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FLETA-FLETCHER.

Blow-fly (q. v.). The forehead is rust-coloured, the within the narrowest limits, if not to abolish it thorax grayish, the abdomen blue with three black / altogether, he was so far from being an advocate for bands. The expanse of wings is nearly one inch. It is a universal participation in political rights, that one abundant throughout Britain and Europe generally, of his favourite schemes for the reformation of the and deposits its eggs on flesh, for which purpose it hosts of vagrants and paupers by whom Scotland often enters houses, having a remarkably delicate was infested in his day, consisted in the estabsense of smelling. The maggots are of very frequent lishment of slavery in the form in which it had occurrence on meat in summer, notwithstanding all existed in the classical nations of antiquity. Ou care that can be taken.-A nearly allied species the discovery of the Rye House plot, F. returned (M. Cæsar) is distinguished by its golden green to Holland. His next visit to England was as a colour, and is also common in Britain. It is found volunteer under the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth in houses from the beginning of spring to the end of in 1685 ; but he was compelled to leave the autumn. Another (19. tardaria), with silky tawny insurgent army, at the beginning of the enterprise, face, a black stripe on the crown, thorax glittering in consequence of his having shot the mayor of white with four black stripes, and abdomen bluish- Lynn, with whom he had had a personal quarrel gray, tesselated with black, is most common in the about a borse. The next hiding-place which F. end of autumn, frequenting bushes of ivy and late selected was Spain ; but he had no sooner arrived, flowers, and is also a pest of the larder.

than he was thrown into prison at the instance

of the English ambassador, and would have been FLETA, the title of a valuable treatise on the

transmitted to England, to share the fate of his law of England. It is not known by whom this

fellow-patriots, had he not been mysteriously deli. treatise, which is one of the earliest authorities on

vered from prison by an unknown friend. English law, was written, and it derives its title

From

Spain he proceeded to Hungary, where he entered from the circumstance that it was written in the

the army as a volunteer, and greatly distinguished Fleet prison. Lord Campbell remarks--Lives of the

himself. He returned to England at the Revolution. Chancellors, i. 166 and note: I shall rejoice if I do tardy justice to the memory of Robert Burnel,

A few years later, he met in London, accidentally,

el; it should seem, the famous William Paterson, the decidedly the first in this class, and if I attract

founder of the Bank of England, and the projector notice to his successors, who walked in his footsteps.

of the Darien Expedition in London; and it was at To them, too, we are probably indebted for the treatises entitled Fleta and Britton, which are said.

F.'s solicitation that Paterson came to Scotland, to have been written at the request of the king, and

and offered, to the acceptance of his country

men, a project which he had originally intended which, though inferior in style and arrangement to Bracton, are wonderful performances for such an age. Leither of the trading communities of the Hanse

should be carried out by the far greater resources Fleta must have been written after the 13th year of

towns, or of the princes of the German empire. the king (Edward I.), and not much later; for it fre

The bitterness caused by the treatment which the quently quotes the statute of Westminster the second, without referring to the later statutes of the reign. | William's government, tended to confirm

