a constitutional or a the oldest notices of winnowing fans are those in democratic government is composed.

the Scriptures. There the fan is always spoken of But at Rome the idea of the family was still more as an instrument for driving away chaff, or for closely entwined with that of life in the state, and cleansing in a metaphorical sense ; and such notices the natural power of the father was taken as the remind us of the simple processes of husbandry basis not only of the whole political, but of the whole employed by a people little advanced in the arts. social organisation of the people. In its more It was a long stride from the use of a simple special aspects, the Roman idea of the family will be hand-instrument for winnowing to that of the explained under PATRIA POTESTAS. Here it will be modern mechanism employed for a similar purpose, sufficient to state that with the Romans, as with the See FANNERS Greeks, it included the slave as well as the wife, As is observable from the collection of Egyptian and ultimately the children ; a fact which indeed antiquities in the British Museum, the fan as an is indicated by the etymology of the word, which article of female taste and luxury is of quite as belongs to the same root as famulus, a slave. In its old date as the instrument is for commoner pur. widest sense, the familia included even the inanimate poses. Terence, a writer of Latin comedies, who possessions of the citizen, who, as the head of a lived in the 2d c. B.C., makes one of his characters house, was his own master (sui juris); and Gaius speak of the fan as used by ladies in ancient Rome : (ii. 102) uses it as synonymous with patrimonium. Cape hoc flabellum, et ventulum huic facito_Take In general, however, it was confined to persons - this fan, and give her thus a little air.' From the wife. children, grandchildren, and great-grand- this Roman origin, the fashion of carrying fans children. if such there were, and slaves of a fullo could scarcely fail to be handed down to the blown Roman citizen. Sometimes, too, it signified ladies of Italy, Spain, and France, whence it was all those who had sprung from a common stock, and in advanced times imported by the fair of Great would have been members of the family, and under | Britain. Queen Elizabeth, when in full dress, carthe potestas of a common ancestor, had he been ried a fan. Shakspeare speaks of fans as connected alive. See COGNATI. In this sense, of course, the with a lady's 'bravery’or finery : slaves belonging to the different members of the

With scarfs and fans, and double charge of bravery. family were not included in it. It was a family, in short, in the sense in which we speak of the royal It is proper to say, however, that the fan was in family,' &c., with this difference, that it was possible these and also in later times not a mere article of for an individual to quit it, and to pass into another finery. There were walking as well as dress fans. by adoption. See ADOPTIO. Sometimes, again, the The walking or outdoor fan which a lady carried word was used with reference to slaves exclusively, with her to church, or to public promenades, was of and, analogically, to a sect of philosophers, or a body large dimensions, sufficient to screen the face from of gladiators. See Smith's Dictionary of Greek and the sun, and answered the purpose of the modern Roman Antiquities.

Parasol (q. v.). In old prints, ladies are seen carry. The whole social fabric is based on the grouping ing these fans in different attitudes according to of human beings in families; an arrangement which fancy. The dress fan, which formed part of a lady's is in harmony with all the conditions and wants of equipment at court ceremonies, drums, routs, and human life, and which tends to foster those habits theatrical entertainments, was of a size considerably and affections that are essential to the welfare of less than the walking fan, and altogether more mankind. A prosperous community must be an elegant. Of these dress fans there exist numerous aggregate of happy families; there being little true specimens bequeathed as heirlooms from one cenerhappiness in the world that is not intimately con- I ation to another; indeed, there are few ladies who



cannnt shew several of different eras throughout been the practice to select a partner for a whole the 18th c.; some being in good preservation, season, the fans of the ladies were carefully studied while in others the gilded stars and cupids which Sir Alexander Boswell alludes to this species of delighted the eyes of great-grandmothers have a stratagem in one of his poems : mournfully tarnished appearance. In the finer kinds of these old fans, the open part of paper is painted

Each lady's fan a chosen Damon bore,

With care selected inany a day before ; with pretty rural scenes and groups of figures in For unprovided with a favourite beau, the style of Watteau (q. v.). All were probably The nymph, chagrined, the ball must needs forego. of French manufacture, The more costly fan imported from China was and still is altogether of

In Italy, Spain, the West Indies, and also some ivory, highly carved and pierced; but it wants parts of the United States, fans are largely in use the lightness and flexibility which were essential for giving the sensation of coolness during hot in the ordinary management of this article of be seen in the hands of gentlemen as well as ladies.