Darien colonists received at the hands of King

F. and FLETCHER, ANDREW, of Salton, a celebrated his friends in their opposition to the Union with Scottish patriot and politician, was the son of Sir England, and led to his delivering in parliament Robert Fletcher and Catherine Bruce, daughter of those spirited harangues in favour of an exclusive Sir Henry Bruce of Clackmannan. He was born in Scottish nationality, which still stir the blood of 1653. Notwithstanding the strong anti-English his countrymen. After the Union, he retired in feelings which characterised him through life, F. disgust from public life, and died in London in was of English descent by the father's side; his 1716. F.'s writings originally appeared in the father being the fifth in the direct line from Sir form of tracts, and anonymously ; they were, how. Bernard Fletcher of the county of York. But his ever, collected and reprinted at London in 1737, mother was of the royal House of Scotland, the under the title of The Political Works of Andreu first of the Clackmannan family having been the Fletcher, Esquire. third son of the Lord of Annandale, Robert de FLETCHER, GILES and PHINEAS, were the sora Bruce, who was the grandfather of the great King of Dr Giles Fletcher, Queen Elizabeth's ambassador Robert F.'s father, who died in his childhood, to the court of Russia, and cousins to Fletcher the consigned him to the care of Gilbert Burnet, then dramatist. minister of Salton, afterwards the well-known Giles, the elder, was born about 1580; he was Bishop of Salisbury ; by whom he was instructed educated at Cambridge, and died at his living at not only in literature and religion, but in those Alderton in 1623. His chief poetical work is a principles of free government of which he afterwards sacred poem, entitled Christ's Victory and Triremph, became so zealous an advocate. So early as 1681, which appeared at Cambridge in 1610. This poem, when he sat in parliament for the first time as com- although once admired, is now unknown to general missioner for East Lothian, F. offered so determined readers, and is chiefly remarkable for having, to an opposition to the measures of the Duke of York some extent, moulded the majestic muse of Milton. (afterwards James II.), then acting as the Royal PHINEAS, the younger brother of Giles, was born Commissioner in Scotland, that he found it neces- about 1584, educated at Eton and Cambridge, and sary to retire, first into England, and then into became rector of Hilgay, in Norfolk, in 1621, and Holland. He there entered into close alliance with died there in 1660. His most important poem, the the English refugees, who had assembled in consi- Purple Island, or the Isle of Man, was published in derable numbers, and on his return to England in 1633. It contains an elaborate description of the 1683, he shared the counsels of the party of which human body and mind-the former being given with Russell, Essex, Howard, Algernon Sydney, and great anatomical minuteness. The mind is repreJohn Hampden (the grandson of the still more sented as being beleaguered with the vices, and famous patriot of the same name) were the leaders. I likely to be subdued, when an angel comes to the Though usually regarded as a republican, F.'s poli- rescue-- the angel being James I. Although to a tical creed, like that of Algernon Sydney, approached large extent formal and pedantic, the Purple Island far nearer to aristocracy than to democracy in abounds in fine passages, in which the lusciousness the modern sense; for though he was disposed to of Spenser and the gravity of Miltop are curious'y restrict the monarchical element of the constitution mingled.

FLETCHER-FLEXURE.

FLETCHER, JOHN. See BEAUMONT AND Perhaps, the most celebrated instance of this bearFLETCHER.

ing, is in the case of the double prepuce flowery FLEUR-DE-LIS. Authorities are divided as to

ate and counter-flowery gules which surrounds the red whether this celebrated emblem is derived from the

lion in the royal' arms of Scotland, and which white lily of the garden, or from the flag or iris, 12

Prive Charlemagne is said to have conferred on Achaius, which, as generally represented, it

king of Scotland, for assistance in his wars. The more resembles both in form and object, according to Nisbet (ii. 101), was to shew colour. 'Ancient heralds,' says Newton

that, as the lion had defended the lilies of France, (Display, p. 145), tell us that the

these “hereafter shall continue a defence for the Franks of old had a custom, at the

Scots lion, and as a badge of friendship, which proclamation of their king, to elevate

has still continued.' That the lilies were assumed him upon a shield or target, and place

in consequence of the intimate relation which preFleur-de-Lis. in his hand a reed or flag in blossom,

vailed between France and Scotland for so many instead of a sceptre ; and from thence

generations, will not be doubted; but the special the kings of the first and second race in France occa

occasion of the assumption may not be admitted are represented with sceptres in their hands like

lilce in our day to be quite beyond the reach of scepthe flag with its flower, and which flowers became

ticism, notwithstanding Nisbet's assertion that it is the armorial figures of France.' However this so fully instructed by ancient and modern writers may be, or whatever may be the value of the that he need not trouble his readers with a long other legendary tales, such as that a blue banner. / catalogue of them. embroidered with golden fleurs-de-lis, came down FLEURY, CLAUDE, a French church historian, from heaven; that an angel gave it to King was born at Paris, 6th December 1640, and was Clovis at his baptism, and the like; there can educated at first for the law, but preferring an be little doubt that, from Clovis downwards, the ecclesiastical career, subsequently took priest's orders. kinys of France bore as their arms first an inde- In 1672, he became tutor to the young Prince de finite number, and latterly three golden lilies on a Conti, who was brought up along with the dauphin, blue field, or, as heralds would say, azure, three and at a later period, to the Comte de Vermandois, fleurs-de-lis, Or-It was Charles VI. who reduced natural son of Louis XIV. After the death of the what had hitherto been the indefinite number of Comte in 1683, the French monarch appointed him, fleurs-de-lis to three, disposed two and one; some under Fenelon, tutor to the Princes of Burgundy, conjecture upon account of the Trinity, others Anjou and Berri, and also abbot of the Cistercian say, to represent the three different races of the monastery of Loc-Dieu. When the princes had kings of France.'-- Nisbet, i. 383. Many English completed their education, F. was rewarded with and Scotch families bear the fleur-de-lis in some the priorate of Argenteuil. The Duke of Orleans portion of their shield, and generally with some selected him for confessor to the young king, Louis reference to France.

XV., giving as his reason for so doing, that F. was FLEURUS, a small town of Belgium, in the pro- neither Jansenist, nor Molinist, nor Ultramontanist, vince of Hainault, is situated north of the left bank | but Catholic. F. held this office till 1722, when of the Sambre, and 15 miles west of Namur : pop. the

the infirmities of age compelled him to resign it. about 2200. It has been the scene of several con. He died 14th July 1723. F. was as learned as tests, the last and most important, however, being he was modest, and as mild and kind hearted the battle of F., fought here 26th June 1794, between | as he was simple in his manners, and upright in the army of the French Republic, consisting of his conduct. Among his numerous works may be 89,000 troops, under Jourdan, and the allies, who mentioned, Maurs des Israélites (Paris, 1681); were inferior in numerical strength. under the Mours dus Chrétiens (Paris, 1662); Traité du Choix Prince of Saxe-Cobury. The latter leader cave et de la Methode des Etudes (Paris, 1686); Institution orders for a retreat at the very moment when a au Droit Ecclesias'ique (1687); and, above all, the resolute advance might have decided the victory | Histoire Ecclesias'ique (20 vols., Paris, 1691-1720). in his favour, and the result was, that Jourdan On this work, F. laboured thirty years. It is marked was enabled to unite his army with those of the by great learning, and, on the whole, by a judiciously Moselle, the Ardennes, and the North, and that the critical spirit. What may be called his professional alled forces were compelled for a time to evacuate sympathies, are held in check by a noble desire to Flanders.

be impartial, which might well put to the blush FLEURY, FLORY, FLOWRY, FLEURETTE,

the unveracious partisanship of many Protestant

writers. Semler (q. v.), an eminent Gerinan theo&c., in heraldry, signifies that the object is adorned

| logical professor, avowed that his lectures were at with fleurs-de-lis ; a cross-fleury, for example, is a first mainly extracts from the Histoire Ecclesiastique. cross, the ends of which are in the form of fleurs. Even Voltaire vraised it. The history of F..' de-lis. There are several varieties in the modes

says he, is the best that has ever been executed.' of representing these crosses, which has led to

D'Alembert, and many others, recommend F.'s distinctions being made between them by heralds

style as a model of elegant simplicity. The sotoo trivial to be mentioned : but they are all dis

called Abrégé de l'histoire Eccles aist que de Fleury, tinguishable from the cross-potance, or potancée,

published at Berne in 1776, is ascr.bed to Frederic incorrectly spelled patonce by English heralds.

ralus. the Great A posthumous work of F.'s, entitled (Mackenzie's Science of Heraldry, p. 44). In the

Discours sur les libertés de l'Eglise Gallicane, has latter, the limbs are in the form of the segments of a circle, and the foliation is a mere bud; whereas the

always been very popular. cross-fleury has the limbs straight and the termin

FLE'XURE, or FLEXION, is the bending or stions distinctly floriated. Thus-

curving of a line or figure (see CURVATURE). A curve is said to have a point of contrary flexure at the point where it changes its character of concavity or convexity towards a given line. In the art of building, flexure denotes the bending of loaded beams. If a beam, supported at its two ends, be

loaded, it bends, its lower surface becoming convex, Cross-potance.