weather, and for this purpose they may sometimes the toilet. Strictly speaking, the fan was used less for the purpose of cooling than for giving the be still in vogue. A late traveller in that country,

In Spain, the old fashion of fan-flirting appears to hands something to do, and also for symbolically expressing certain passing feelings. In the hand says: I was vastly interested in the movements of of an adept, the fan, by peculiar movements, could the ladies' fans at church. All the world knows be made to express love, disdain, modesty, hope, betray each feeling, real or assumed, that passes

that Spanish fans are in perpetual motion, and anger, and other emotions. Gay, speaking of Flavia's accomplishments, says:

through the mind of the bearer. I felt convinced I

could guess the nature of the service at every parIn other hands, the fan would prove

ticular moment by the way in which the fans were An engine of small force in love.

waving. The difference between a litany and a Considering the coarseness of language, even in thanksgiving was unmistakable ; and I believed that

minuter shades of devotion were also discoverable.' the higher circles, in the early part of the 18th C., we cannot wonder that the fan should have been

Vacation Tourists (1861). indispensable to a lady going into company. It was

With other changes in manners, fans are held up to shield the countenance when anything longer used in English fashionable circles for the too shocking for female ears was uttered. Pope has frivolous, purposes noticed in their past history; an allusion to this use of the fan:

they still continue, however, to form an article

of ceremonial dress at dinner and other evening The modest fan was lifted up no more,

parties. In embellishing them, foreign as well as And virgins smiled at what they blushed before. native art is exerted on a scale commensurate with Steele, in a paper in the Tatler, No. 52, August 9, their price. From the superior kinds, composed of 1709, gives an amusing account of Delamira, a fine ivory and silk, costing twenty guineas, down to lady, resigning her fan when she was about to be those of wood and paper, which are sold at 18., married. One of her female acquaintances, having there are varieties to suit every toilet and pocket. envied the manner in which this charming and Lately, fans made tastefully of feathers, also fans fortunate coquette had played her fan, asks her for it. constructed of straw and variously coloured ribbons, Delamira acknowledges the wonderful virtues of the have been among the novelties of fashion. In the fan, and tells her that “all she had above the rest case of a general court mourning, ladies are enjoined of her sex and contemporary beauties was wholly to use black paper fans. The manufacture of fans owing to a fan (that was left her by her mother, of various kinds is carried on in England, France, and had been long in the family), which, whoever Belgium, Spain, and other European countries, likehad in possession, and used with skill, should com- wise in the United States; and now, as formerly, mand the hearts of all her beholders; "and since," the fan is an article of export from China to many said she smiling, “I have no more to do with extenů- parts of the world. ing my conquests or triumphs, I will make you a FAN PALM, a name common to all those palms present of this inestimable rarity."' Two years which have fan-shaped leaves, as the species of later, Addison, in a paper in the Spectator (No. 102), Maurilia, Lodvicea (Double Cocoa Nut), Hyphæne gives a humorous account of the tactics of coquettes (Doum Palm), Corypha, Livistona, Chamærops, &c. in the use of fans : ‘Women are armed with fans The only truly European palm, Chamarops humilis as men with swords, and sometimes do more execu- (q. v.), is a F. P., as is also the North American tion with them ;' then he goes on to describe how Palmetto. The Talipot Palm (Corypha umbraculi. lalies are instructed to handle, discharge, ground, fera) is sometimes called the Great Fan Palm. The and flutter their fans—the whole being a pleasant Palmyra Palm is another fan palm. The fan-shaped satire on the fan-manæuvring in the reign of Queen leaf is produced by an abbreviation of the midrib Anne.

of a pinnated leaf. Later in the 18th c., fans served another import- FANA'RIOTS, the general name given to the

At dancing assemblies in London, Greeks inhabiting the Fanar or Fanal in Constan. Bath, and elsewhere, it was usual for the gentlemen tinople, a quarter of the city which takes its name to select their partners by drawing a fan. All the from the beacon (Gr. phanarion) situated in it. ladies' fans being placed promiscuously in a hat, each They first appear in history after the taking of gentleman drew one, and the lady to whom it Constantinople by the Turks, and appear to have belonged was his allotted partner. Mrs Montagu, been originally descendants of such noble Byzantine in one of her letters, refers to this custom : 'In the families as escaped the fury of the barbarians. afternoon, I went to Lord Oxfori's ball at Mary-le. Afterwards, however, the class was recruited by bone. It was very agreeable. The partners were emigrants from different parts of the old Byzantine chosen by their fans, but with a little supercherie.' empire. Subtle, insinuating, intriguing, they soon Of the trick or fraud which this authoress deli- took advantage of the ignorance of the Turkish. cately veils under a French term, the beaux of that governors, and made themselves politically indis. period were far from guiltless. A lady's fan was pensable to their rulers. They filled the offices of slmost as well known as her face, and it was not dragomans, secretaries, bankers, &c. One of them, difficult, with a little connivance, to know which named Panayotaki, at a later period, was appointed to draw. At Edinburgh, where it appears to have Dragoman to the Divan, and his successors obtained