Cross-fleury.
and its upper concave. In this bending, the particles

373

FLIES-FLINT,

in the lower surface are drawn away from each other, rolled F. nodules are also often found in com. and those in the upper are more closely packed pound rocks, and in alluvial soils; vast alluvial together, while between the surfaces there is a line tracts being sometimes full of them. F. geodes called the line of no disturbance, wherein the particles often contain crystals of quartz. F. nodules are are neither drawn asunder, nor compressed, and usually moist in the interior if broken when newly from which the mathematical theory of the flexure taken from their beds. of bealus starts. Experiments shew hat the flexure F. sometimes harder than quartz, sufficiently so of solid beams, supported at their ends, and loaded, to scratch it. The readiness with which it strikes varies --(1.) directly as the load ; (2.) inversely as the fire with steel is well known, and it would seem product of their breadths, and the cube of their that the sparks are not all merely incandescent depths; and (3.) directly as the cube of the distance particles, heated by the friction, but that in some betweeu the supports, while the flexure, if the load of them a chemical combination of silica and irop be uniformiy distributed over the beam, is gths of takes place, causing great increase of heat. The the annount produced by the load placed on its use of the F. and steel for igniting tinder, once so centre. See STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

common, has been almost superseded by that of FLIES, SPANISH or BLISTERING. See CANTHARIS. lucifer-matches, and gun-flints have given place FLINDERS, MATTHEW, an adventurous English the first who struck fire with fint; or more pro

to percussion-caps. According to Pliny, Clias was navigator, to whom we are indebted for a correct bably, he was the first to shew its application to knowledge of a great portion of the Australian useful purposes ; and he therefore received the name coasts, was born at Donington, in Lincolnshire, Pyrodes. The most ancient use of F. was probably 1760).' He entered the merchant service at an early for sharp weapons and cutting instruments; and F. age, and subsequently the royal navy. In 1795, knives, axes, arrow-heads, &c., are among the most the vessel in which he was midshipman conveyed interesting relics of rude antiquity. the governor of New Holland to Botany Bay; and

At present, a principal use of F. is in the while there, F. determined to investigate the coast manufacture of fine earthenware, into the collisouth of Port Jackson, about 250 leagues of which position of which it enters, being for this purpose were laid down in the charts as “unknown.' With first calcined, then thrown into cold water, and an equally daring and ambitious young surgeon in afterwards powdered. his ship, called Bass, he departed on the enterprise The origin of F. is a subject of considerable in a small decked vessel, with a crew of only six difficulty. °Silicious deposits are sometimes a purely men. Their chief discovery was the straits between chemical operation, as in the case of the silicious Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) and the main sinter formed round the geysers of Iceland, from land of Australia, which were named after Bass. the evaporation of water largely charged with silex. In 1801, F. obtained from the British government But at the bottom of the sea, as no evaporation the command of a scientific expedition for the could take place, some other agent than springs of investigation of the Australian coasts and their water saturated with silex must have supplied the products. Commencing his examination at Cape materials. It is a fact of considerable importance Leuwin, F., in the course of two years, gradually in this inquiry, that almost all large masses of explored the coast to Bass's Straits, thence north- limestone have thin silicious concretions, or flints wards -laying down carefully the Great Barrier Thus, chert is found in carboniferous and other Reefs to the Gulf of Carpentaria, which he limestones, and menilite in the tertiary limestones thoroughly surveyed across to Timur, then back to of the Paris basin. The conditions necessary for Cape Leuwin, and round the south coast to Port the deposition of calcareous strata seem to be those Jackson. In 1810 he was liberated from a six years' required for the formation of silicious concretions. imprisonment by the French in the Isle of France, The materials of both exist in solution in sea-water, returned to England, and gave the world the result and as it needed the foraminifer, the coral, and the of his researches in a work, entitled A Voyage to mollusc to fix the carbonate of lime wbich formed Terra Australia. He died in July 1814, the day the chalk deposits, so the silex was secreted by on which his book was published.

innumerable diatoms and sponges, and their remains FLINDERS LAND, now South Australia (q.v.). most probably supplied the material of the fint.

FLINDERSIA, a genus of trees of the natural The discovery by Dr Bowerbank and other microorder Cedrelacev, one species of which, F. australis, scopists of the spicules of sponges and the frustules yields timber little inferior to mahogany. It is much of diatoms in almost every specimen of F., has used in Australia, and is there called CALLCEDRA clearly shewn that F. to a large extent, if not WOOD.

entirely, owes its origin to these minute organisms. FLINT, a mineral which may be regarded as

It is, however, difficult to account for the changes a variety of quartz, or as intermediate between that have taken place in these materials subsequent quartz and opal, consisting almost entirely of silica, to their deposition. with a very little lime, oxide of iron, water, car- FLINT, a parliamentary borough and seaport bon, anıl sometimes even traces of organic matter. in the cast of Flintshire, North Wales, formerly the It has a flat shell-like fracture, is translucent or capital of the county, on the left side of the estuary semi-transparent, and varies in colour from a very of the Dee, 191 miles north-west of London by rail, dark brown, or almost black, to light brown, red, and 124 miles north-west of Chester. It forms yellow, and grayish white, and is sometimes veined, a rectangle like a Roman camp, and is surrounded clouded, marbled, or spotted. Dark-coloured flints by now nearly obliterated ramparts and intrenchare most common in the chalk, in which prin ments. The Dee estuary is some miles wid, here, cipally F. occurs imbedded, forming nodules of but is shallow and narrow at low water. Vessels various sizes, sometimes large nodular masses, of of 300 tons reach the town. The principal exports irregular and often grotesque shape; but gravel are coal and lead from mines in the vicinity, formed of light-coloured flints is very common, and which afford the chief employment. Pols (1861) it is disputed whether or not a change of colour has 3540. It unites with seven other places in selling taken place by exposure to atmospheric and other one member to parliament. Roman relics and traces chemical agencies. F. is sometimes found in beds of Roman lead smelting-works have been found or veins. It is very abundant wherever the chalk here. On a low freestone rock in a tidal marsh are formation extends, in England and other countries; the remains of a castle, built by Henry ll., aud

FLINT_FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS.

dismantled in 1647. The double tower or keep is 40 or labour expended in their manufacture. In sum feet in diameter, and includes two concentric walls, instances, the flint has been roughly fashioned into each 6 feet thick, with an intervening gallery 8 feet something like the required form by two w unree broad ; within, is a circle 20 feet in diameter, with blows; in others, it has been laboriously chipped four entrances. Deterioration of the channel of the into the wished-for shape, which is often one of Dee has made F. in a great degree a port of Chester, no little elegance. In yet another class of cases, and here larger vessels, especially with timber, are the flint, after being duly shaped, has been ground discharged, and the cargoes floated up the Dee in smooth, or has even received as high a polish as smaller vessels, the timber in rafts.

could be given by a modern lapidary. Examples I'LINT, a river of Georgia, one of the United of all the varieties of flint weapons and implements States of America, unites on its right with the will be found in the British Museum, in the Museum Chattahoochee, at the south-west angle of the state of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin, in the to form the Appalachicola, which, after a course Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland of 100 miles, enters the Gulf of Mexico. The at Edinburgh, and above all, in the Museum of the F. itself is about 300 miles long, being practicable Royal Society of Antiquaries at Copenhagen, which for steam-boats up to Albany, about 250 miles is especially rich in this class of remains. Repredistant from the sea.

sentations of interesting, or characteristic types

may be seen in the Catalogue of the Archæological FLINT, TIMOTHY, Rev., an American clergyman Museum at Edinburgh in 1856 (Edin. 1859); in Mr and author, was born, in 1780, at Reading, Massa- Wilde's Cutulogue of the Antiquities in the Museum chusetts