W. C.

ant purpose,




grill „reater honours. Through their influence, the of a guitar, while the dancers beat time with lucrative office of Dragoman of the Fleet was called castanets, a custom borrowed from the Doors. It into existence, which gave them almost unlimited proceeds gradually from a slow and uniform to the power in the islands of the Archipelago. Besides, liveliest motion; and notwithstanding the simplicity from them were chosen, until the outbreak of the of the pas, vividly expresses all the graduations of revolution in 1822, the Hospodars of Wallachia and the passion of love, in a manner sometimes bordering Moldavia, while, in addition, the disposal of most on licentiousness. The people are so passionately of the civil and military posts under the Turkish fond of it, that the efforts of the clergy bave never government was in their hands. In spite of their been able to suppress it. power, however, the F. never exhibited much

FANEUIL HALL, a spacious public hall in patriotism; they were animated by the petty Boston, Massachusetts, erected in 1742 by Peter motives of a caste, and when the war of liberation Faneuil, and presented by him to the town. In broke out among their countrymen, they took no its original condition as so gifted, the building conpart in it. In the present altered state of affairs tained a hall for public meetings, with lesser apartin Turkey, they have no political influence. See ments above, and a basement used as a market

. Marco Zalloni's Essai sur les Fanariots (Marseille, In 1761, it was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt. During 1824; 2d ed. 1830). Consult also Finlay's History the revolutionary struggle with England, the hall of the Greek Revolution (Edin., Blackwood and Sons, was so often used for important political meetings, 1861).

that it became known as the cradle of American FANCY. See IMAGINATION.

liberty.' In 1805, the building was increased in

height by an additional story, and also increased in FANDA'NGO, like the Bolero, is an old Spanish width. It is now an edifice about 80 feet square; national dance, in time. It is danced most grace the hall contains some fine paintings; and the fully in the country, usually to the accompaniment basement is no longer used as a market. The cut

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here given, which is taken from an original drawing, terininology of the law of Scotland, a thief taken represents this interesting historical editice as it with the fang is one apprehended while carrying existed in 1768.

the stolen goods on his person. It is not very long FANFARE is the French name of a short and since this word formed part of the commun speech

of Scotland : lively military air or call, executed on brass instruments. It was brought by the Arabs into Spain, Snap went the shears, then in a wink, whence it passed into Mexico and the New World.

The fang was stowed behind a bink.' Fanfaron, derived from fanfare, is the name given

Morison's Poems, p. 110. to a swaggering bully or cowardly boaster, probably

. In England, also, the verb fang was still in use in ing his own trumpet, or threatening timid people

, Shakspeare's time : Destruction fang mankind! and the term applied to his idle braggadocia and Timon of Athens, įv. 3); and Master Fang,' in vapouring vaunts is Fanfaronnade.

· Henry IV., is named after his office. We still use

the phrase 'in the fangs,' for in the clut:hes; ana FANG (Ang.-Sax. and Ger., anything caught or the fangs of a dog or of a serpent are its teeth with taken, from the verb fangen, to catch). In the which it catches or holds.

FANNERS-FAN-TRACERY VAULTING. FANNERS, a machine employed to winnow Africa, residing on the tributaries of the Gaboon grain. In passing through the machine, the grain river, and said to be cannibals ; the accounts of this is rapidly agitated in a sieve, and falling through a savage race are, nowever, still imperfect, and what strong current of wind, created by a rotatory fan, is mentioned respecting them wants confirmation. the chaff is blown out at one end, and the cleansed particles fall out at an orifice beneath. The appa: at Ware Park, in the county of Hertford ; studied at

FANSHAWE, SIR RICHARD, was born in 1608 ratus is composed chiefly of wood, and though Jesus College, Cambridge, and in 1626, became a ordinarily moved by the hand, it is sometimes member of the Inner Temple. On the outbreak of connected with the driving power of a thrashingmill. The fanners superseded the old and slow the civil war, he took part with the king; and in process of winnowing, which consisted in throwing 1648, became treasurer to the navy under Prince up the grain by means of sieves or shovels, while Worcester; and on his release, withdrew to Brerla