, and graduated at Harvard College. In 1802 of the Royal Irish Academy (Dubl. 1857-1861); he became minister of the Congregational Church in Worsaae's Nordiske Oldsager i det Kongelige in Lunenburg, county of Worcester in that state, Museum i Kjobenhavn (Copen. 1859); and in M. where he remained till 1814. In the following year, Frederic Troyon's Habitations Lacustres (Lausanne, he became a missionary for the valley of the Missis

1860). sippi, where he was engaged in itinerant preach

Geological discoveries have recently invested flint ing and teaching a school. In 1825, he returned implements with a new interest. At Abbeville, at to the northern states; and in 1826, published his Amiens, at Paris, and elsewhere on the continent, Recollections of Ten Years passed in the Valley of the Aint weapons, fashioned by the hand of man, have Mixrissippi (Boston, 8vo). The same year appeared been found along with remains of extinct species from his pen a novel, entitled Francis Berrian, or of the elephant, the rhinoceros, and other mam. the Mexican Patriot, purporting to be the autobio- mals, in undisturbed beds of those deposits of sand, graphy of a New England adventurer who acted a gravel, and clay to which geologists have given conspicuous part in the first Mexican revolution, the name of the drift.' They so far resemble the and in the overthrow of Iturbide. In 1828, he flint implements and weapons found on the surface issued two works : A Condensed Geography and of the earth, but are generally of a larger size, History of the Western States in the Mississippi of ruder workmanship, and less varied in shape. Vallej (Cincinnati

, 2 vols. 8vo); and Arthur Clen. They have been divided into three classes-roundning, a novel (Philadelphia, 2 vols. 8vo). Another novel, George Mason, or The Backwoodsman, and a both being chipped to a sharp edge, so as to cut or

pointed, as in fig. 1; and sharp-pointed, as in fig. 2, romance in 2 vols., The Shoshonce Valley, appeared at pierce only at the pointed end ; and oval-shaped, as Cincinnati in 1830. In 1833, he edited several

in tig. 3, with a cutting edge all round. The first numbers of the Knickerbocker Magazine, and was and second classes vary in length from about four subsequently editor for three years of The Western inches to eight or nine inches; the third class is Monthly Magazine. His other works are : Indian generally about four or five inches long, but examples Wars in the West (1833, 12mo); Lectures on Natural have been found of no more than two inches, and of History, Geology, Chemistry, and the Arts (Boston,

as much as eight or nine inches. In no instance has 1833, 12mo); translation of Droy's L'Art d'étre any flint implement discovered in the drift been Heureuse

, with additions by translator ; and Bio- found either polished or ground. The French antigraphical Memoir of Daniel Boone, the first Settler of Kentucky (Cincinnati, 1834, 18mo). În 183,5, he quary, M. Boucher de Perthes, was the first to

call attention to these very interesting remains, contributed to the London Athenæum a series of in his Antiquités Celtiques et Antédiluviennes (Paris, Sketches of the Literature of the United States.

1847-1857). But it has since been remembered He died at Salem, August 16, 1840.- His son, that implements of the same kind were found in a Micau P. FLINT, published a volume of poetry, similar position at Hoxne, in Suffolk, along with entitled The Hunter and other Poems.

remains of some gigantic animal, in 1797, and at FLINT GLASS. See GLASS.

Gray's Inn Lane, in London, along with remains of FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS, an elephant, in 1715. Both these English examples believed to have been used by the primitive inhabit. are still preserved--the first in the Museum of the ants, have from time to time, in more or less number, Society of Antiquaries at London, the second in the been turned up by the plough and the spade, dug British Museum, and they are precisely similar in out from ancient graves, fortifications, and dwelling every respect to the examples more recently found places, or fished up from the beds of lakes and in France. rivers, in almost every country of Europe. They To what age these remains should be assigned, do not differ, in any material respect, from the flint is a question on which geology seems scarcely implements and weapons still in use among uncivil. yet prepared to speak with authority. But, in ised tribes in Asia, Africa, America, and the islands the words of Mr John Evans, in his essay on 'Flint of the Pacific Ocean.

The weapons of most fre- Implements in the Drift,' in the Archæologia, quent occurrence are arrow-heads (see ELF-ARROWS), vol. xxxviii. (Lond. 1860), thus much appears to spear-points, dagger-blades, and axe-heads or Celts be established beyond a doubt, that in a period 9.6.. The more common implements are knives, of antiquity remote beyond any of which we have zhisels

, rasps, wedges, and thin curved or semi- hitherto found traces, this portion of the globe circular plates, to which the name of 'scrapers' has was peopled by man ; and that mankind has here been given. There is great variety, as well in the witnessed some of those geological changes by size as in the shape, even of articles of the same which the so-called diluvial beds were deposited. sind. There is equal variety in the amount of skill Whether these were the result of some violent rush

FLINTSHIRE-FLOATING BATTERY. of waters, such as may have taken place when the course of our brooks, streams, and rivers, may " the fountains of the great deep were broken be matter of dispute. Under any circumstances, up, and the windows of heaven were opened,” this great fact remains indisputable, that at Amiens, or whether of a more gradual action, similar in land which is now 160 feet above the sea, and 90 character to some of those now in operation along I feet above the Somme, has, since the existence of

[graphic][graphic][subsumed][subsumed][merged small]

man, been submerged under fresh water, and an | vales, and the staple produce is wheat, oats, barley, aqueous deposit from 20 to 30 feet in thickness, a potatoes, cattle, cheese, and butter. Cotton is the portion of which, at all events, must have subsided main manufacture. The London, Chester, and Holy. from tranquil water, has been formed upon it; and head Railway skirts the east and north shores. F. this, too, has taken place in a country the level of contains 5 hundreds and 32 parishes. Pop. (1861) which is now stationary, and the face of which has 69,870. About 215 places of worship (110 Methodists, been little altered since the days when the Gauls 41 Episcopal). F. sends two members to parliament. and the Romans constructed their sepulchres in the The chief towns are Flint, formerly the county soil overlying the drift which contains these relics town; Mold, St Asaph, Holywell, Rhyddlan, and of a far earlier race of men.'

Hawarden. F. has traces of Roman lead-mines, is FLI'NTSHIRE, a maritime county of North traversed by Wat and Offa's Dykes, and has some Wales, bounded on the E. by Cheshire and the river ancient castle and ecclesiastical ruins. In F., in the Dee, on the S. and W. by Denbighshire, and on the 7th c., Saxon invaders massacred 1200 Christian N. by the Irish Sea. The main portion of the county monks of the monastery of Bangor. In 796, the is 25 miles long by 10 broad, and the larger of Saxons defeated the Welsh here with dreadful the two outlying portions, which lies toward the slaughter, which event gave rise to the still popular south-east of the main part, is 10 miles by 5. F. is plaintive air of Morfa Rhyddlan. the smallest of the Welsh counties, its area being

FLINTY SLATE, of which there are beds in only 184,905 acres, of which this arable. The coast, 20 miles long, is low and sandy, but on the some parts of Scotland, and in many other countries, Dee estuary fertile. A hill-range, parallel to the contains about 75 per cent. of silica, the remainder

is an impure quartz, assuming a slaty structure. It Dee, runs through the length of the county, and rises in Garreg to 825 feet. Another range along the south- being lime, magnesia, oxide of iron, &c. Its fracwest border of the county rises in Moel Famma, or less translucent. It passes by insensible grada.

ture is rather splintery than shell-like. It is more 1845 feet. The chief rivers are the Dee, Alyn, and tions into clay-slate, with which it is often in most Clwyd. The chief strata are Permian, Carboniferous, intimate geological connection. Lydian Store (q. V.) and Devonian. Coal, and ores of iron, lead, silver, is a variety of Hinty slate. copper, and zinc are the chief mineral products and exports. F. supplies a fourth of the lead produced FLOATING BATTERY is a bulk, heavily in Britain. The soil is fertile in the plains and armed, and made as invulnerable as possible. used

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