He was taken prisoner at the battle of a current of wind, blowing across the thrashing in Holland, where Charles II. was holding his court floor, carried away the chatf

. 'A machine for the in exile. After the Restoration, he was appointed winnowing of corn was, as far as can be ascertained, ambassador at the court of Madrid, where he died for the first time made in this island by Andrew in 1666. F. was an author of considerable reputaRodger, a farmer on the estate of Cavers in Rox: tion. His most celebrated work, now very rare, in burghshire, in the year 1737. It was after retiring from his farm to indulge a bent for mechanics, that a translation of Guarini's Pastor Fido, the lyrical he entered on this remarkable invention, and began passages of which are rendered with remarkable

skill and elegance. The volume in which it circulating what were called Fanners throughout the conntry, which his descendants continued to appeared was published in 1664, and contains other

pieces in do for many years.'— Domestic Annals of Scotland,

and verse.

prose by R. Chambers, vol. iii. Strangely enough, there FANTA'SIA, in Music, the name of a composition was a strong opposition to the use of this useful of a similar character to the capriccio; also given to instrument ; the objectors being certain rigid extempore effusions performed by a musician who sectaries in Scotland, who saw in it an impious possesses the rare gift of producing, as it were, offevasion of the Divine will. To create an artificial hand music like a well-studied, regular composition. wind, was a distinct flying in the face of the text, Hummel was more celebrated for his extempore

He that formeth the mountains, and createth the fantasias on the pianoforte than even for his pubwind'-Amos iv. 13. Apart from the folly of the lished compositions. Frederick Schneider was equally objectors, who carried their fancies to the extent great for his free fantasias on the organ. of petty persecution, we are amazed at their

FANTOCCI'NI. See PUPPET. apparent neglect of the fact that the winnowing of corn by artificial means, in which fans performed FAN-TRACERY VAULTING, a kind of Late & conspicuous part, is mentioned repeatedly in Gothic vaulting (15th c.), so called from its resemthe Old Testament. See Fan. The advantages in blance to a fan. The ribs or veins spring from one using the fanners soon overcame all prejudices on point, the cap of the shaft, and radiate with the the subject, and the objections to the use of the same curvature, and at equal intervals, round the machine are now remembered only by tradition, surface of a curved cone or polygon, till they reach and by a passage in one of the imperishable fictions the semicircular or polygonal ribs which divide the of Scott." In the tale of Old Mortality, Mause roof horizontally at the ridge level. The spaces Headrigg is made anachronously to speak to her between the ribs are filled with foils and cusps, mistress about a newfangled machine for dighting resembling the tracery of a Gothic window; hence the corn frae the chaff, thus impiously thwarting the name fan-tracery. The spaces between the outthe will o Divine Providence, by raising wind lines of the fans at the ridge level, are called by for your leddyship's use by human art, instead Professor Whewell (German Churches) ridge lozenges. of soliciting it by prayer, or patiently waiting for In Henry VIL's Chapel, Westminster, one of the whatever dispensation of wind Providence was pleased to send upon the shieling-hill.'

FANO (Lat. Fanum Fortunæ, so called from the temple of Fortune which the Romans erected here in commemoration of the defeat of Asdrubal on the Metanrus) is the name of a town and seaport of Italy, in the province of Urbino e Pesaro, finely situated in a beautiful and fertile district on the shore of the Adriatic, 30 miles north-west of Ancona, and near the mouth of the Metaurus. It is well built, is surrounded with walls and ditches, has a cathedral dedicated to St Fortunato, and nunerous churches containing many valuable paintings, among which are several of the best works of Dimenichino, and an excellent Annunciation' by Guido. The remains of a triumphal arch of white marble, raised in honour of Augustus, form perhaps the chief object of classical interest at Fano. Pop. 8960, who carry on considerable trade in corn and oil, and in silk goods. Here, in 1514, Pope Julius II. established the first printing-press with Arabic letters known in Europe. The port of F. was once well known to the traders of the

Fan-tracery :

From King's College Chapel, Cambridge. Adriatic; its commerce, however, has declined, and the harbour become, to some extent, choked up with best examples of this kind of vaulting, these lozenges 3.ind.

are occupied by pendants, which produce a most FANS, THE, a race of aborigines in Equatorial astonishing effect, looking like arches resting on



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